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opposition to extra-monks, who confusion, or mixture of the two have benefices depending on the natures. monastery.

The Monophysites, however, Monks are also distinguished in properly so called, are the follow: to reformed, whom the civil and ers of Severus, a learned monk of ecclesiastical authority have made Palestine, who was created patriinasters of ancient convents, and arch of Antioch in 513, and Peput in their power to retrieve the trus Fullensis. ancient discipline, which had been The Monophysites were encourelaxed ; and ancient, who remain raged by the emperor Anastasius, in the convent, to live in it ac- but suppressed by Justin and succording to its establishment at the ceeding emperors. However, this time when they made their vows, sect was restored by Jacob Barawithout obliging themselves to any dæus, an obscure monk, insomuch new reform.

that when he died bishop of EdesAnciently the monks were all sa, A. D. 588, he left it in a most laymen, and were only distinguish- flourishing state in Syria, Mesopoed from the rest of the people by tamia, Armenia, Egypt, Nubia, a peculiar habit and an extraordi- || Abyssinia, and other countries. nary devotion. Not only the The laborious efforts of Jacob monks were prohibited the priest were seconded in Egypt and the hood, but even priests were ex- adjacent countries by Theodosius, pressly prohibited from becoming bishop of Alexandria ; and he bemonks, as appears from the letters came so famous, that all the Moof St. Gregory. Pope Siricius nophysites of the East considered was the first who called them to him as their second parent and the clericate, on occasion of some founder, and are to this day called great scarcity of priests that the Facobites, in honour of their new church was then supposed to la- chief. The Monophysites are dibour under ; and since that time vided into two sects or parties, the priesthood has been usually the one African and the other united to the monastical profes-Asiatic: at the head of the latter sion. Enc. Brit.; British Mona- is the patriarch of Antioch, who chism, or Manners and Customs of resides for the most part in the Monks and Nuns of England; Mo- monastery of St. Ananias, near sheim's Ecc. Hist.

the city of Merdin : the former MONOPHYSITES (from poros, are under the jurisdiction of the solus, and Qoris, natura), a general patriarch of Alexandria, who gename given to all those sectaries nerally resides at Grand Cairo, in the Levant who only own one and are subdivided into Cophts nature in Jesus Christ; and who and Abyssinians. From the fifmaintain that the divine and hu- teenth century downwards, all the man nature of Jesus Christ were patriarchs of the Monophysites so united as to form only one na- have taken the name of Ignatius, ture, vet without any change, in order to shew that they are the

lineal successors of Ignatius, who || herent: it was the same with that was bishop of Antioch in the first of the acephalous Severians.century, and consequently the They allowed of two wills in lawful patriarch of Antioch. In Christ, considered with regard to the seventeenth century a small the two natures ; but reduced body of Monophysites in Asia them to one, by reason of the abandoned for some time the doc-union of the two natures, thinking trine and institution of their an- it absurd that there should be two cestors, and embraced the com- free wills in one and the same munion of Rome; but the Afri- person. They were condemned can Monophysites, notwithstand by the sixth general council in ing that poverty and ignorance 680, as being supposed to destroy which exposed them to the seduc- the perfection of the humanity of tions of sophistry and gain, stood Jesus Christ, depriving it of will firm in their principles, and made and operation. Their sentiments an obstinate resistance to the pro- were afterwards embraced by the mises, presents, and attempts em- Maronites. ployed by the papal missionaries MONTANISTS, a sect which to bring them under the Romansprung up about the year 171, in yoke: and in the eighteenth cen- the reign of the emperor Marcus iury those of Asia and Africa Aurelius. They were so called have persisted in their refusal to from their leader Montanus, a enter into the communion of the Phrygian by birth; whence they Romish church, notwithstanding are sometimes called Phrygians the earnest entreaties and alluring and Cataphrygians. offers that have been made from Montanus, it is said, embraced time to time by the pope's legates Christianity in hopes of rising to to conquer their inflexible con- the dignities of the church. He stancy. The Monophysites pro- pretended to inspiration; and gave pagate their doctrine in Asia with out that the Holy Ghost had inzeal and assiduity, and have not structed him in several points long ago gained over to their com- which had not been revealed to munion a part of the Nestorians the apostles. Priscilla and Maxiwho inhabit the maritime coasts milla, two enthusiastic women of of India.

