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gers desirous of speaking to the Members on their entrance to the House; that there be one or more Galleries at the lower end of the House for the accommodation of 200 strangers, of which a portion in the centre to contain 24 reporters; each of which Galleries should have a separate access, and a Retiring-room at no great distance, for the strangers respectively to occupy when the House is cleared; that accommodation for mem
bers of the other House of Parliament, and distinguished strangers, should be provided within the walls of the House for 100 persons; that there be thirty Committeerooms provided; that the Library be formed of three rooms, each 60 feet long, and wide and lofty in proportion; and that suitable accommodations be provided for the official residence of the Speaker, and offices for the chief Clerk, and other persons connected with the House.
SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES.
May 28. Thomas Amyot, esq. Treasurer, in the chair.
Sydney Smirke, esq. F, S. A. communicated an account, accompanied by drawings, of various original features of the architecture of Westminster Hall, developed during the repairs now proceeding under the superintendence of his brother Sir Robert Smirke. It has been fully ascertained that the walls of the Hall as high as the cornice or string course within, are of the identical fabric erected by William Rufus. Mr. Smirke passed an unfavourable opinion on the soundness of their structure, the cement not being so strong as in most ancient works, and the stones consisting of rubble work, of various kinds, (sometimes very fragile,) specimens of which were laid upon the table. On the remodelling of the Hall by Richard II. the walls were cased with Caen stone, and the massy external buttresses added, which have greatly contributed to their support, and to carry off the weight of the roof. At the same time the upper part of the walls was rebuilt, and perhaps raised; larger windows were inserted; and a Norman colonnade, or triforium, was obliterated, which appears to have run round the original Hall, in the manner of a gallery, from which access might be had to the windows, tapestry might be suspended, or a certain number of spectators might survey the throng below. This remarkable feature of the original structure has been disclosed in several parts, and we have already mentioned an engraving of a portion of it, which has been published in the first number of Britton's "Palace of Westminster." Mr. Smirke exhibited some of the original Norman capitals, which have been found built into the walls; and also an ancient sheath for a knife or a dagger, made of leather stamped with a small pattern of lions and fleursde lis. In a postscript, Mr. Smirke stated the remarkable fact, that it has been ascertained that the walls of St. Stephen's
Chapel, when complete, were raised to a still greater height than the ruins now show them having the addition of a clerestory.
June 11. H. Hallam, esq. V.P. The following gentlemen were elected Fellows of the Society: Edward Ord Warren, esq. of Horkesley Hall, near Colchester, F. G.S.; Francis Mercier, esq. of Torrington-square; Jabez Gibson, esq. of Walden in Essex; Benjamin Golding, M.D. of St. Martin's-lane, author of a History of St. Thomas's Hospital; and Simon Macgillivray, esq. of Salisbury-street.
John Gage, esq. Director, gave an account of the important discoveries recently made in the largest barrow of the Bartlow Hills, on the confines of Essex and Cambridgeshire. It will be recollected that these barrows consist of two rows, four of a larger size, and three of a smaller, and that two of the latter were investigated by Mr. Gage in 1832, and his observations printed in the 25th volume of the Archæologia.
About two months ago the largest barrow of the whole was very scientifically opened under the superintendence of the land-agent employed by Lord Maynard. A gallery, or passage, level with the surrounding surface, was cut from one side of the mound, and directed immediately towards its centre, to which it arrived after proceeding to the extent of forty feet; and the deposit was immediately found, in the spot where from experience it was expected. The articles of value had been placed in a large wooden chest, and the sweepings of the funeral pyre collected into a coarse earthen vessel, which was laid by its side. The soil had not fallen in upon the chest, although the wood was almost entirely decayed; but every article remained undisturbed in its original position. They are, 1. a large square vessel of glass, which contained the calcined bones of the deceased; 2, a bronze prefericulum, ornamented with a sphinx on its handle; 3. a patera, of
bronze, having a handle terminating in a ram's head; 4. a small vessel of bronze, very beautifully enamelled in a pattern of blue, red, and green, with a moveable handle; it is supposed to be a censer, or vessel for perfumes; 5. a large bronze lamp, with a lid or cover in the form of a leaf; the wick and residuum of the oil remained within, and it is supposed to have been left burning in the sepulchre; 6. a folding chair of iron, tipped and ornamented with bronze, and having some remains of the leather straps by which the seat was attached; 7, 8. two glass bottles, one containing a liquid which Mr. Faraday conjectures may have been a mixture of wine and honey; 9, and 10, two bronze strigils. No coins were found; nor any pottery, except the coarse vessel already mentioned. The whole afforded additional proof that the Romans had sepulchral barrows as well as the Celts; that the Bartlow hills are Roman sepulchres; and that the theory which has attri buted their formation to the Danes, and thereby supported the location of the battle of Assandune at Ashdon, and that which has assigned to the same people the erection of the round church towers abounding on the Eastern coast, have been vain and visionary.
