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were sold for 91. 123. ; those of the same theatre, from 1795 to 1810, (imperfect) for 21. 6s.; those of Drury Lane, from 1758 to 1766, for 4. 12s.; those of Covent Garden, from 1776 to 1826, for 11.; and the perfect collection of Drury Lane and Covent Garden, from 1774 to 1830, with index and notes by Mr. Fawcett, for 331. 12s.
The engraved portraits were rendered interesting by Mr. Mathews having illustrated them with manuscript remarks, critical and biographical. The whole realized about 1707. A very extensive collection of engravings, drawings, original documents, play-bills, &c. and every thing Mr. Mathews could procure relative to the life of David Garrick, was bound in a volume of atlas folio, and entitled Garrickiana. It was purchased by Mr. Tayleure the actor for 451.
The collection of autographs was not confined to the theatrical profession. Two letters of Robert Burns were sold for 31. 3s; Considerations on Corn, a dissertation of sixteen pages by Dr. Johnson, for 41. 12s.; Sir Walter Scott to Gen. Phipps, respecting sitting for his picture, 11. 11s.; Lawrence Sterne to R. Dodsley, 1759, 21. 10s; Dean Swift to Stella, 1710, 17. 10s.; two of Garrick 21.; two others 1. 15s.; one of Kean 1.18.; two others 21.; one of Hogarth's receipts for his Strolling Actresses, Morning, Noon, Evening, and Night, 31. 11s.; Oliver Cromwell to a Commission in the army, 1657, 21. 2s.; two of Lord Nelson and one of Lady Hamilton, 21. 48.; Isaac Reed's Journal, from 1762 to 1802, in 21 small volumes, 41. 4s. The whole autographs produced about 1607. After them were introduced the MSS. left by the late W. H. Ireland, which were sold for the benefit of his widow; the whole of the twenty-eight lots brought only 181. 158.
The theatrical relics consisted of busts, medals, trinkets, boxes, several articles of costume which had been worn by Garrick, &c. One of the twenty busts of Shakspeare, moulded by George Bullock from that at Stratford, the size of the original, was sold for 17. 15s. The foil Garrick used, as Don Felix, on the last night of his performance, 17. 78. His silken boots in Tamerlane, 15s. Two of his wigs, one for Lear, 8s. The Cassolette carved from the Shakspeare mulberrytree, containing the freedom of Stratford presented to Garrick, 47 guineas. (The carving originally cost 551.) Anink-stand of the same wood, carved by the same hand, 31. 138. 6d. Garrick's walking stick, presented by John Kemble to Mathews, 11. 10s. His dressing-room chair, 24. 2s. GENT MAG. VOL. IV,
PAPER MADE FROM TURF.
A cheap and yet good substitute for hemp rags, for the purpose of affording a pulp fit for paper-making, has long been a desideratum with the manufacturer. Many attempts have been made to proure one, but the difficulties of finding one such as would suit the required condition, and the duty and cost of hemp rags, have induced adulteration to a vast extent in the paper manufacture. It is generally known that a peat-bog, and especially those of Ireland, consists of various strata, varying in density and other properties in proportion to their depth. The top surface of the bog is usually covered with living plants, chiefly mosses, heaths, and certain aquatic or paludose plants; immediately beneath this lies a stratum, varying from only two or three inches to four or five feet, according to the state of drainage of the bog, of a spongy, reddish brown, fibrous substance, consisting of the remains of vegetables usually similar to those living on the surface in the first stage of decompo sition. The chemical state of this stratum is nearly that of some of the papiri found in moist places in Herculaneum; that is to say, having long been exposed to the action of water, at nearly a mean temperature, the vegetable juices have nearly all been converted into ulmin-geine, or impure extractive matter, and the fibres remain nearly untouched, together, probably, with some of the essential oils of the original plants. It therefore seemed that, if these fibres, which were apparently sufficiently fine for the purpose, could be separated from their colouring matters, the object would be nearly if not entirely attained; to this, therefore attention, has been directed, and it was attended with success. Specimens of the pulp have been examined, described as being yielded from peat, at the rate of 18 per cent. and it appeared to be white, pure, and perfectly suited to the manufacture of paper.
Some curious experiments have lately been made at St. Ouen, near Paris, with a sub-marine vessel, the invention of M. Villeroi, the engineer. The vessel is of iron, and of the same shape as a fish of the cetaceous tribe. Its movements and evolutions are performed by three or four men, who are inside, and who have no communication with the surface of the water, or the external air. With this machine, navigation can be effected in spite of currents; any operations may be carried on under water, and it may be brought to the surface at will, like an ordinary vessel.
