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an annual meeting in London in of men, but their everlasting wel May. As the state of this suci- fare as their object? My heart ety is before the public, it would overflows with joy, and mine eyes be unnecessary here to enlarge; with tears, when I consider the suffice it to say, that it is now on happy and extensive effects which the most permanent and respecta- are likely to take place. The unble footing. " It has assumed tutored mind will receive the consistency and order; it com- peaceful principles of religion bines integrity of character, for- and virtue; the savage barbarian titude of mind, and fixedness of will rejoice in the copious blessresolution, with a continued pro- ings, and feel the benign effects gression of effort for the exalted of civilization ; the ignorant idolpurpose of presenting the doc- ater will be directed to offer up trines of the blessed Gospel to the his prayers and praises to the true. acceptance of the perishing hea- God, and learn the way of salthen, and of exhibiting an uncor- vation through Jesus Christ. The rupt example of their tendencies habitations of cruelty will become and effects in their own characters the abodes of peace and security, and conduct.”

while ignorance and superstition Besides the above-mentioned shall give way to the celestial societies, others have been formed blessings of intelligence, purity, of less note. In 1699, a society and joy.--Happy men, who are was instituted in England for pro-employed as instruments in this moting Christian Knowledge.-In cause; who forego your personal 1701, another was formed for comforts, relinquish your native the propagation of the Gospel in country, and voluntarily devote foreign parts. In Scotland, about yourselves to the most noble and the year 1700, a society was in-honourable of services! Peace stituted for the Propagation of and prosperity be with you! MilChristian Knowledge. Recently, ler's History of the Propagation of some clergymen of the established Christ; Kennett's ditto ; Gillies's church have formed one among | Historical Collection ; Carey's Ens themselves. Societies for spread-quiry respecting Missions; Loskiing the Gospel also have been in- ell's History of the Moravian Misstituted in Holland, America, Ire- sions; Crantz's History of Greenland, and other places. From land; Horne's Letters on Wisthe whole it seems evident that sions ; Sermons and Reports of the light and knowledge of the London Missionary Society. glorious Gospel will be more dif MODERATION, the state of fused than ever throughout the keeping a due mean between exearth. And who is there that has tremes: calmness, temperance, or any concern for the souls of men, equanimity. It is sometimes used any love for truth and religion, with reference to our opinions, but what must rejoice at the for- Rom. xii, 3. but in general it remation, number, and success of spects our conduct in that state those institutions, which have which comes under the description not the mere temporal concerns ||of ease or prosperity. “Modera

tion," says Dr. Blair, ought to safely be pronounced, that the take place in our wishes, pursuits, bulk of men are ready to overrate expectations, pleasures, and pas- their own abilities, and to imagine sions. First, in our wishes: the ac- themselves equal to higher things tive mind of man seldom or ever than they were ever designed for. rests satisfied with its present condi. We should beware, therefore, of tion, how prosperous soever. It is being led aside from the plain path ever sending forth the fond desire, of sound and moderate conduct the aspiring wish after something by those false lights which selfbeyond what is enjoyed at present. fattery is always ready to hang There is nothing, indeed, unlaw- out. By aiming at a mark too ful in our wishing to be freed from high, we may fall short of what whatever is disagreeable, and to was in our power to have reached. obtain a fuller enjoyment of the -3. There should be moderation comforts of life; but when these in our expectations. By want of wishes are not tempered by rea- moderation in our hopes, we not son, they are in danger of preci- only increase dejection when dispitating us into extravagance and appointment comes, but we accefolly. If we suffer our fancy to lerate disappointment; we bring create to itself worlds of ideal forward disagreeable changes in happiness ; if we feed our imagi- our state ; for the natural consenation with plans of opulence and quence of presumptuous expectasplendour far beyond our rank; if tion is rashness in conduct. He we fix to our wishes certain stages who indulges confident security, of high advancement, or certain of course neglects due precautions degrees of uncommon reputation against the dangers that threaten or distinction, the consequences him. By presumption and vanity will be, that we shall become un he either provokes enmity or inhappy in our present state ; unfit curs contempt. A temperate spifor acting the part, and discharg- rit, therefore, and moderate expecing the duties that belong to it; tations, are the best safeguard of we shall discompose the peace and the mind in this uncertain and order of our minds, and foment changing state.-4. There should many hurtful passions!-2. There be moderation in our pleasures. should be moderation in our pur-| It is an invariable law of our presuits; not that all high pursuits sent condition, that every pleasure ought on every occasion to be which is pursued to excess conchecked. Some men are formed by verts itself into poison: what was nature for rising into conspicuous intended for the cordial and restations of life. In following the im- freshment of human life, through pulse of their minds, and properly want of moderation we turn to exerting the talents with which God its bane. Could the monuments has blessed them, there is room for of death be laid open to our view, them to act in a laudable sphere, they would read a lecture in faand to become the instruments of vour of moderation much more much public good. But this may powerful than any that the most

