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century the Millenarians held the and they sat upon them, and judgfollowing tenets :
ment was given unto them; and I 1st, That the city of Jerusalem saw the souls of them that were should be rebuilt, and that the beheaded for the witness of Jesus land of Judea should be the habi- and for the word of God, and tation of those who were to reign which had not worshipped the on the earth a thousand years. beast, neither his image, neither
2dly, That the first resurrec- had received his mark upon their tion was not to be confined to the || foreheads, nor in their hands; and martyrs, but that, after the fall of they lived and reigned with Christ Antichrist, all the just were to rise, a thousand years. But the rest of and all that were on the earth the dead lived not again till the were to continue for that space of thousands years were finished. This time.
is the first resurrection." Rev. XX, 3dly, That Christ shall then 1 to 6. This passage all the ancient come down from heaven, and be Millenarians took in a sense grossly seen on earth, and reign there literal, and taught, that, during the with his servants.
Millennium, the saints on eartb 4thly, That the saints, during were to enjoy every bodily delight. this period, shall enjoy all the de. The moderns, on the other hand, lights of a terrestrial paradise. consider the power and pleasures
These opinions were founded of this kingdom as wholly spiupon several passages in scripture, ritual; and they represent them which the Millenarians, among as not to commence till after the the fathers, understood in no other conflagration of the present earth. than a literal sense ; but which But that this last supposition is a the moderns, who hold that opi- mistake, the very next verse but nion, consider as partly literal one assures us ; for we are there and partly metaphorical. Of these told, that, “ when the thousand passages, that upon which the years are expired, Satan shall be greatest stress has been laid we loosed out of his prison, and shall believe to be the following ;- go out to deceive the nations " And I saw an angel come down which are in the four quarters of from heaven, having the key of the the earth ," and we have no rea. bottomless pit, and a great chain son to believe that he will have in his hand. And he laid hold on such power or such liberty in “ the the dragon, that old serpent, new heavens and the new earth, which is the devil and Satan, wherein dwelleth righteousness. and bound him a thousand years, We may observe, however, the and cast him into the bottomless following things respecting it: 1. pit, and shut him up, and set a That the scriptures afford us seal, upon him, that he should de- ground to believe that the church ceive the nations no more till the will arrive to a state of prosperity thousand years should be fulfilled; which it never has yet enjoyed, and, after that, he must be loosed Rev. xx, 4, 7. Psal. lxxii, 11. a little season. And I saw thrones,' Is. ii, 4. Is. xi, 9. Is. xlix, 23. Is.
Ix. Dat. vii, 27.-2. That this tirpared, or tamed, by the power will continue at least a thousand of man. The inhabitants of every years, or a considerable space of place will rest secure from fear of time, in which the work of salva- robbery and murder. War shall be tion may be fully accomplished entirely ended. Capital crimes and in the utmost extent and glory of punishments be heard of no more.
