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cellency, and perfections peculiar || odious in it, and it was often given to himself.—2. Human nature sig- to the first Christians. The fathers nifies the state, properties, and pe-frequently mention the Gospel of culiarities of man.--3. Good na the Nazarenes, which differs noture is a disposition to please, and thing from that of St. Matthew, is compounded of kindness, for which was either in Hebrew or Sybearance, forgiveness, and self-riac, for the use of the first condenial.—4. The law of nature is verts, but was afterwards corruptthe will of God relating to hued by the Ebionites. These Naman actions, grounded in the mo-zarenes preserved this first Gospel ral differences of things. Some in its primitive purity. Some of understand it in a more compre- them were still in being in the time hensive sense, as signifying those of St. Jerome, who does not restated orders by which all the proach them with any errors. parts of the material world are go- They were very zealous observers verned in their several motions of the law of Moses, but held the and operations.-5. The light of traditions of the Pharisees in very nature does not consist merely in great contempt. those ideas which heathens have The word Nazarene was given actually attained, but those which to Jesus Christ and his disciples; are presented to men by the and is commonly taken in a sense works of creation, and which, of derision and contempt in such by the exertion of reason, they authors as have written against may obtain, if they be desirous Christianity. of retaining God in their mind. NAZARITES, those under See RELIGION.-6. By the dic- the ancient law who made a vow of tates of nature, with regard to observing a more than ordinary right and wrong, we understand degree of purity, as Samson and those things which appear to the John the Baptist. The Nazarites mind to be natural, fit; or reason- engaged by a vow to abstain from able.—7. The state of nature is wine and all intoxicating liquors; that in which men have not by to let their hair grow

without cutmutual engagements, implicit orting or shaving: not to enter into express, entered into communi- any house that was polluted, by ties.-8. Depraved nature is that having a dead corpse in it; nor to corrupt state in which all mankind be present at any funeral. And if are born, and which inclines them by chance any one should have to evil.

died in their presence, they began NAZARENES, Christians again the whole ceremony of their converted from Judaism, whose consecration and Nazariteship.-chief error consisted in defending This ceremony generally lasted the necessity or expediency of the eight days, sometimes a month, works of the law, and who obsti- || and sometimes their whole lives. nately adhered to the practice of When the time of their Nazaritethe Jewish ceremonies. The name ship was accomplished, the priest of Nazarenes, at first, had nothing brought the person to the door of

the temple, who there offered to || found that he was not in a condithe Lord a he-lamb for a burnt- tion to make a vow of Nazariteoffering, a she-lamb for an expia- | ship, or had not leisure to perform tory sacrifice, and a ram for a the ceremonies belonging to it, he peace-offering. They offered like-contented himself by contributing wise loaves and cakes, with wine to the expence of the sacrifice and necessary for the libations. After offerings of those that had made all this was sacrificed and offered and fulfilled this vow; and by this to the Lord, the priest or some means he became a partaker in the other person shaved the head of merit of such Nazariteship. When the Nazarite at the door of the St. Paul came to Jerusalem, in the tabernacle, and burnt his hair, || year of Christ 58, the apostle throwing it upon the fire of the St. James the Less, with the other altar. Then the priest put into the brethren, said to him, (Acts xxi, hand of the Nazarite the shoulder 23, 24), that, to quiet the minds of of the ram, roasted, with a loaf the converted Jews who had been and a cake, which the Nazarite informed that he everywhere returning into the hands of the preached up the entire abolition priest, he offered them to the of the law of Moses, he ought to Lord, lifting them up in the pre-join himself to four of the faithful sence of the Nazarite. And from who had a vow of Nazariteship this time he might again drink upon them, and contribute to the wine, his Nazariteship being now charge of the ceremony at the accomplished, Numbers vi. Amos shaving of their heads; by which ii, 11, 12