Phrygia, presently became his MONOTHELITES

(com- disciples, and in a short time he pounded of movos, "single, and had a great number of followers. Jeanese Jedw, volo, “I will,''), an|The bishops of Asia, being assemancient sect, which sprung out of bled together, condemned his the Eutychians; thus called, as prophecies, and excommunicated only allowing of one will in Jesus those who dispersed them. AfChrist.

terwards they wrote an account The opinion of the Monothe- of what had passed to the westlists had its rise in 630, and had ern churches, where the pretendthe emperor Heraclius for an ad. ed prophecies of Montanus and

his followers were likewise con- | the agreement of the actions of demned.

any intelligent being with the naThe Montanists, finding them- ture, circumstances, and relation, selves exposed to the censure ofl of things.-5. A moral impossibi. the whole church, formed a lity is a very great or insuperable schism, and set up a distinct so- dilliculty; opposed to a natural imciety under the direction of those possibility. See INABILITY.---6. who called themselves prophets.- Doral obligation is the necessity Montanus, in conjunction with of doing or omitting any action Priscilla and Maximilla, was at in order to be happy and good. the head of the sect.

See OBLIGATION.—7. Nioral phiThese sectaries made no alte- losophy is the science of manration in the creed. They only ners, the knowledge of our duty held that the Holy Spirit made and felicity. See PunLOSOPHY--Montanus his organ for delivering 8. Moral sense, that whereby we a more perfect forin of discipline perceive what is good, virtuous, than what was delivered by his and beautiful in actions, manners, apostles. They refused commu- and characters; or it is a kind of nion for ever to those who were satisfaction in the mind arising guilty of notorious crimes, and from the contemplation of those believed that the bishops had no actions of rational agents which authority to reconcile them. They we call good or virtuous; some held it unlawful to fly in time of call this natural conscience, persecution. They condemned others intuitive perception of second marriages, allowed the dis-riglit and wrong, &c. See article solution of marriage, and observ- SENSE.-9. Moral law. See LAW. ed three lents.

MORALITY is that relation or The Montanists became sepa- proportion which actions bear to a rated into two branches, one of given rule. It is generally used which were the disciples of Pro- in reference to a good life. Noclus, and the other of Aschines. rality is distinguished from reliThe latter are charged with fol- gion thus: “ Religion is a studious lowing the heterodox opinions of conformity of our wills, affections, Praxeas and Sabellius concerningand actions to God; morality is the Trinity.

a conformity of our actions to the MORAL, relating to the actions relations in which we stand to or conduct of life, or that which each other in civil society. Mo. determines an action to be good rality comprehends only a part or virtuous.—2. A moral agent of religion; but religion compreis a being that is capable of those hends the whole of morality. Moactions that have a moral quality,' ralicy finds all her motives here and which can properly be deno-, below; religion fetches all her minated good or evil in a moral motives from above. The highest sense.-3. A moral certainty is a principal in morals is a just regard very strong probability, and is used to the rights of men; the first in contradistinction to mathemati- principle in religion is the love of cal probability.–4. Moral fitness is God.” The various duties of moVOL. II.



rality are considered in their re- all reverence for human compilaspective places in this work. See | tions of the faith, professing simBishop Horsley's Charge, 1790; ply to follow the doctrines and prePaley's and Grove's Moral Philo- cepts contained in the Word of sophy;Beattie's Elements of Moral God. Science; Evans's Sermons There being at this time no Christian Temper; Watts's Ser- bishops in the Bohemian church mons on Christian Morals ; Ma- who had not submitted to the pason's Christian Morals; H. Moore's pal jurisdiction, three priests of Hints, vol.ii. p. 245.

