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7. The twelfth century was, was sufficiently discovered. Those fruitful in false Messiahs; for who had been deluded by him about the year 1137, there appear. were grievously punished, and the ed one in France, who was put to nation condemned to a very heavy death, and many of those who fol. fine. lowed him.

12. Not long after this, a Jew, 8. In the year 1138 the Per- who dwelt beyond Euphrates,callsians were disturbed with a Jew, ed himself the Messiah, and drew who called himself the Messiah. vast multitudes of people after He collected together a vast army. || him. He gave this for a sign of it, But he, too, was put to death, that he had been leprous, and was and his followers treated with cured in the course of one night. great inhumanity.

He, like the rest, perished in the 9. In the year 1157, a false attempt, and brought great perseMessiah stirred up the Jews at cution on his countrymen. Corduba, in Spain. The wiser and 13. In the year 1174, a magibetter sort looked upon him as a cian and false Christ arose in Permadman, but the great body of sia, who seduced many of the the Jews in that nation believed common people, and brought the in him. On this occasion almost Jews into great tribulation. all the Jews in Spain were de 14. In the year 1176, another stroyed.

of these impostors arose in Mora10. In the year 1167, another | via, who was called David Almusfalse Messiah rose in the king- ser. He pretended that he could dom of Fez, which brought great make himself invisible ; but he troubles and persecution upon the was soon taken, and put to death, Jews that were scattered through and a heavy fine laid upon his that country.

brethren the Jews. 11. In the same year an Arabian 15. In the year 1199, a famous set up there for the Messiah, and cheat and rebel exerted himself in pretended to work miracles. When Persia, called David el David. He search was made for him, his fol was a man of learning, a great lowers fled, and he was brought nagician, and pretended to be before the Arabian king. Being the Messiah. He raised an army questioned by him, he replied, against the king, but was taken that he was a prophet sent from and imprisoned; and, having made God. The king then asked him his escape, was afterwards seized what sign he could show to con- again, and beheaded. Vast numfirm his mission. Cut off my head.bers of the Jews were butchersaid he, and I will return to life ed for taking part with this imagain. The king took him at his postor. word, promising to belive him if 16. We are told of another false his prediction came to pass. The Christ in this same century by poor wretch, however, never re- Maimonides and Solomon; but turned to life again, and the cheat they take no notice either of his

name, country, or good or ill suc- the false Messiah Zabathai Tzevi, cess.

who made so great a noise, and Here we may observe that no gained such a number of proselytes. less than ten false Christs arose in He was born at Aleppo, imposed the twelfth century, and brought on the Jews for a considerable prodigious calamities and destruc-time; but afterwards, with a view tion upon the Jews in various of saving his life, turned Mahomequarters of the world.

tan, and was at last beheaded. 17. In the year 1497, we find As the history of this impostor is atiother false Christ, whose name more entertaining than that of yas Ismael Sophus, who deluded those we have already mentioned, the Jews in Spain. He also pe- I will give it at some length. çished, and as inany as believed in The year 1666 was a year of him were dispersed.

great expectation, and some won18. În the year 1500, Rabbi | derful things was looked for by Lemlem, a German Jew of Aus- many. This was a fit time for an tria, declared himself a forerun- impostor to set up; and, accordaer of the Messiah, and pulled ingly, lying reports were carried down his own oven, promising his about. It was said, that great brethren that they should bake multitudes marched from untheir bread in the Holy Land next known parts to the remote deyear.

serts of Arabia, and they were 19. In the year 1509, one whose supposed to be the ten tribes of name was Pfefferkorn, a Jew of Israel, who have been dispersed Cologn, pretended to be the Mes- for many ages; that a ship was arsiah. He afterwards affected, how- rived in the north part of Scotland ever, to turn Christian.

with sails and cordage of silk; 20. In the year 1534, Rabbi that the mariners spake nothing Salomo Malcho, giving out that but Hebrew; that on the_sails he was the Messiah, was burnt was this motto, The twelve Tribes to death by Charles the Fifth of of Israel. Thus were credulous Spain.