June 19. The Society re-assembled after the Whitsuntide recess, for the last time this season, H. Hallam, esq. V.P. in the chair.
The following gentlemen were elected Fellows: Robert Pashley, esq. M. A. resident Fellow of Trinity college, Cambridge; William Wallen, esq. of Spital square, architect; and William Cotton, esq. of the Priory, Letherhead, Surrey.
Mr. Richard Tongue presented two oil-paintings by himself, one representing the Coeton Arthur, near Newport in Pembrokeshire, and the other the Tolmen near Constantine in Cornwall.
Hudson Gurney, esq. V. P. exhibited a dagger found at Messrs. Barclay and Perkins' brewhouse, near the site of the Globe Theatre.
S. C. Northcote, esq. exhibited an earthen vessel, of coarse manufacture, and blackened with fire, found near St. Olave's church in Southwark,
J. Y. Akerman, esq. F.S.A. exhibited two Roman coins lately found by the workmen employed in removing the foundations of old London Bridge. Large conglomerated masses are now continually brought up from the bed of the river, and they are generally found to contain Roman coins. A Commodus in large brass was lately discovered in one of these masses; another contained a gold Valens; while numbers of the small brass of the lower empire are frequently found in them. Among the latter were the two exhibited to the Society: one of Allectus, the assassin of Carausius, the other of Marius, a tyrant in Gaul, who is said to have held the sovereignty in that province for only three days.
Samuel Woodward, esq. exhibited a copper bulla, lately found at Castle Acre in Norfolk. It is round, about two inches and a half in diameter, embossed on one side with the figure of a man on horseback, in a shirt of mail, holding in his right hand a bow and in his left an arrow; on the other, a similar figure, holding in his right band a faulchion, and on the left a concave shield. Mr. Woodward presumed it to be Saxon; but many who saw it thought it of Oriental work.
A communication from Sir Francis Palgrave was then read, being a letter of Martin Tindal, Fellow of King's college, Cambridge, to Secretary Cromwell.
John Yates, esq. communicated a paper on the invention of Paper made from linen rags; and as early a date as 1263, in Germany, was mentioned.
A further portion was also read of Mr. Repton's collections respecting Female Head-dresses.
The Society then adjourned to the 9th of November.
A Prospectus is in circulation for the formation of an ARCHEOLOGICAL AND TOPOGRAPHICAL INSTITUTION. The immediate objects are to investigate, describe, and illustrate the antiquities of the various counties in England, Wales, and Scotland, the results to be arranged and classed in chronological order, under the following heads: I. Celtic, or British Antiquities; 2 Roman Roads, Stations, Encampments, and other Remains; 3. Saxon, Danish, and Norman Antiquities; 4. Castles, Monastic, and Ecclesiastical Buildings, &c.; 5. Old Mansions, Crosses, Bridges, &c. Committees are to be formed in the metropolis, and others in the counties, to undertake and direct the separate subjects of inquiry; and it is proposed to commence with the county of Kent.
Several ancient remains have been discovered at Jumieges in France, not far from the Forest of Brotonne. They were found buried nine feet below the surface of the earth under the turf. Amongst other objects were the following:-Two hatchets, supposed to be Celtic, of copper; the point of the blade of a sword, of bronze; a bronze vase of a circular form, the orifice of which is four inches in diameter; and a leaden plate ornamented with figures of dolphins in relief. All these curiosities were sent to the Museum of Antiquities by M.
PROCEEDINGS IN PARLIAMENT.
HOUSE OF LORDS.
May 21. Lord Brougham rose for the purpose of bringing forward a resolution on the subject of GENERAL EDUCATION. The Noble Lord went at great length into a review of the existing system of education in this country. Referring to the Report of the Education Committee in 1818, he said, it appeared from that document, that there were, at that time, schools capable of educating 640,000 children: viz., endowed schools, containing 166,000, and schools supported by voluntary contributions for 478,000. In 1818, the number of children in unendowed dayschools was 50,000; in 1828, the number had increased to 105,000; and the whole number, which in England in 1818 was 478,000, had, in 1828, increased to 1,000,000; and at present, in thirty-three counties from which he got returns, 1,144,000 children were receiving education. The great increase had, however, taken place in the endowed schools. He thought the number of schools should be increased, and the system of instruction extended, and that education ought to be more equally distributed; for whilst, take England through, the average was as high as one in twelve, take the populous counties of London and Lancashire, the average did not exceed one in thirteen, or one in fourteen. Under these circumstances, he did not mean to say that the Government should take the whole expense of public education upon itself, but he was of opinion, that they should meet it halfway, and he hoped a grant of public money, to be so appropriated, would be agreed to. After some further details, the Noble Lord concluded by moving a string of resolutions pro forma, embracing all the points of his speech, and preparatory to an ulterior measure which it was his intention to submit to their Lordships.
