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sertations in English, to be composed on some of the subjects named in the will of the late Mrs. E. D. Denyer, such two subjects to be selected yearly, and the prizes in respect of such dissertations to be adjudged by the Vice Chancellor, the two Divinity Professors, and the two Proctors for the time being." And his Majesty further directed that the persons who shall be entitled to write for the said

prizes, shall be "in Deacon's orders at least, and shall on the last day appointed for the delivery of the compositions to the Registrar of the University, have entered on the eighth and not exceeded the tenth year from their matriculation, and also that the compositions to which the prizes shall be from time to time adjudged shall be read in the Divinity school on some day in full term, to be fixed by the Vice Chancellor." The Declaration of Trust was approved by Convocation, and the University seal affixed to the same, on the 2d day of April, 1835.

The Subjects for the year 1836 are"On the Doctrine of Faith in the Holy Trinity."- "On the Sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures for the Salvation of Man."

The Compositions are to be sent under a sealed cover to the Registrar of the University on or before Tuesday, the 1st of March, 1836.


On the opening of the Session, an introductory lecture was delivered by Professor Dale on the English Language and Literature. The Professor having traced the various changes which the English language had undergone, said that the nation at last found itself in the possession of a language, which, though abounding with irregularities which set all system at defiance, was still, in its operation, equal to the Latin, and in its copiousness not inferior to the Greek-it was a language resembling an anonymous metal, which the ancients called as Corinthium—a language which, like our own Constitution, was a mixture of discordant elements. Although made to accord with the Latin, its genius and structure was much more similar to the Greek. In proof of this statement, the Professor read various extracts from Shakspeare, showing that even the vulgarisms of the present day, were in the time of the

immortal Bard" in constant use amongst the Nobility. After some further observations respecting the mode of instruction, the Professor concluded amidst the loud applause of a numerous and respectable audience.


Oct. 14. The Session was opened with an introductory lecture by Professor Key, on the construction of the Latin language. In his preliminary observations the Professor congratulated the proprietary and his audience on the pleasant prospects before them. He referred to the foundation of a great metropolitan jesty's government, and hailed it as the University by the liberality of his Maperiod when religious and political dis

tinctions should form no bar to academic education. The proposition had been favourably received by those of the proprietary who were in town, and he had no doubt that when the opinion of the whole was acquired, that of the majority would be in its favour. A few weeks would solve the question, and would, he anticipated, see an University established worthy the metropolis and the nation, and in which Catholic and Protestant, Jew, Unitarian, and Dissenter, would be admitted without distinction of religious



By a return to a late order of the House of Commons, it appears that the sums of money voted to the College of Maynooth during the last five years, annual amount, was uniformly 8,9281. with the exception of the grant for the year ending 31st March last, which amounted to 8,9781.; 501. additional to the grant of former years. Total amount in five years, 44,6907. The number of Professors employed during the last five years, and their respective salaries, are as follow:- The Prefect of the Dunboyne Establishment, First Professor of Theology, Second ditto, ditto, Third ditto, ditto, Professor of Sacred Scripture and Hebrew, each 1227.; ditto of Mathematics and Experimental Philosophy, ditto of Logic, Metaphysics, and Ethics, ditto of Rhetoric, ditto of Humanity, ditto of English Elocution and French, ditto of Irish, 112 each; ditto of Declamation, about a month each year, 211.


The new building erected at the foot of Staines Bridge is intended for a Scientific and Literary Institution. It is now nearly roofed in, and will be completed by next Christmas. It consists of a spacious theatre for lectures, and two smaller rooms; and will open on the 1st of January 1836, the anniversary of the establishment of the society.

At Neath, a Scientific Institution bas been formed, which calls forth a course of lectures from the Rev. W. D. Cony

beare, F.R.S on that very important subject (especially in Wales), Geology.

At the Islington Literary and Scientific Society, the following arrangements have been made for the Lectures:

Nov. 5 and 12, Zoology, by Dr. Grant. Nov. 10 and 26, the Early English Poets, by C. C. Clarke, Esq.

Dec. 3, the Commerce of Ancient Egypt, by J. W. Gilbart, Esq.

Dec. 10 and 17, the Early English Poets, by C. C. Clarke, Esq.

Dec. 31, Jan. 7, 14, and 21, Astronomy, by John Wallace, Esq.

Feb. 4 and 11, Zoology, by Dr. Grant. The annual meeting will be on Jan.28. A Literary Institution is on the eve of being established in the extensive borough of Lambeth, of which it is expected the Archbishop of Canterbury will be the leading patron. Mr. Hawes also, as the representative of the borough, is extending his influence and support towards the success of the undertaking.