men possessed at that time. 21. In the year 1615, a false Then it was that Sabatai Sevi, Christ arose in the East Indies, appeared at Smyrna, and profesand was greatly followed by the sed himself to be the Messias. Portuguese Jews who are scat- He promised the Jews deliverance tered over that country.

and a prosperous kingdom. This 22. In the year 1624, another which he promised they firmly be. in the Low Countries pretended lieved. The Jews now attended to be the Messiah of the family to no business, discoursed of noof Dayid, and of the line of Na-thing but their return, and believed than. He promised to destroy Sabatai to be the Messias as firm. Rome, and to overthrow the king. ly as we Christians believe any ardom of Antichrist, and the Turk-ticle of faith. A right reverend

person, then in Turkey, meeting 23. In the year 1666 appeared with a Jew of his acquaintance at VOL. II.


ish empire.

Aleppo, he asked him what he devotions and alms. The noise of thought of Sabatai. The Jew re- i this Messias began to fill all places. plied, that he believed him to be Sabatai now resolves for Smyrna, the Messias; and that he was so and then for Constantinople. Nafar of that belief, that, if he should than writes to him from Damasprove an impostor, he would then cus, and thus he begins his letter: turn Christian. It is fit we should “ To the king, our king, lord of be particular in this relation, be- lords, who gathers the dispersed cause the history is so very sur- of Israel, who redeems our capprising and remarkable; and we tivity, the man elevated to the have the account of it, from those height of all sublimity, the Mes. who were then in Turkey. sias of the God of Jacob, the true

Sabatai Sevi was the son of Messias, the celestial Lion, SaMordecai Sevi, a mean Jew of batai Sevi.” Smyrna. Sabatai was very book And now, throughout Turkey, ish, and arrived to great skill in the Jews were in great expectation the Hebrew learning. He was the of glorious times. They now author of a new doctrine, and for were devout and penitent, that it was expelled the city. He went they might not obstruct the good thence to Salonichi, of old called which they hoped for. Thessalonica, where he married Some fasted so long, that they a very handsome woman, and was were famished to death ; others divorced from her. Then he tra- buried themselves in the earth till velled into the Morea, then to their limbs grew stiff; some would Tripoli, Gaza, and Jerusalem. By endure melting wax dropped on the way he picked up a third wife. || their flesh ; some rolled in snow; At Jerusalem he began to reform others, in a cold season, would put the Jews' constitutions, and abo- themselves into cold water; and lish one of their solemn fasts, and many whipped themselves. Busicommunicated his designs of pro- ness was laid aside ; superfluities fessing himself the Messias to one of household utensils were sold; Nathan. He was pleased with it, the poor were provided for by and set up for his Elias, or fore- immense contributions. Sabatai runner, and took upon him to comes to Smyrna, where he was abolish all the Jewish fasts, as not adored by the people, though the beseeming, when the bridegroom Chacham contradicted him, for was now come. Nathan prophe-which he was removed from his sies that the Messias should ap- office. There he in writing styles pear before the Grand Seignior in himself the only and first-born Son less than two years, and take from of God, the Messias, the Saviour him his crown, and lead him in of Israel. And though he met with chains.

somne opposition, yet he prevailed At Gaza, Sabatai prcached re- there at last to that degree, that pentance, together with a faith in some of his followers prophesied, himself, so effectually, that the and fell into stranger ecstacies : people gave themselves up to their four hundred men and women

prophesied of his growing king-|| did swear it also; and this was dom; and young infanis, who presently believed by the Jews of could hardly speak; would plainly that city. He that did not now pronounce Sabatai, Messias, and believe him to be the Messias was Son of God. The people were to be shunned as an excommunifor a time possessed, and voices, cated person. The impostor now heard from their bowels : some declares that he was called of God fell into trances, foamed at the to see Constantinople, where he mouth, recounted their future had much to do. He ships himprosperity, their visions of the self, to that end, in a Turkish Lion of Judah, and the triumphs saick, in January, 1666. He had of Sabatai. All which, says the a long and troublesome voyage ; relater, were certainly true, being he had not power over the sea and effects of diabolical delusions, as winds. The Visier, upon the the Jews themselves have since news, sends for him, and confines confessed.

