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as generous as his principles are all their actions and pursuits were inflexible, he possesses strength then perfectly innocent; and that, and beauty in an eminent degree.” after the death of the body, they See Theol. Misc., vol. i, p. 39. were to be united to the Deity.

LIBERTINE, one who acts They likewise said that Jesús without restraint, and pays no re- Christ was nothing but a mere je gard to the precepts of religion. ne scai quoi, composed of the spirit

LIBERTINES, according to of God and of the opinion of men. some, were such Jews as were free These maxims occasioned their citizens of Rome: they had a sepa- being called Libertines, and the rate synagogue at Jerusalem, and word has been used in an ill sense sundry of them concurred in the ever since. This sect spread prinpersecution of Stephen, Acts vi, 9. cipally in Holland and Brabant. Dr. Guyse supposes that those who Their leaders were one Quintin, a had obtained this privilege by gift Picard, Pockesius, Ruffus, and were called liberti (free-men), and another called Chopin, who jointhose who had obtained it by pur- ed with Quintin, and became his chase, libertini (made free), in disciple. They obtained footing distinction from original native in France through the favour and free-men. Dr. Doddridge thinks protection of Margaret, queen of that they were called Libertines as Navarre, and sister to Francis I, having been the children of freed and found patrons in several of the men, that is, of emancipated cap- reformed churches. tives or slaves. See Doddridge Libertines of Geneva were a caand Guyse on Acts vi, 9.

bal of rakes rather than of fanaLIBËRTINES, a religious sect tics; for they made no pretence which arose in the year 1525, to any religious system, but pleadwhose principal tenets were, thated only for the liberty of leading the Deity was the sole operating voluptuous and immoral lives. cause in the mind of man, and the This cabal was composed of a immediate author of all human certain number of licentious citiactions; that consequently, the zens, who could not bear the sedistinctions of good and evil, which vere discipline of Calvin. There had been established with regard were also among them several who to those actions, were false and were not only notorious for their groundless, and that men could dissolute and scandalous manner not, proporly speaking commit of living, but also for their athesin; that religion consisted in the istical impiety and contempt of all union of the spirit, or rational religion. To this odious class besoul, with the Supreme Being ; longed one Gruet, who denied the that all those who had attained divinity of the Christian religion, this happy union, by sublime con- the immortality of the soul, the templation and elevation of mind, difference between moral good and were then allowed to indulge, evil, and rejected with disdain the without exception or restraint, doctrines that are held most sacred their appetites or passions; that among Christians; for which im.

pieries the was at last brought be-on Und.; Grove's Mor. Phil., sec. fore the civil tribunal in the year 18, 19; 7. Palmer on Liberty of 1550, and condemned to death. Man ; Martin's Queries and Rem.

LIBERTY denotes a state of on Human Liberty ; Charnock's freedom, in contradistinction to Works, p. 175, &c., vol. ii ; Sauslavery or restraint~1. Natural|rin's Ser., vol. iii, ser. 4. liberty, or liberty of choice, is that LIE. See LYING. in which our volitions are not de LIFE, a state of active existtermined by any foreign cause orence.--1. Human life is the conconsideration whatever offered to inuance or duration of our present it, but by its own pleasure.--2.state, and which the scriptures reExternal liberty, or liberty of ac- present as short and vain, Job xiy, tion, is opposed to a constraint1, 2. Jam. iv. 14.--2. Spiritual life laid on the executive powers; and consists in our being in the favour consists in a power of rendering of God, influenced by a principle our volitions effectual.-3. Philo- of grace, and living dependant on sophical liberty consists in a pre- him. It is considered as of divine vailing disposition to act according origin, Col. iii, 4. hidden, Col. iii, to the dictates of reason, i. e. in 3. peaceful, Rom. viii, 6. secure, such a manner as shall, all things John x, 28.-3. Eternal life is that considered, most effectually pro- state of existence which the saints mote our happiness.-4. Moral li- shall enjoy in heaven, and is globerty is said to be that in which rious, Col.iii, 4. holy, Rev. xxi, there is no interposition of the will 27.--blissful, 1st Peter, i, 4. eterof a Superior Being to prohibit ornal, 2d Cor. iv, 17. See Headetermine our actions in any par- ven. ticular under consideration. See LIGHT OF NATURE. See NECESSITY, WILL.-5. Liberty NATURE, Religion. of conscience is freedom from re LITANY, a general supplicastraint in our choice of, and judg- tion used in public worship to apment about matters of religion.- péase the wrath of the Deity, and 6. Spiritual liberty consists in free to request those blessings a person dom from the curse of the moral wants. The word comes from law; from the servitude of the ri- the Greek 117 averce, “supplication,” tual; from the love, power, and of anfarew, “ I beseech." At first, guilt of sin; from the dominion of the use of litanies was not fixed to Satan; from the corruptions of the any stated time, but were only world; from the fear of death, and employed as exigencies required. the wrath to come ; Rom. vi, 14. They were observed, in imitation Rom. viii, 1. Gal. ii, 13. John of the Ninevites, with ardent supviii, 36. Rom. viii, 21. Gal. v, 1. plications and fastings, to avert 1st Thess. 1, 10. See articles MATE- the threatened judgments of fire, RIALISTS, PREDESTINATION, and earthquake, inundations, or hosDoddridge's Lec., p. 50, vol. i, tile invasions. About the year 400, oct.; Watts's Phil. Ess., sec. v, p. litanies began to be used in pro288; Jon. Edwards on Will; Locke cessions, the people walking bare