This interesting institution has during the past summer been making satisfactory progress in all the departments which it embraces. Considerable progress has been made in the library department, which increases in interest amongst the members. The experiment with the lectures in the early part of the season was sufficiently successful as to leave no doubt but that the Council will be anxious to continue them. Amongst these was a lecture on the physical geography of Africa, by Capt. Maconochie; on the magnetism of the earth, by Dr. Ritchie; on improvements in steam navigation, by Lieut. Wall, R.N.; and on gaseous chemistry, by Mr. R. Phillips. The number of visitors during the present was, however, less than in the preceding year. From the 5th of August, 1833, to the 5th of August, 1834, there were 3,386 visitors and 6,096 members; and from the latter date to the 5th of August, 1835, 3,016 visitors and 5,765 members. Amongst the presents recently added to the collection is a model of a Parsee sepulchre and tomb of silence, from Vice-Admiral Sir John Gore. From the translation of an inscription engraved on the front slab, it appears that "the sepulchre was erected by Framjee Cowarjee Byramjee Beu. magee as directed in the laws of his propbet Zurtosht, and dedicated to the memory of his late and ever-lamented daughter Dunboyee, who departed this life the 4th of May, 1831. The tomb of silence was constructed with the joint money belonging to the said deceased, as well as of her surviving mother Bachoo.

boyee and her sisters. The spot of ground for such purpose was granted by Bachooboyee, the widow of the Selt Ardaseer Dabybhery, containing 3,568 square yards. The foundation ceremony was performed on the 3d of June, 1831, and by the Divine Blessing it was completed on the 5th day of the 8th Kuddymee, and 8th Rusmee month, in the year 1201 Yesdejird, or 3d of May, in the year of Christ 1832." Sir John Gore has also contributed a series of models of implements of husbandry used by the natives of the Dercan in Hindostan, and there has been also recently contributed a Malay Jingal (coat of arms), and various implements of war taken from one of the piratical proas destroyed by the boats of his Majesty's ship Harrier, under command of Lieutenant Wright, at Arroa Islands, straits of Malacca, April 1834.


From a report published by the official organ in Germany, it appears that the annual sale of books in that country amounts to 21,500,000 francs (800,0007.) About forty years ago Germany contained only 300 bookselling establishments; in 1833 the number had increased to 1,094. In valuing the population of the different circles of the Confederation at 38,266,000, we may reckon one library to 122,222 inhabitants; while in Prussia the proportion is 1 to 33,899.

In France, the number of literary productions, which it appears quadrupled itself from 1814 to 1826, increased twofold from 1826 to 1828. At this period the number of works published in France was 7,616; in 1830, 6,739; in 1831, 6,063; and in 1833, 7,011.

During 1834, there were imported into Russia 300,000 volumes in foreign languages, which is 20,000 more than in 1833.


There were published 728 national works, and 116 translations, exclusive of 48 periodical journals. these publications are not included 113,200 copies of different books for instruction.

In England, the commercial value of literary works amounted, in 1828, to the sum of 334,4507, and in 1833 to 415,3001; and adding to this the amount of daily and weekly papers, reviews, and magazines, the general sale of English literature in 1833 may be estimated at the large sum of 2,420,9007. sterling.


This erratic visitor bas swept through the heavens from north-east to southwest, during the month of October, with amazing rapidity, and now almost ceases to be visible to the naked eye. The

weather has been extremely unpropitious for astronomical observation during the whole month, and the comet could only be observed at intervals. The evening of Saturday, the 10th of October, was the first time when it became a conspicuous object to the naked eye. It was then within a degree or two of dubhi, the northern pointer in the Great Bear, but was observed to pass rapidly to the west of that star during the evening. Its appearance as to size was much the same as the star above alluded to, but nothing equal to it in lustre, having a rather hazy and dull appearance, with no indication, to the naked eye, of a tail. The right ascension of the comet this evening was the same as it was expected to have (according to the calculations of Pontécoulant,) on the 5th inst.; and its declination seemed to be about 10 degrees higher than its path, as laid down by that celebrated astronomer. Hence then up

to the 10th of October we had a mistake of only about five days in a period of nearly 76 years. On Sunday evening the comet got nearly into a line with the two fore wheels of the wain, the northernmost of which being nearly at equal distances from the southern wheel and the comet. This was the period of its nearest approach to the earth, being about twenty-two millions of miles distant, and travelling at the rate of two hundred and forty thousand miles hour, so that every hour's trip would carry per it over a space equal in distance to that between the earth and moon, or round the circumference of this globe in about six minutes of time. On Monday evening it had advanced to the second horse in the team, with much the same appearance as on the previous evenings. After having cleared the Great Bear, on the succeeding night it grazed the hand and head of Bootes, touched the northern crown, crossed the shoulders, and traversed diagonally the whole person of Opiuchus, with a gradual incurvation westward. On the 16th it passed its perihelion, while in the eastern knee of the last-mentioned constellation.