him in a loathsome prison. The Now the impostor swells and Jews pay him their visits; and assumes. Whereas the Jews, in they of this city are as infatuated their synagogues, were wont to as those of Smyrna. They forbid pray for the Grand Seignior, he traffic, and refuse to pay their orders those prayers to be foreborn debts. Some of our English merfor the future, thinking it an in-chants, not knowing how to redecent thing to pray for him who cover their debts from the Jews, was shortly to be his captive; and, took this occasion to visit Sabatai, instead of praying for the Turkish and make their complaints to him emperor, he appoints prayers for against his subjects ; whereupon himself. He also elected princes he wrote the following letter to the to govern the Jews in their march Jews : towards the Holy Land, and to


of the nation of the minister justice to them when they Jews, who expect the appearance should be possessed of it. These of the Messias, and the salvation princes were men well known in of Israel, peace, without end. the city of Smyrna at that time. Whereas we are informed that The people were now pressing to you are indebted to several of the see some miracle to confirm their English nation, it seemeth right faith, and to convince the Gentiles. unto us to order you to make saHere the impostor was puzzled, tisfaction to these your just debts; though any juggling trick would which if you refuse to do, and not have served their turn. But the obey us herein, know you that credulous people supplied this de- then you are not to enter with us fect. When Sabatai was before is into our joys and dominions." the Cadi (or justice of peace), Sabatai remained a prisoner in some affirmed they saw a pillar of Constantinople for the space of fire between him and the Cadi; two months. The Grand Visier, and after some had affirmed it, designing for Candia, thought it others were ready to swear it, and not safe to leave him in the city

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during the Grand Seignior's ab- emple by the Chaldees: several sence and his own. He, therefore, other sad things happened in this removed him to the Dardanelli, ainonth, as the Jews observe ; that better air indeed, but yet out of then and upon the same day the the way, and consequently im- second temple was destroyed; and porting less danger to the city ; that in this month it was decreed which occasioned the Jews to con in the wilderness that the Israelites clude that the Turks could not, should not enter into Canaan, &c. or durst not, take away his life ; || Sabatai was born on this day; which had, they concluded, been and, therefore, the fast must be the surest way to have removed turned to a feast; whereas, in all jealousy. The Jews flocked in truth, it had been well for the great numbers to the castle where Jews had he not been born at all; he was a prisoner; not only those and much better for himself, as that were near,

but from Poland, will appear from what follows. Germany, Leghorn, Venice, and The Jews of the city paid Saother places : they received Sa. batai Sevi great respect. They batai's blessing, and promises of decked their synagogues with S.S. advancement. The Turks made in letters of gold, and made for use of this confluence ; they raised him in the wall a crown : they the price of their lodgings and attributed the same titles and proprovisions, and put their price phecies to him which we apply to upon those who desired to see Sa- our Saviour. He was also, durbatai for their admittance. This ing this imprisonment, visited by profit stopped their mouths, and pilgrims from all parts, that had no complaints were for this cause heard his story. Among whom sent to Adrianople.

Nehemiah Cohen, from Poland, Sabatai, in his confinement, was one, a man of great learnappoints the manner of his own ing in the Kabbala and eastern nativity. He commands the Jews tongues; who desired a conference to keep it on the ninth day of the with Sabatai, and at the conmonth Ab, and to make it a day ference maintained, that, accordof great joy, to celebrate it with ing to the scripture, there ought pleasing meats and drinks, with to be a twofold Messias; one the illuminations and music. He son of Ephraim, a poor and deobligeth them to acknowledge the spised teacher of the law; the love of God, in giving them that other the son of David, to be a day of consolation for the birth conqueror. Nehemiah was conof their king Messias, Sabataitent to be the former, the son of Sevi, his servant and first-born Ephraim, and to leave the glory Son in love.

and dignity of the latter to SaWe may observe by the way batai. Sabatia, from what appears, the insolence of this impostor. did not mislike this. But here This day was a solemn day of lay the ground of the quarrel : fasting among the Jews, formerly Nehemiah taught that the son of in memory of the burning of the Ephraim ought to be the fore

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