eloquent preacher can give. We neat or clean. Modesty, thereshould behold the graves peopled fore, consists in purity of sentiwith the victims of intemperance; ment and manners, inclining us we should behold those chambers to abhor the least appearance of of darkness hung round on every vice and indecency, and to fear side with the trophies of luxury, doing any thing which will incur drunkenness, and sensuality. So censure. An excess of modesty numerous should we find those may be called bashfulness, and the martyrs of iniquity, that it may want of it impertinence. There be safely asserted, where war or is a false or vicious modesty, which pestilence have slain their thou- influences a man to do any thing sands, intemperate pleasure has that is ill or indiscreet; such as, slain its ten thousands.-5. There through fear of offending his comshould be moderation in all our panions he runs into their follies passions. This is peculiarly ne- or excesses; or it is a false mocessary, because there is no passion desty which restrains a man from in human nature but what has of doing what is good or laudable ; itself a tendency to run into ex- such as being ashamed to speak cess ; for all passion implies a vio- of religion, and to be seen in the lent emotion of mind ; of course, exercises of piety and devotion. it is apt to derange the regular MOLINISTS, a sect in the course of our ideas, and to produce Romish church who follow the confusion within. Of passion, doctrine and sentiments of the Jetherefore, we have great reason to suit Molina, relating to sufficient beware. Moments of passion are and efficacious grace. He taught always moments of delusion ; no- that the operations of Divine grace thing truly is what it then seems were entirely consistent with the to be: all the opinions which freedom of human will; and he we then form are erroneous, and introduced a new kind of hypoall the judgments which we pass thesis to remove the difficulties atare extravagant.” Let us learn, tending the doctrine of predestherefore, to cultivate this dispo- tination and liberty, and to reconsition, remembering that it is a du-cile the jarring opinions of Auty inculcated in the sacred scrip- gustines, Thomists, Semi-Pelagitures, Phil. iv, 5. and essentially ans, and other contentious dinecessary to the felicity of our vines. He affirmed that the deminds, and dignity of our charac-cree of predestination to eternal ters. See Bishop Hall on Modera- glory was founded upon a previration; Morning Exercise at Grip- ous knowledge and consideration plegate, ser. 16; Blair's Sermons, of the merits of the elect; that vol. iii, ser:12 ; Toplady's Works, the grace, from whose operation vol. iii, ser. 10.

these merits are derived, is not MODESTY is sometimes used efficacious by its own intrinsic to denote humility, and sometimes power only, but also by the conto express chastity. The Greek sent of our own will, and because word Korpio's, modustus, signifies it is administered in those circum

stances in which the Deity, by | In the years 1390, 1437, 14-11, that branch of his knowledge 1459, 1197, 1505, 1508, and which is called scientia media,'| 1515, several other houses were foresees that it will be efficacious. dissolved, and their revenues set. The kind of prescience, denomi- tled on different colleges in Oxnated in the schools scientia media, ford and Cambrige. Soon after is that foreknowledge of future the last period, cardinal Wolsey, contingents that arises from an by licence of the king and pope, acquaintance with the nature and is obtained a dissolution of above faculties of rational beings, of thirty religious houses for the the circumstances in which they founding and endowing his colshall be placed, of the objects that leges at Oxford and Ipswich. shall be presented to them, and of About the same time a bull was the influence which their circum- granted by the same pope to cardistances and objects must have on nal Wolsey to suppress monastetheir actions.

ries, where there were not above MONARCHIANS, the same six monks, to the value of eight as the Patripassians, which see. thousand ducats a year, for en

MONASTERY, a convent or dowing Windsor and king's Colhouse built for the reception of lege in Cambridge ; and two other religious; whether it be abbey, bulls were granted to cardinals priory, nunnery, or the like.