foot, and repeating them with great ||prayers, to make the office look devotion ; and it is pretended that more awful and venerable to the by this means several countries people. At length things were were delivered from great cala- carried to such a pitch, that a remities. The days on which they gulation became necessary; and it were used were called Rogation was found necessary to put the serdays: these were appointed by the vice and the manner of performcanons of different councils, till ing it into writing, and this was it was decreed by the council of what they called a liturgy. LiturToledo, that they should be used gies have been different at differevery month throughout the year; ent times and in different counand thus, by degrees, they came to tries. We have the liturgy of St. be used weekly on Wednesdays Chrysostom, of St. Peter, the Arand Fridays, the ancient stationa- menian liturgy, Gallican liturgy, ry days for fasting. To these days &c. &c. “The properties requirthe rubrick of the church of Eng-ed in a public liturgy," says Paley, land has added Sundays, as being " are these: it must be compendithe greatest day for assembling at ous; express just conceptions of divine service. Before the last the Divine attributes ; recite such review of the common prayer, the wants as a congregation are likely litany was a distinct service by it to feel, and no other; and contain self, and used sometimes after the as few controverted propositions morning prayer was over; at pre- as possible.” The liturgy of the sent, it is made one office with the church of England was composed morning service, being ordered to in the year 1547, and established be read after the third collect for in the second year of king Edward grace, instead of the intercessional VI. In the fifth year of this king prayers in the daily service. it was reviewed, because some

LITURGY denotes all the ce-things were contained in that liremonies in general belonging to turgy which shewed a compliance divine service. The word comes with the superstition of those from the Greek deli&pyia, “service, times, and some exceptions were public ministry,” formed of neulos, taken against it by some learned

public,” and ipfor, “ work.” In men at home, and by Calvin a more restrained signification, abroad. Some alterations were liturgy is used among the Ro- made in it, which consisted in admanists to signify the mass, and ding the general confession and among us the common prayer. absolution, and the communion to All who have written on liturgies begin with the ten commandments. agree, that, in primitive days, di- The use of oil in confirmation and vine service was exceedingly sim- extreme unction was left out, and ple, clogged with very few cere- also prayers for souls departed, monies, and consisted of but a and what related to a belief of small number of prayers; but, by Christ's real presence in the eudegrees, they increased the num- charist. This liturgy, so reformber of ceremonies, and added new ed, was established by the acts of