In this time, in which the Governments placed on fair, just, world will soon be filled with real and humane foundations. The Christians, and continue full by torch of civil discord will be exconstant propagation to supply the tinguished. Perhaps Pagans, place of those who leave the world, Turks, Deists, and Jews, will be as there will be many thousands born few in number as Christians are and live on the earth, to each one now. Kings, nobles, magistrates, that has been born and lived in and rulers in churches, shall act the preceding six thousand years; with principle, and be forward to so that, if they who shall be born promote the best interests of men: in that thousand years shall be tyranny, oppression, persecution, all, or most of them saved (as they bigotry, and cruelty, shall cease. will be), there will, on the whole, Business will be attended to withbe many thousands of mankind out contention, dishonesty, and saved to one that shall be lost. covetousness. Trades and manu3. This will be a state of great factories will be carried on with a happiness and glory. Some think design to promote the general that Christ will reign personally good of mankind, and not with on earth, and that there will be a selfish interests as now. Merchanliteral resurrection of the saints, dise between distant countries Rev. xx, 4, 7; but I rather sup- will be conducted without fear of pose that this reign of Christ and an enemy; and works of ornaresurrection of saints, alluded to ment and beauty, perhaps, shall in that passage, is only figurative ; not be wanting in those days. and that nothing more is meant Learning, which has always flouthan that, before the general judg- rished in proportion as religion ment, the Jews shall be converted, has spread, shall then greatly ingenuine Christianity be diffused crease, and be employed for the through all nations, and that best of purposes. Astronomy, geChrist shall reign, by his spiritual ography, natural history, metapresence, in a glorious manner. physics, and all the useful sciences, It will, however, be a time of will be better understood, and eminent holiness, clear light consecrated to the service of God; and knowledge, love, peace, and and I cannot help thinking that by friendship, agreement in doctrine the improvements which have and worship. Human life, per- been made, and are making, in haps, will rarely be endangered ship-building, navigation, electriciby the poisons of the mineral, Ity, medicine, &c., that “ the temvegetable, and animal kingdoms. pest will lose half its force, the Beasts of prey, perhaps, will be ex-lightning lose half its terrors," and
the human frame not near so the salvation of our God! See much exposed to danger. Above Hopkins on the Millenn.; Whitby's all, the Bible will be more highly Treatise on it, at the End of the 2d appreciated, its harmony perceiv-Vol. of his Annotations on the New ed, its superiority owned, and its Test.; Robert Gray's Discourses, energy felt by millions of human dis. 10; Bishop Newton's Twentybeings. In fact, the earth shall fifth Diss. on the Proph.; Bellamy's be filled with the knowledge of the Treat. on the Millennium. There Lord as the waters cover the sea. are four admirable papers of Mr. -4. The time when the Millen- Shrubsole's on the subject, in the nium will commence cannot be 6th vol. of the Theol. Miscellany; fully ascertained, but the common Lardner's Cred., 4th, 5th, 7th, and idea is, that it will be in the seven 9th vol.; Mosheim's Eccl. Hist., thousandth year of the world. It cent. 3, p. 11, ch. 12; Taylor's will, most probably, come on by Sermons on the Millennium ; Illusdegrees, and be in a manner in-trations of Prophecy, ch. 31. troduced years before that time. MIND, a thinking, intelligent. And who knows but the present being; otherwise called spirit, or convulsions among different na- soul. See Soul. Dr. Watts has tions; the overthrow which po- | given us some admirable thoughts pery has had in places where it as to the improvement of the mind. has been so dominant for hundreds " There are five eminent means or of years ; the fulfilment of pro- methods,” he observes, “whereby phecy respecting infidels, and the the mind is improved in the knowfalling away of many in the last ledge of things; and these are obtimes, and yet, in the midst of servation, reading, instruction by all, the number of Missionaries lectures, conversation, and meditasent into different parts of the tion ; which last, in a most pecuworld by the Moravians, Method - liar manner, is called study. ists, Baptists, and others, together "1. One method of improving with the increase of Gospel mi-the mind is observation, and the adnisters; the thousands of ignorant vantages of it are these : children that have been taught to “ 1. It is owing to observation read the Bible, and the vast num- that our mind is furnished with the ber of different societies that have first, simple, and complex ideas. It been lately instituted for the be- is this lays the ground-work and nevolent purpose of informing the foundation of all knowledge, and minds and impressing the hearts makes us capable of using any of of the ignorant; who knows, I the other methods for improving say, but what these things are the the mind. forerunners of events far more “ 2. All our knowledge derived glorious, and which may usher in from observation, whether it be of the happy morn of that bright single ideas or of propositions, is and glorious day when the whole knowledge gotten at first hand. world shall be filled with his glory, Hereby we see and know things and all the ends of the earth see as they are, or as they appear to
us; we take the impressions of have committed to writing their them on our minds from the ori-maturest thoughts, and the result ginal objects themselves, which of their study and experience. give a clearer and stronger con
“ 4. It is another advantage of ception of things : these ideas are reading, that we may review what more lively, and the propositions we have read: we may consult the (at least in many cases) are much page again and again, and medimore evident.