CITY OF TODI.
The city of Todi, founded by the Etrurians, and always celebrated in the annals of Umbria, has at all times abounded in monuments of antiquity, and especially in Etruscan coins. There bas been lately discovered a gigantic monument on the declivity of a hill at a short distance from the city. As far as it has yet been disclosed, it consists of great blocks of travertin, forming parts of a fluted column, the diameter of which is about six feet and a half, which is larger than the columns of the Foro Trajano, or those of the Temple of Peace.
Most of the stones are marked with letters or numbers, in red lead, probably to direct the masons in joining them together. Some Latin inscriptions record the names of magistrates and illustrious men ; and in the opinion of the learned antiquaries, Speroni and Fossati, who have been to examine it, the work is of the Roman
A beautiful bronze statue. in fine preservation, which appears to have had a helmet, not yet found, resembles Mars, to whom this stately temple was probably dedicated. The statue measures nearly four feet and a half.
the two Tetrici-the statue of Victory carried by the father-the eagle resting on a sceptre held by the son-the elegant make of the chariot and the warriors who lead the horses, though strictly conformable to the descriptions of ancient writers, yet differ completely from the well-known bas-reliefs of Marcus Aurelius and Titus.
CAVE TEMPLES IN INDIA.
The late campaigns in India have occasioned the discovery of a series of cave temples, the existence of which was previously unknown to Europeans or the more intellectual classes of natives. The pursuit of some refractory Bheels in the direction of Arguan led to the caverns in which these people had taken refuge, which were found to be very splendid excavations, dedicated to the performance of Buddhistic worship. Many of the interior decorations were composed of paintings in a bold and florid style, the colours being perfectly uninjured by time. The figures represented in these paintings are described to be Persian, both in dress and feature, and the female countenances especially are said to possess great beauty. Some of the borders of these compartments are of the richest blue, as fresh as when they were first painted on the walls; and the whole seems to offer an extensive field for the investigation of the curious.
A magnificent bas relief, representing the triumph of Tetricus and his Son, (saluted Emperor by the soldiers in the reign of Aurelian), was recently found at Nerac, near Toulouse. It is 5 feet long, 3 feet wide, and 4 inches thick, and in good preservation. The buildings introduced into it are covered with inscriptions, without injuring the general effect in the least. The letters are small, slightly engraved, The and not legible at a little distance. figures are short; and the head of the soldier who holds a horse is so prominent, that it has fallen off its trunk, and is now fastened on with cement. All the ornaments are of the purest taste, and are only seen on the triumphal toge and chariot; every other part is quite simple.
Excepting on some medals, the small size of which precludes details, there now exist few antique representations of Roman triumphs. The celebrated bas-relief, known by the name of the triumph of Marcus Aurelius, and that of Titus, have scarcely anything in common with that lately found, excepting the coincidence of the quadriga. The triumphal robes of
CASTLE AND FRIARY AT CHICHESTER.
Some excavations having been in progress at Chichester, in the Friary Park, a very large earthwork was lately opened. It is the mound on which the keep of the castle built by Earl Roger de Montgomery, was constructed, where the strong foundations under the turf are still to be seen. The castle of Chichester was afterwards granted, in 1233, to the fraternity of Grey Friars.
On the removal of the rubbish, several fragments of ancient grandeur were found, such as painted glass, Norman tiles, with beautiful devices on them, several abbey tokens in thin brass, and some skeletons of members of the fraternity; they all had their arms crossed over the body, and on one, who was probably a prior, was found a chalice and patten of pewter. On the top of the tumulus, a little under the surface, were found two cannon balls, weighing 30lb. each, which were fired against this place when the city was besieged by the arms of Crom. well.
PROCEEDINGS IN PARLIAMENT.