HOUSE OF COMMONS.
May 25. The Marquis of Chandos, after depicting the sufferings of the agricultural interest, in a speech of considerable length, brought forward a motion for their relief, to the following effect:"That a humble Address be presented to his Majesty expressive of the deep regret which the House feel at the continuation of the distress experienced by the agricultural interest, and to express the anxious desire of the House that the attention of his Majesty's Government should be GENT. MAG. VOL. IV.
directed to the subject, with the view to reduce some portion of those burdens to which the land is subject through the pressure of local and general taxation."-The Earl of Darlington seconded the motion.-Lord J. Russell disapproved of the address as far as it went, in calling for specific reductions of taxes. Already that interest had experienced benefit; and it would derive more from the improvement of the poor laws and the commutation of tithes. He moved, as an amendment," That the House directs the early attention of the Government to the recommendation of the Committee appointed last Session on the payment of county rates, with a view to the utmost practical alleviation of the burden of local taxation."-A long debate followed; and on a division, the motion of the Marquis of Chandos was lost by a majority of 211 against 150.
May 26. On the report of the GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY Bill, Mr. Miles moved the introduction of a clause to pre vent travelling upon it on the Lord's Day, naming a penalty of 201.-It called forth much discussion, and it was eventually divided upon, when the numbers were, ayes, 34; noes, 212.
June 1. Mr. Cayley brought forward a motion, for a select Committee to inquire into the means of affording relief to the agriculture of the country, and especially to consider the subject of a silver, or conjoined standard of silver and gold. A debate ensued, in which several Members took part, amongst which were Mr. C. P. Thomson, Sir R. Peel, and the Chancellor of the Exchequer. The motion was eventually lost upon a division, by a majority of 216 to 126.
June 2. Mr. Grote brought forward a motion for the adoption of the BALLOT in Parliamentary Elections. In a speech of considerable length, he contended that independent voting could only be secured by the Ballot—an opinion which the last general election, and still more recent events in Devonshire and elsewhere, had strengthened.-Sir W. Molesworth seconded the motion, and enumerated the different places at which the Whigs were beaten for want of the Ballot, as he contended. Mr. Gisborne opposed the motion, and moved the previous question upon it.-A long discussion followed, in which Dr. Bowring, Lords Howick and Stanley, Lord J. Russell, and Sir R. Peel
took part, the last of whom suggested that the amendment should be withdrawn, and the question met by a direct negative. Eventually the House divided on the original motion, which was negatived by a majority of 317 against 114.
HOUSE OF LORDS.
June 3. Lord Brougham brought in a Bill to alter and amend the LAW OF PATENTS. His Lordship stated, that it was bis intention to repeal the Statute of James, and consolidate into one Act all the Acts which had since passed relating to patents. The object of the Bill was to give greater facility in procuring patents, and to secure the enjoyment of them to the inventors, in a better manner than was now the case. He proposed that the person wishing to have a patent should record his specification, and obtain a fiat from the Attorney-General; but the patentee should then enter his disclaimer, and give notice of his invention in the Gazette, and advertise the same in some of the newspapers in the neighbourhood in which he lived; but having obtained the fiat of the Attorney-General, which expressed the patent to be innocent, and not noxious or fraudulent, and having filed his disclaimer (of which evidence might hereafter be given in the Courts of Law and Equity, in case his patent was invaded), he should have the sole use of his patent. He also proposed a clause to give a power of applying to the Privy Council for an extension of time, beyond the usual period of 14 years.-The Bill was then read a first time.
In the HOUSE OF COMMONS, the same day, The SABBATH OBSERVANCE Bill was thrown out by a majority of 54 to 43.
The WILLS' EXECUTION Bill, and the EXECUTORS' and ADMINISTRATORS' Bill, were read a third time and passed.
On the motion of Mr. Lynch, the RoMAN CATHOLIC MARRIAGES' Bill was, after some opposition, read a second time.