A curious paper by Mr. Bird, was read at the recent meeting of the British Association at Dublin, on the motion of the Sun through the universe. After observing that the Sun's motion through space, and his direction towards the constellation Hercules, were discovered by Dr. Herschel, he stated that he was not aware that astronomers had ascertained whether the motion is rectilinear or curvilinear, He considered it highly probable that the GENT. MAG. VOL. IV.

motion is curvilinear; and, in order to point out the phenomena consequent on such a motion, he exhibited a diagram, from which it appeared that each fixed star would describe a small curve in the heavens, the extent and form of which would depend on the distance of the star from the sun, and the form of the solar orbit. If we conceive, said the author, a star situated on the solstitial colure Capricorn, near which the constellation Hercules is situated, and towards polar distance of such a star will diminish which the sun is advancing, the north during the progress of the sun in this direction: after the sun has attained his furthest point from the centre of his orbit in this direction, and as he proceeds towards the colure Aries, the north polar distance of the star increases: the star has also a retrograde motion in right ascension; its maximum north polar distance takes place when the sun arrives at the colure Cancer, when the star is again situated on the colure Capricorn; and its maximum right ascension towards Aries is observed when the sun reaches the colure Libra. These phenomena Mr. linear motion of the sun through space; Bird described as resulting from a curviand referred to the tables of the proper motions of the fixed stars, according to Dr. Maskelyne, from which it appeared that the great number of stars situated near the colure Capricorn are decreasing in north polar distance, while those situated near Cancer are increasing; most of the stars between Cancer and Capricorn are retrograding in right ascension, while those situated between Capricorn and Cancer are mostly increasing. These appearances, the author observed, perfectly agree with the supposition of a circular orbit; there were some exceptions, but these, he conceived, were accounted for by the supposition that not only the sun, but the stars themselves move, and it is highly probable that the direction in which some move may occasion them to appear to proceed in a contrary direction to the others. The subject, he considered, demanded the attention of astronomers, as it is calculated to throw considerable light on the parallax of the fixed


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Scriptures in the English language.-In the British Museum there is a copy of Miles Coverdale's Bible. It is in excellent preservation, and is a small folio, printed in the black letter. After the books of the Old and New Testaments those of the Apocrypha are inserted, with this introductiom:-"The bokes and treatises, which amonge the fathers of olde are not retened to be of like authoritie with the other bokes of the Byble, neither are they founde in the Canon of the Hebrew." The volume contains many curious engravings.

In the Chapter Library of Gloucester Cathedral there is also a copy of Coverdale's Bible, and, it seems, in better condition than most of those in other public libraries. Of seven mentioned by Dr. Cotton, that in the British Museum is the only one that has the title-page. The Bodleian copy is said to be by far the finest. In the dedication to King Henry the Eighth some copies have the name of Anne, some that of Jane coupled with the King's. The copy at Gloucester has Anne, and the title-page is perfect. Lord Spencer also possesses a copy of Coverdale's Bible. It is in old Russia binding, wanting only the original printed title within the borders of the title-page. We believe the Duke of Sussex has a perfect copy, likewise the Marquis of Northampton, and Mrs. Smith, of Dulwich, a lady particularly attached to the collection of ancient English Bibles.


Mr. Davidson, the traveller, has quitted England for Gibraltar, on his intended journey to explore central Africa. He is accompanied by Abon Beckr Sadiki Shereef. This extraordinary person is a native of Timbuctoo, of which place his father was governor; one of his uncles, Idrissa Shereef, being governor of Jenné, and another, Abdrachman Shereef, governor of Kong. Being of noble family

he was sent to Jenné, to receive the rudiments of his education, and from thence removed to Gournoo to learn the Koran. At this place, during one of the petty wars, he was made prisoner, and was carried to a small place called Dago, in Fantee county, and there sold; thence to Jamaica, where he remained in slavery twenty-seven years. Being much above the common class, he was never put to any laborious work, but his employment was that of a clerk, keeping his master's accounts in Arabic; he is a perfect master of that language, and has a great knowledge of many of the dialects of the country, with an extraordinary recolleetion of the population of the various cities and towns. Hearing of this person from Mr. Madden, Mr. Davidson sent directions that he should be provided with a passage to England by the first opportunity that occurred, and that all his expenses should be paid on arrival. He arrived in England the 30th June. Mr. Davidson intends proceeding by a course yet untried by any European; and with his complete knowledge of the Mussulman character, he has perhaps a better chance of success. Mr. Davidson is well known for his already extensive travels in India, Egypt, Syria, and his subsequent visit to Canada, the United States, and Mexico.