HOUSE OF LORDS, Aug. 24. The House went into Committee on the IRISH CHURCH Bill, when the preamble was postponed, and the first eight clauses were agreed to. The 9th clause, which admitted the revision of composition for tithe, was, after a good deal of debate, ordered to be struck out, on the motion of Lord Ellenborough.-Clauses 10 to 21 inclusive, referring to, and consequent upon, the provisions of the preceding clause, were put and negatived without a division. Clauses 22 to 39 inclusive were, after several verbal amendments, agreed to. On clause 40, providing that tithe compositions should be increased or diminished according to the price of corn during the last seven years, as compared with the prices stated in the certificate thereof, and the amount of the rent-charges calculated accordingly, and that a little variation, according to the price of corn, should take place every year in the amount of rent-charges, being put, Lord Ellenborough proposed to omit this clause, on the ground that it would operate in direct violation of the contracts entered into under the Tithe Acts respectively introduced by Mr. Goulburn and by Lord Stanley.-On a division, there appeared-for the clause 35; against it, 126. The clauses up to 60 inclusive were then agreed to without discussion. Upon clause 61 (the first of the Appropriation Clauses) being read, which enacts, that upon the next vacancy of the church of any parish in which there are not more than 50 members of the Established Church, such a church may be sequestered, and no appointment of a clergyman to such church shall be made until the Lord-Lieutenant in Council shall think fit so to direct; and that, during such sequestration, the rents, profits, and emoluments thereof from time to time accruing due, and all arrears which may have accrued, shall, without any writ or process whatsoever, be vested in and received by the ecclesiastical commissioners, who shall have all the remedies for the recovery thereof that had belonged to the incumbent ;-the Earl of Haddington moved, that clauses 61 to 88 inclusive should be struck out of the Bill, as he considered that by them a most deadly blow was aimed at the Protestant religion in Ireland. He called upon their Lordships to make their stand, and resist this first legislative attempt to divert the property of
the Church to other than Ecclesiastical and Protestant uses.-Lord Glenelg defended the portion of the Bill sought to be struck out, as calculated to rescue the Church of Ireland from the danger with which she was threatened.-The Bishop of London supported the amendment, observing that nothing but an overwhelming necessity, which could not be pleaded in this case, could induce their Lordships to accede to a measure so indefensible as the one then under consideration.-The Marquesses of Clanricarde and Conyngham supported the original Bill; and the Earl of Winchilsea spoke in favour of the amendment.-Lord Plunkett opposed the amendment; he considered that the person who took the property of the Church without doing any duty for it, was the party who really robbed the Church. Such was the clergyman who received four or five hundred a year without having a single Protestant parishioner. So far from this being an act of deprivation, it was an act of restitution to Protestant purposes.-The Earl of Roden supported the amendment. The Marquess of Lansdowne trusted that their Lordships would not attempt to separate the clauses under consideration from the Bill, since with those clauses would be lost that provision for the Church of Ireland which he was confident would be secured to it by the Bill. The Protestant Establishment in Ireland had proved a total failure; and, by passing the present Bill, their Lordships would gain a material step towards the tranquillization of Ireland. Under it, every beneficed member of the Church would enjoy a much larger income on the average than the English Clergy. -Lord Brougham observed, that the Clergy of Ireland at present owed the public 650,000l. which must be paid. Their Lordships were about to send back the Bill to the House of Commons, there to be flung out; and at the same moment in which they were consigning themselves to the admiration of the Country with hollow professions of friendship for those whom they were in point of fact abandoning, they were leaving those objects of their professed friendship to the tender mercies of a process out of the Exchequer in Ireland.-Visc. Melbourne trusted their Lordships would consider with proper feelings of regard and humanity the des. titute situation in which they were about to leave the Protestant Clergy of Ireland,
by their decision on the clauses now under eonsideration. The two parts of the Bill which it was proposed to separate, had been deliberately united by the Commons. He concluded by saying, that if their Lordships should entry this vote, and determine to leave these clauses out of the Hill, he would not be a party to proreeding further with it, but should decline to send it back to the House of Commons in a shape which would compel that once, both in form and principle, to reject it entirely. The Duke of WelBugton earnestly entrented their Lordalips, notwithstanding the menaces of the Fulde Viccount, notwithstanding the ex#porated statements of the Noble and Fauned Lond, to agree to the motion of Jan Noble Friend Lord Duncannon hoped that bis Noble Friend at the head of the Government would persist in the Intention of which he had given notice On a division there appeared for the mendment, Contents, 18; Non conTents, 41, majority against Ministers, 97. The clauses were then struck out, and the House resumed.
Aug. 27. Lord Melbourne moved that the Report of the MUNICIPAL CORPORA TIONS Bill be received, and in so doing strongly censured the alterations which had been introduced into it by their Lordships. He moved the erasure of that part of the 6th clause which went to continue the Alderman for life-a proposition which, on a division, was negatived by a majority of 160 against 89.
Aug. 28. The GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY Bill was read a third time and passed.
The MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS Bill was read a third time, and passed, after a division of 69 to 5.