5th and 6th Edward VI, cap. 1. think that Lollard was no surHowever, it was abolished by name, but merely a term of requeen Mary, who enacted, that proach applied to all heretics who the service should stand as it was concealed the poison of error unmost commonly used in the last der the appearance of piety. year of the reign of king Henry The monk of Canterbury deVIII. That of Edward VI was rives the origin of the word lolre-established, with some few al- lard among us from lolium, a terations, by Elizabeth. Some far- tare,” as if the Lollards were the ther alterations were introduced, tares sown in Christ's vineyard. in consequence of the review of Abelly says, that the word signithe common prayer book by order fies“ praising God,” from the of king James, in the first year of German loben, “ to praise," and his reign, particularly in the office herr, “lord ;" because the Lolof private baptism, in several ru- lards employed themselves in trabricks, and other passages, with velling about from place to place, the addition of five or six new singing psalms and hymns. Othprayers and thanksgivings, and all ers, much to the same purpose, that part of the catechism which derive lollhard, lullhard, or lollert, contains the doctrine of the sa- lullert, as it was written by the ancraments. The book of common cient Germans, from the old Gerprayer, so altered, remained in man word lullen, lollen, or tallen, force from the first year of king and the termination hard, with James to the fourteenth of Charles which many of the high Dutch II. The last review of the liturgy words end. Lollen signifies “to was in the year 1661. Many sup- sing with a low voice," and thereplications have been since made fore lollard is a singer, or one who for a review, but without success. frequently sings; and in the vulBingham's Orig. Eccl., b. 13; gar tongue of the Germans it deBroughton's Dict.; Bennet, Ro- notes a person who is continually binson, and Clarkson, on Liturg. praising God with a song, or singpassim ; A Letter to a Dissenting ing hymns to his honour. Minister on the Expediency of

The Alexians or Cellites were Forms, and Brekell's Answer; called Lollards, because they were Rogers's Lectures on the Liturgy public singers, who made it their of the Church of England ; Bid business to inter the bodies of those dulph's Essays on the Liturgy. who died of the plague, and sang

LOLLARDS, a religious sect, a dirge over them, in a mournful differing in many points from the and indistinct tone, as they carrichurch of Rome, which arose ined them to the grave. The name Germany about the beginning of was afterwards assumed by perthe fourteenth century; so called, sons that dishonoured it ; for we as many writers have imagined, find among those Lollards who from Walter Lollard, who began made extraordinary pretences to to dogmatize in 1315, and was religion, and spent the greatest burnt at Cologne ; though others part of their time in meditation,

prayer, and such acts of piety, year 1742, obtained a solemn bull there were many abominable hy- from pope Sixtus IV, ordering pocrites, who entertained the most that the Cellites, or Lollards, ridiculous opinions, and conceal- should be ranked among the relied the most enormous vices under gious orders, and delivered from the specious mark of this extraor- the jurisdiction of the bishops. dinary profession. Many injuri- And pope Julius II granted them ous aspersions were therefore pro- still greater privileges, in the year pagated against those who assu- 1506. Mosheim informs us, that med this name by the priests and many societies of this kind are monks ; so that, by degrees, any still subsisting at Cologne, and in person who covered heresies or the cities of Flanders, though they crimes under the appearance of have evidently departed from their piety was called a Lollard. Thus ancient rules. the name was not used to denote Lollard and his followers reany one particular sect, but was jected the sacrifice of the mass, exformerly common to all persons treme unction, and penances for and sects who were supposed to sin ; arguing that Christ's sufferbe guilty of impiety towards Godings were sufficient. He is like. or the church, under an external wise said to have set aside bappeofession of great piety. How-tism, as a thing of no effect ; and ever, many societies, consisting repentance is not absolutely neboth of men and women, under cessary, &c. In England, the folthe name of Lollards, were form- lowers of Wickliffe were called by ed in most parts of Germany and way of reproach, Lollards, from Flanders, and were supported the supposition that there was partly by their manual labours, some affinity between some of and partly by the charitable do their tenets ; though others are of nations of pious persons.

The opinion that the English Lollards magistrates and inhabitants of the came from Germany. See WICKtowns where these brethren and LIFFITES. sisters resided gave them parti LONG SUFFERING OF cular marks of favour and pro-GOD. See PATIENCE OF GOD. tection, on account of their great LORD, a term properly denousefulness to the sick and needy. ting who has dominion. Applied They were thus supported against to God, the supreme governor and their malignant rivals, and ob- disposer of all things. See God. tained many papal constitutions, LORD'S DAY. See SABBATH. by which their institute was con LORD'S NAME TAKEN firmed, their persons exempted IN VAIN, consists, first, in usfrom the cognizance of the inqui-ing it lightly or rashly, in exclasitor, and subjected entirely to the mations, adjurations, and appeals jurisdiction of the bishops ; but as in common conversation.—2. Hythese measures were insufficient pocritically in our prayers, thanksto secure them from molestation, givings, &c.-3. Superstitiously, Charles duke of Burgundy, in the as when the Israelites carried the

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