the new converts would perceive Those that made a vow of Na- that he continued to keep the law, zariteship out of Palestine, and and that what they had heard of could not come to the temple || him was not true. when their vow was expired, con NECESSARIANS, an appel. tented themselves with observing |lation which may be given to all the abstinence required by the who maintain that moral agents law, and, after that, cutting their act from necessity. See next artihair in the place where they were:cle, and MATERIALISTS. as to the offerings and sacrifices NECESSITY, whatever is done prescribed by Moses, which wereby a cause or power that is irresis. to be offered at the temple by tible, in which sense it is opposed themselves, or by others for them, to freedom. Man is a necessary they deferred this till they could || agent, if all his actions be so de. have a convenient opportunity. termined by the causes preceding Hence it was that St. Paul, being each' action that not one past acat Corinth, and having made ation could possibly not have come Fow of a Nazarite, had his hair to pass, or have been otherwise cut off at Cenchrea, and put off than it hath been, nor one future fulfilling the rest of his vow till action can possibly not come to he should arrive at Jerusalem,pass, or be otherwise than it shall Acts xviii, 18. When a person be. On the other hand, it is assert. VOL. II.



ed, that he is a free agent, if he be betray Christ, yet he did it volunable at any time, under the causes tarily. Jesus Christ necessarily beand circumstances he then is, to | came man, and died, yet he acted do different things; or, in other | freely. A good man doth naturally words, if he be not unavoidably and necessarily love his children, determined in every point of time yet voluntarily. It is part of the by the circumstances he is in, and happiness of the blessed to love the causes he is under, to do that God unchangeably, yet freely, for one thing he does, and not possi- it would not be their happiness if bly to do any other thing. Whether done by compulsion. Nor does it, man is a necessary or a free agent, says the Necessarian, render man is a question which has been de- || unaccountable, since the Divine bated by writers of the first emi-Being does no injury to his ranence. Hobbes, Collins, Hume, tional faculties; and man, as his Leibnitz, Kaims, Hartlev, Priest- creature, is answerable to him; beley, Edwards, Crombie, Toplady, | sides, he has a right to do what he and Belsham, have written on the will with his own. That necessity side of necessity; while Clarke, doth not render actions less moKing, Law, Reid, Butler, Price, rally good, is evident; for if ne. Bryant, Wollaston, Horsley, Beat-cessary virtue be neither moral tie, Gregory, and Butterworth,|| nor praiseworthy, it will follow have written against it. To state that God himself is not a moral all their arguments in this place being, because he is a necessary would take up too much room: one; and the obedience of Christ suffice it to say, that the Anti-ne- cannot be good, because it was necessarians suppose that the doc- cessary. Farther, say they, necestrine of necessity charges God assity does not preclude the use of the author of sin; that it takes means ; for means are no less apaway freedom of the will, renders pointed than the end. It was or. man unaccountable, makes sin to dained that Christ should be delibe no evil, and morality or virtue vered up to death; but he could not to be no good; precludes the use have been betrayed without a beof means, and is of the most trayer, nor crucified without crugloomy tendency. The Necessa-cifiers. That it is not a gloomy docrians deny these to be legitimatetrine, they allege, because nothing consequences, and observe that can be more consolatory than to the Deity acts no more immorally believe that all things are under in decreeing vicious actions than the direction of an Allwise Being; in permitting all those irregulari- that his kingdom ruleth over all, ties which he could so easily have and that he doeth all things well. prevented. The difficulty is the So far from its being inimical to same on each hypothesis. All ne- happiness, they suppose there can cessity, say they, doth not take be no solid true happiness without away freedom. The actions of a the belief of it; that it inspires graman may be at one and the same titude, excites confidence, teaches time free and necessary too. It was resignation, produces humility, infallibly certain that Judas would ll and draws the soul to God. It is

also observed, that to deny neces- || the righteousness of Christ; but in sity is to deny the foreknowledge this, that God, abrogating the exof God, and to wrest the sceptre action of perfect legal obedience, from the hand of the Creator, and reputes or accepts of faith itself, to place that capricious and unde- and the imperfect obedience of finable principle,—the self-deter-| faith, instead of the perfect obedimining power of man, upon the ence of the law, and graciously throne of the universe. Beside, accounts them worthy of the resay they, the scripture places the ward of eternal life.”—This opidoctrine beyond all doubt, Job nion was examined at the synod Xxii, 13, 14. Job xxxiv, 29. Prov. of Dort, and has been canvassed xvi, 4. Is. xlv, 7. Acts xiii, 48. between the Calvinists and ArEph. i, 11. 1st Thess. iii, 3. Matt. minians on various occasions. X, 29, 30. Mat. xviii, 7. Luke xxiv, Towards the close of the seven26. John vi, 37. See the works ofteenth century a controversy was the above-mentioned writers on agitated amongst the English Disthe subject; and articles MATE- senters, in which the one side, who BIALISTS and PREDESTINATION. were partial to the writings of Dr.