tate on it at successive seasons in “ 3. Another advantage of ob- our serenest and retired hours, servation is, that we may gain having the book always at hand. knowledge all the day long, and “III. The advantages of verbal every moment of our lives, and instructions, by public or private every moment of our existence, we lectures, are these : may be adding something to our “1. There is something more intellectual treasures.
sprightly, more delightful, and en" II. The next way of improving tertaining, in the living discourse the mind is by reading, and the of a wise, a learned, and welladvantages of it are such as these : qualified teacher, than there is in
"1. By reading we acquaint the silent and sedentary practice ourselves in a very extensive man- of reading. The very turn of per with the affairs, actions, and voice, the good pronunciation, and thoughts of the living and the dead, the polite and alluring manner in the most remote nations, and in which some teachers have atmost distant ages, and that with tained, will engage the attention, as much ease as though they lived keep the soul fixed, and convey in our own age and nation. and insinuate into the mind the
“2. By reading we learn not ideas of things in a more lively only the actions and the senti- and forcible way than the mere ments of distant nations and ages, reading of books in the silence and but we transfer to ourselves the retirement of the closet. knowledge and improvements of “ 2. A tutor or instructor, when the most learned men, the wisest and he paraphrases and explains other best of mankind, when or whereso-authors, can mark out the precise ever they lived: for though many point of difficulty or controversy, books have been written by weak and unfold it. He can shew you and injudicious persons, yet the which paragraphs are of the most of those books which have greatest importance, and which obtained great reputation in the are of less moment. . world are the products of great teach his hearers what authors, or and wise men in their several ages what parts of an author, are best and nations.
worth reading on any particular “ 3. When we read good au- subject ; and thus save his discithors, we learn the best, the most la- ples much time and pains by boured, and most refined sentiments shortening the labours of their even of those wise and learned men; closet and private studies. He for they have studied hard, and can shew you what were the doc
trines of the ancients in a compen- seems obscure in his discourse, and dium, which perhaps would cost to inform us of his whole meanmuch labour and the perusal of ing, so that we are in much less many books to attain. He can danger of mistaking his sense ; inforın you what new doctrines whereas in books, whatsoever is or sentiments are rising in the really obscure may also abide alworld, before they come to be ways obscure without remedy, public; as well as acquaint you since the author is not at hand, with his own private thoughts, and that we may enquire his sense. his own experiments and observa “ 2. When we are discoursing tions, which never were, and per- upon any theme with a friend, we haps never will be, published to the may propose our doubts and objecworld, and yet may be very valu- tions against his sentiments, and able and useful.
have them solved and answered at “3. A living instructor, on some once. The difficulties that arise in subjects, can convey to our senses our minds may be removed by those nctions with which he would one enlightening word of our corfurnish our minds, by making ex- respondent. periments before our eyes. He " 3. Not only the doubts which can make out the demonstration in arise in the mind upon any subject a more intelligible manner by sen- of discourse are easily proposed sible means, which cannot be done and solved in conversation, but so well by mere reading. A the very difficulties we meet with in living teacher, therefore, is a books, and in our private studies, most necessary help in our stu- may find a relief by friendly condies.
ference. We may pore upon a " 4. When an instructor in his knotty point in solitary meditation lectures delivers any matter of dif- many months without a solution, ficulty, or expresses himself in such because, perhaps, we have gotten
manner as ms obscure, so into a wrong tract of thought. that you do not take up his ideas But if we note down this difficulty clearly or fully, you have oppor- || when we read it, we may propose tunity, at least, when the lecture it to an ingenious correspondent is finished, or at other proper sea- when we see him; we may be resons, to enquire how such a sen- lieved in a moment, and find the cence should be understood, or how difficulty vanish: he beholds the such a difficulty may be explained object, perhaps, in a different and removed.
view, sets it before us in quite an“ IV. Conversation is the next other light, and leads us at once method of improvement, and it is into evidence and truth, and that attended with the following advan- with a delightful surprise. tages :
“4. Conversation calls out into “1. When we converse familiar-light what has been lodged in all the ly with a learned friend, we have recesses and secret chambers of the his own help at hand to explain to soul: by occasional hints and inus every word and sentiment that cidents it brings old useful notions