Wolsey and Campeius, where Monastery is only properly ap- there were less than twelve monks, plied to the houses of monks, men and to annex them to the greater dicant friars, and nuns: the rest monasteries; and another bull to are more properly called religious the same cardinals to enquire houses. For the origin of monas- about abbeys to be suppressed in teries, see Monastic and Monk. order to be made cathedrals. Al

The houses belonging to the se- though nothing appears to have veral religious orders which ob- been done in consequence of these tained in England and Wales, bulls, the motive which induced were cathedrals, colleges, abbeys, Wolsey and many others to suppriories, preceptories, comman- press these houses was the desire dries, hospitals, friaries, hermit of promoting learning; and archages, chantries, and free chap- bishop Cranmer engaged in it els. These were under the direc- with a view of carrying on the retion and management of various formation. There were other officers. The dissolution of houses causes that concurred to bring of this kind began so early as the on their ruin : many of the reliyear 1312, when the Templars gious were loose and vicious; were suppressed ; and in 1323, the monks were generally thought their lands, churches, advowsons, to be in their hearts attached to and liberties, here in England, the pope's supremacy; their rewere given, by 17 Edw. II, stat. venues were not employed accord3, to the prior and brethren of the ing to the intent of the donors ; hospital of St. John of Jerusalem. many cheats in images, feigned


miracles, and counterfeit relics,|| and jewels. The last act of dishad been discovered, which solution in this king's reign was brought the monks into disgrace; the act of 37 Hen. VIII, c. 4. the Observant Friars had opposed for dissolving colleges, free chathe king's divorce from queen Ca- pels, chantries, &c., which act tharine ; and these circumstances was farther enforced by 1 Edw. operated, in concurrence with the VI, c. 14. By this act were supking's want of a supply and the pressed 90 colleges, 110 hospipeople's desire to save their mo- tals, and 2,374 chantries and free ney, to forward a motion in par-chapels. The number of houses liament, that, in order to sup- and places suppressed from first to port the king's state and supply last, so far as any calculations aphis wants, all the religious houses pear to have been made, seems to might be conferred upon the be as follows: crown which were not able to Of lesser monasteries, of spend above 2001. a year; and an which we have the valuaact was passed for that purpose, tion,

374 27 Hen. VIII, c. 28. By this act of greater monasteries, . 186 about three hundred and eighty Belonging to the hospitallers, 48 houses were dissolved, and a re- Colleges,

90 venue of 30,0001. or 32,000l. a Hospitals,

110 year came to the crown; besides Chantries and free chapels, 2374 about 100,000l. in plate and jewels. The suppression of these

Total, 3182 houses occasioned discontent, and at length an open rebellion : when besides the friars houses, and this was appeased, the king re- those suppressed by Wolsey, and solved to suppress the rest of the many small houses of which we monasteries, and appointed a new have no particular account. visitation, which caused the The sum totam of the clear greater abbeys to be surrendered yearly revenue of the several apace: and it was enacted by 31 houses at the time of their dissoHenry VIII, c. 13, that all mo- lution, of which we have any acpasteries which have been surren- count, seems to be as follows: dered since the 4th of February, in the twenty-seventh year of his of the greater momajesty's reign, and which here nasteries, £. 104,919 13 31 after shall be surrendered, shall Of all those of the be vested in the king. The lesser monasteries knights of St. John of Jerusalem of which we have were also suppressed by the 32d the valuation, . . . 29,702 1 10 Hen. VIII, C. 24. The suppres- Knights hospitalsion of these greater houses by lers, head house these two acts produced a revenue in London,

2,385 12 8 to the king of above 100,000l. a Jear, besides a large sum in plate Carried over fo. 137,007 7 10 VOL. II.


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