NECROLOGY, formed of rex- Crisp, were charged with Antinopis, dead, and noyos, discourse, ormianism, and the other, who faenumeration; a book anciently voured Mr. Baxter, were accused kept in churches and monasteries, of Neonomianism. Dr. Daniel wherein were registered the bene- Williams, who was a principal factors of the same, the time of writer on what was called the Neotheir deaths, and the days of their nomian side, after many things commemoration; also the had been said, gives the following deaths of the priors, abbots, reli- as a summary of his faith in refergious canons, &c. This was other-ence to those subjects.—"1. God wise called calendar and obituary. has eternally elected a certain de

NECROMANCY, the art of finite number of men who he will revealing future events, by con- infallibly save by Christ in that versing with the dead. See Divi- way prescribed by the Gospel.-2. YATION.

These very elect are not personally NEONOMIANS, so called justified until they receive Christ, from the Greek vos, new, and voucos, and yield up themselves to him, law; signifying a new law, the but they remain condemned whilst condition whereof is imperfect, unconverted to Christ.-3. By the though sincere and persevering | ministry of the Gospel there is a obedience.

serious offer of pardon and glory, Neonomianism seems to be an upon the terms of the Gospel, to all essential part of the Arminian sys- that hear it: and God thereby retem.“ The new covenant of gracequires them to comply with the which, through the medium of said terms.-4. Ministers ought Christ's death, the Father made to use these and other Gospel bewith men, consists, according tonefits as motives, assuring men that this system, not in our being jus if they believe they shall be justifitified by faith, as it apprehends lled; if they turn to God, they shall


live ; if they repent, their sins shall ministers should be so urged. · be blotted out; and whilst they ne- 10. The law of innocence, or mo

glect these duties, they cannot haveral law, is so in force still, as that a personal interest in these re-every precept thereof constitutes spective benefits.-5. It is by the duty, even to the believer; every power of the Spirit of Christ free- || breach thereof is a sin deserving ly exerted, and not by the power of death: this law binds death by of free-will, that the Gospel be- its curse on every unbeliever, and comes effectual for the conversion | the righteousness for or by which of any soul to the obedience of we are justified before God, is a faith.-6. When a man believes, righteousness (at least) adequate yet is not that very faith, and much to that law which is Christ's alone less any other work, the matter of righteousness: and this so imthat righteousness for which a puted to the believer as that God sinner is justified; i. e. entitled to deals judicially with him accordpardon, acceptance as righteous, ing thereto.-11. Yet such is the and eternal glory before God; grace of the Gospel, that it proand it is the imputed righteous- | miseth in and by Christ a freeness of Christ alone, for which dom from the curse, forgiveness the Gospel gives the believer a of sin, and eternal life, to every right to these and all saving bless-sincere believer; which promise ings, who in this respect is justifi- God will certainly perform, not. ed; by Christ's righteousness withstanding the threatening of alone. By both this and the fifth the law.” head it appears that all boasting is Dr. Williams maintains the excluded, and we are saved by free conditionality of the covenant of grace.-7. Faith alone receives grace; but admits with Dr. Owen, the Lord Jesus and his righteous- who also uses the term condition, ness, and the subject of this faith that “Christ undertook that those is a convinced, penitent soul, hence who were to be taken into this we are justified by faith alone, and covenant should receive grace enyet the impenitent are not forgiven. || abling them to comply with the 8. God has freely promised that terms of it, fulfil its conditions, all whom he predestinated to sal- and yield the obedience which vation shall not only savingly be-God required therein.” lieve, but that he by his power On this subject Dr. Williams shall preserve them from a total further says, “ The question is or a final apostacy.-9. Yet the not whether the first (viz. regenebeliever, whilst he lives in this rating) grace, by which we are enworld, is to pass the time of his abled to perform the condition, be sojourning here with fear, because absolutely given. This I affirm, his warfare is not accomplished, though that be dispensed ordinaand that it is true, that it he draw rily in a due use of means, and in back, God will have no pleasure a way discountenancing idleness, in him. Which with the like cau- and fit encouragement given to tions God blesseth as means to the the use of means." esints' perseverance, and these by The following objection among

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