A Committee of the Academy of Medicine in Paris has lately made a report on a new method for preserving dead bodies for the dissecting-room. It consists in injecting the arteries with twelve or fifteen quarts of a dissolution of acetate of alumine, concentrated to twenty degrees. The result has proved most satisfactory. Other experiments were made with sulphate of alumine, and with its chlorate, which were found less efficacious than the acetate.

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the interstices some of the men employed found, a few days ago, five pieces of brass coin, bearing the head of Julian the Apos


A bronze rule has been found in the forest of Maulevrier, near Caudebec; and MM. Jomard and Walckenaer have reported to the Académie des Inscriptions, that it is a Roman foot rule, on which are marked the various measures in use in the years 253 to 268 of the Roman Empire.

In making a new sluice to the citadel of Calais, an ancient vessel, 45 feet in length, 12 in breadth, and 8 in depth, was discovered in the ground; strongly built, though its measurement does not exceed 80 tons, and it has evidently never been covered with a deck. Coins were found in it with the date 1219, and as it lay 12 feet below the foundations of the inner wall of the fortifications erected by the Count de Boulogne, it is to be presumed

that the vessel was not discovered at that period. It cannot be ascertained whether it was ever at sea, but there is reason to believe it was erected before Calais was made a regular port, and when the sea ran far up the present land.

Several tombs were discovered last year at Monzie St. Martin, Dordogne, the most remarkable circumstance attending which is, that the heads of the skeletons were placed on a heap of seeds contained in a cavity left in the cement, large enough to contain the occiput. These seeds have been sown, and from them have been raised the Heliotropium Europæum, Medicago cupulina, and Centaurea cyamus. This circumstance confirms the opinion lately advanced by several physiologists, that certain vegetables preserve their germinating power for an indefinite period, if kept out of the reach of the agents necessary to germination. Some of these vegetables are, birch, aspen, groundsel, rushes, broom, digitalis, heaths, &c.


Mr. Waldeck has been for some time investigating the remains of this interesting country, and it appears with some degree of success. In a letter recently received from him, dated Merida, June 26, he says: The edifices which I have just visited at Vahemal, or Vehemal, are much more considerable than those at Palenqué. The variety of ornaments (all of free-stone) which decorate the extensive façades of these monuments is so great, that two years will hardly suffice fairly to draw them; and the expense of cutting down the trees will, in consequence of their closeness, be large; but, certainly, I have never seen any thing

more beautiful since my arrival in the Mexican Republic; and I am the first European by whom they have been approached. The work which I have accomplished at Palanqué is fine; but that which I am now undertaking will be superior to it, in consequence of the high preservation of the buildings, the singularity of the architecture, the richness of the sculptures, the indications of religious worship, &c. &c.


As some workmen were lately employed in clearing out the rubbish from the ruins of this Abbey, they came upon a stone coffin, containing the skeleton of a female, which had been carefully enveloped in a covering of leather. This must have been some lady of rank in her day; and it has been set down as the remains of the Queen of William the Lion, who, as well as her husband, the founder of the Abbey, was interred here.


The north-western coast of Cornwall has been overwhelmed, to a considerable extent and depth, with sand deposited on the shore from marine currents, and then drifted inland by the winds. In the parish of Perranzabulo in that county, the influx of the sand has been very extensive, and has overwhelmed, amongst other buildings, the ancient parish-church; an event which appears, from tradition, to have occurred about five or six centuries ago. A small portion of its walls, however, has long been visible above the sand; and the interior of the edifice was lately restored to light by Mr. William Michell, of Perranporth, who published the following description of it in a provincial newspaper. It" wants nothing to render it as complete as when first erected, except its roof and doors. The length of the church, within the walls, is 25 feet; without, 30: the breadth within, 12 feet; and the height of the walls the same. At the eastern end is a neat altar of stone, covered with lime, 4 feet long, by 24 wide, and 3 feet high. Eight inches above the centre of the altar is a recess in the wall, in which, probably, stood a crucifix; and, on the north side of the altar, is a small doorway. The chancel was exactly 6 feet, leaving 19 feet for the congregation, who were accommodated with stone seats, 12 inches wide and 14 inches high, attached to the west, north, and south walls of the nave. In the centre of the nave, in the south wall, is a roundarched doorway, highly ornamented, 7 feet 4 inches high, by 2 feet 4 inches wide. The keystone of the arch projects 8 inches, on which is rudely sculptured a

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