the society of United Brethren MORAVIANS, a sect gene- were, about the year 1467, conrally said to have arisen under secrated by Stephen, bishop of the Nicholas Lewis, count of Zinzen- Waldenses, in Austria (see WALdorf, a German nobleman of the DENSES]; and these prelates, on last century, and thus called be- their return to their own country, cause the first converts to their consecrated ten co-bishops, or system were some Moravian fami-co-seniors, from among the rest lies. According to the society's of the presbyters. In 1523, the own account, however, they derive United Brethren commenced a their origin from the Greek church friendly correspondence, first with in the ninth century, when, by the Luther, and afterwards with Cal. instrumentality of Methodius and vin and others leaders among the Cyrillus, two Greek monks, the reformers. A persecution, which kings of Bulgaria and Moravia I was brought upon them on this being converted to the faith, were, account, and some religious distogether with their subjects, united putes which took place among in communion with the Greek themselves, threatened for a while church. Methodius was their the society with ruin: but the first bishop, and for their use disputes were, in 1570, put an end Cyrillus translated the scriptures to by a synod, which decreed into the Sclavonian language. that differences about non-essen

The antipathy of the Greek and tials should not destroy their Roman churches is well known, union; and the persecution ceased and by much the greater part of in 1575, when the United Brethe Brethren were in process of thren obtained an edict for the time compelled, after many strug- public exercise of their religion. gles, to submit to the see of This toleration was renewed in Rome. A few, however, adhering 1609, and liberty granted them to the rites of their mother to erect new churches. But a church, united themselves in 1176 civil war, which, in 1612, broke to the Waldenses, and sent mis- out in Bohemia, and a violent sionaries into many countries. In persecution which followed it in 1457 they were called Fratres 1621, occasioned the dispersion of legis Christi, or Brethren of the their ministers, and brought great Law of Christ ; because, about distress upon the Brethren in gethat period, they had thrown off neral. Some of them fled to

England, others to Saxony and being endued with the peaceable Brandenburg; whilst many, over- spirit of the church which they come by the severity of the per-had joined, they started disputes secution, conformed to the rites among themselves, which threatof the church of Rome. One co-ened the destruction of the whole lony of these, who retained in pu-establishment. By the indefatirity their original principles and gable exertions of count Zinzenpractice, was, in 1722, conducteddorf these disputes were allayed ; by a brother, named Christian and statutes being, in 1727, drawn David, from Fulneck, in Moravia, up and agreed to for the regulato Upper Lusatia, where they puttion both of the internal and of themselves under the protection of the external concerns of the conNicholas Lewis, count of Zinzen- gregation, brotherly love and undorf, and built a village on his es-ion was again established; and no tate at the foot of a hill, called schism whatever, in point of docHutberg, or Watch Hill. The trine, has since that period discount, who, soon after their arri-turbed the church of the United val, removed from Dresden to Brethren. his estate in the country, shewed In 1735, the count, who under every mark of kindness to the God, had been the instrument of poor emigrants ; but being a zeal-renewing the Brethren's church, ous member of the church esta- was consecrated one of their bishblished by law, he endeavoured ops, having the year before been for some time to prevail upon them examined and received into the to unite themselves with it, by clerical orders by the Theological adopting the Lutheran faith and Faculty of Tubingen. Dr. Potter, discipline. This they declined ; then archbishop of Canterbury, and the count, on a more minute congratulated him upon this event, enquiry into their ancient history and promised his assistance to a and distinguishing tenets, not only church of confessors, of whom he desisted from his first purpose, wrote in terms of the highest resbut became himself a convert to pect, for their having maintained the faith and discipline of the Uni- the pure and primitive faith and ted Brethren.

discipline in the midst of the most The synod which, in 1570, put tedious and cruel persecutions. an end to the disputes which then That his Grace, who had studied tore the church of the Brethrenthe various controversies about into factions, had considered as church government with uncomnon-essentials the distinguishing mon success, admitted the Moratenets of their own society, of the vian episcopal succession, we know Lutherans, and of the Calvinists. from the most unquestionable auIn consequence of this, many of thority; for he communicated his the reformers of both these sects || sentiments on the subject to Dr. had followed the Brethren to Secker, while bishop of Oxford. Herrnhut, and been received by In conformity with these sentithem into communion ; but not ments of the archbishop, we are

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