On Mr. Elphinstone's motion for the second reading of the Bill for limiting the POLLS for Counties and Boroughs to one day, a discussion of some length ensued. The opinion of most of the speakers was favourable to its object, though some doubted the practicability of taking the poll in one day.-The Bill was read a second time.
ceeded to state that the Bill would include 183 boroughs-containing about 2,000,000 of inhabitants. He proposed that all municipal charters, which were inconsistent with the provisions of the Bill, should be wholly abolished. One uniform system of election would be established, and there would be the same description of officers, with the exception of a few large places. The present ratepayers of the towns were to choose the Common Council. He proposed that there should be one body only, consisting whom the powers of the Corporation of a Mayor and Common Council, in should be vested. All pecuniary rights, now enjoyed by individuals, he proposed to preserve during their lives, and also all peculiar rights; but that no person should in future be a burgess of those Corporations, except in accordance with the conditions to which he had alluded. Persons who were free of a city would retain the privileges which they now possessed; but he proposed that in future such exclusive privileges should not be granted. The Mayor would be annually elected by the Council, and during that time he should be a Justice of the Peace. When the
officers were appointed, they would immediately have power to appoint a Town. Clerk and a Treasurer. He proposed to abolish all bodies instituted by local Acts, and to commit the preservation of the peace wholly to the Corporations. He proposed wholly to abolish some of the ble Lord concluded by stating that the Corporations in minor towns. The Noabove were the principal points of the Bill. Sir R. Peel said he should offer no opposition to the motion. The time, he thought, had arrived when a more efficient mode of Corporation government ought to be adopted. The reports of the Commissioners showed that amendments were required, but the Bill went to establish new principles. After a few laudatory remarks from various Hon. Members, leave was given to bring in the Bill without a single dissentient voice. It was subsequently read a first time, and ordered for a second reading on June 15th.
June 5. Lord J. Russell moved for leave to bring in a Bill for the Better Regulation of the MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS of England and Wales. After instancing some of the numerous abuses which had crept into those bodies, his Lordship pro
His Majesty to carry into effect the resolutions of the Committee on rebuilding the Houses of Parliament.
HOUSE OF COMMONS.
June 15. Lord J. Russell having moved
Lord G. Somerset then moved and car-
June 19. Mr. Hume brought in a Bill for regulating the expenses attendant upon elections in England and Wales, which was read a first time, and ordered to be read a second time on the 26th inst.
June 22, 23. The various clauses of the MUNICIPAL REFORM Bill were discussed in Committee; and after some ineffectual attempts at opposition, the ministerial propositions were carried without amendment. On the ninth clause being brought forward, which was considered of great importance, as tending to disfranchise all the freemen of Corporations, an amendment was proposed by Sir W. Follet, to protect the rights of freemen, whether acquired by birth or servitude, and a warm debate arose upon the question. It was urged, upon one hand, that the scot and lot voters were as corrupt as the freemen, and that the rights of the latter ought not to be attacked by a side-wind, after having been recognised by the Reform Act, On the which expressly reserved them. other hand, it was maintained that the rights alluded to were usurpations; that the effect of the amendment would be to make freemen perpetual; and that, as a new system was now about to be adopted, there was an absurdity in having two sets of burgesses counteracting each other, and perplexing the operation of the plan. The debate, which was exceedingly animated, called up almost every speaker of note in the House, and concluded by a division, the majority being in favour of the original clause. The numbers were 278 and 232, leaving a majority of 46 in favour of Ministers.
The cause of the Queen of Spain, in the northern provinces, has been on the decline. The troops of Don Carlos have have every where prevailed, and the whole of the Basque provinces may be said to be in their possession. General Valdez, with his army, has taken up his position on the banks of the Ebro, without athis tempting any decisive operation; troops, it is said, being in a general state of disorganization.
The greater portion of the strongholds of the Queenites in the northern provinces have been evacuated; Oraa and Espartero have been completely defeated, and their colours destroyed; El Pastor has been compelled to steal off, in the dead of
the night to Saint Sebastian, in such haste, as to leave in Tolosa an immense quantity of ammunition, guns, cannons, &c. Villa Franca capitulated to the Carlists on the 3rd of June, after having been well defended; and Tolosa was evacuated on the 5th; Bilboa also, having been bombarded for several days by the Carlists, was expected to capitulate.
Owing to the unfavourable position of affairs, it has at length been decided on by the Queen-Regent's Government to apply to England, France, and Portugal, for that active assistance which by the articles of the Quadruple Treaty it was contended those powers were bound to furnish; consequently a protracted negociation was entered into on the part o