Aug 5. On the motion of Lord Melbourne, the MindCIPAL CORPORATIONS Jull-vas committed. The Earl of Devon proposed, as an amendment on the 15th Chuter, which was assented to, "That in all corporate towne divided into more than four winds, any resident voter possessing property to the amount of 10007. in real or personal estate, should be placed on the list of persons eligible to serve as towncounsellors; and that in all corporate towns with less than four wards, or without wards, a person possessing 5007, of real or personal estate, should be placed on the list of persons eligible to serve as town-counsellors in such town." On the 59th clause, Lord Lyndhurst proposed as an amendment, that the town clerks should hold their offices as heretofore for life, or during their good behaviour, which was in practice the same thing.-On a division, the amendment was carried by a majority of 104 against 36. An amend ment proposed by Lord Lyndhurst, limiting the patronage of Church livings vested in corporations to such of the town council as shall be members of the Church of England, was carried, after a debate, without a division. The remainder of the clauses were then agreed to. Aug. 26. Lord Duncannon moved the second reading of the CONSTABULARY FORCE (Ireland) Bill.-The Earl of Roden moved that it be read a second time that day six months; and on a division the amendment was carried by a majority of 12; there being, for the motion, 51; against it, 39.
HOUSE OF COMMONS, Aug. 31. Lord John Russeli proposed the consideration of the Lords' amendments to the MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS Bill. He first alluded to the amendments regarding the governing bodies in Corporations, and declared that it was inconsistent with the principle of the Bill to retain any of the self-elective, or perpetual portions of those bodies. He looked at the alteration regarding town clerks in the same point of view. Irremoveable town clerks, he considered, must lead to discord in the Councils These alterations be deemed inadmissible. He proposed not the rejection but the amendment of the election to the Town Council-namely, that one third should be elected by the Council themselves, not for life, but for six years, and one half of the body to be afterwards chosen every three years. Instead of dividing into wards where there were 6,000 inhabitants, he should propose that there be wards where the number was 9,000. In conclusion, his Lordship hoped that they might come to a satisfactory adjustment regarding this Bill, such as should advance the interests of the country, and not compromise the dignity of that House; but if he could not accomplish the correction of these amendments, he should not regret the course he had taken. Improvements there must be, and he wished them to be effected in the spirit of peace; and, as far as he was concerned, to accomplish reforms and improvements.-Sir R. Peel dwelt at considerable length on the merits of the amendments that had been introduced by the House of Lords; but he complained of the amendment authorising elections for lives, as they would not only promote monopoly but create great ill-will. After much desultory discussion, in which Mr. Hume, Mr. Grote and Mr. O'Connell took part, Mr. O'Connell declaring that the collision between the Lords and Commons had already commenced, the House pro
ceeded to the consideration of the amendments and Lord John Russell's alterations of them.
The TITHE INSTALMENT SUSPENSION Bill was read a second time.
Sept. 1. The House proceeded with the Lords' amendments on the MUNICI PAL CORPORATIONS Bill. The first amendment embraced the question of qualification.-Sir R. Peel suggested that for Town Councillors, &c. there should be added the qualification on rating, namely, in large towns, where there are four or more wards, being rated at 307, in the smaller towns at 15. This addition to the Lords' qualification was adopted. The words "Common Council" wereintroduced for "Aldermen" in clause 52. On the clause regarding "Town Clerks," Lord John Russell moved as an amendment on the Lords' amendment, that those officers be appointed during pleasure," which was adopted.-Lord John Russell moved that the amendment respecting the appointment of Justices of Peace should be omitted, which, after a long discussion, was agreed to. Several clauses, with verbal amendments, were afterwards agreed to.
Sept. 2. The House resumed the consideration of the Lords' amendments to the MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS Bill. Lord John Russell, on the qualification clause, proposed an amendment to the effect, that in the event of the party not continuing qualified during the time of remaining in office, the penalties should be deemed to be incurred, which was agreed to. The Chancellor of the Exchequer, on the Lords' amendment, providing that no members of the Councils, except they were also members of the Church of England, should have voices in the disposal of the Church patronage of Corporations, brought forward his proposition that the Church property belonging to Corporations should be sold -Sir R. Peel concurred in the propriety of adding such amendment. It led to a good deal of desultory discussion, as to the mode of carrying it into effect, but the principle was generally adopted. The Lords' amendments having been gone through, a Committee was appointed to draw up reasons for the Conference with the Lords, setting forth why certain amendments of their Lordships were not adopted by the Commons.
HOUSE OF LORDS, Sept. 3.
On the motion of Viscount Melbourne, a Conference was granted with the Commons on the subject of the MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS Bill, which being ended, the amendments and reasons of dissent were ordered to be printed and taken into
consideration. The Lords appointed to manage the conference were the Lord President, the Duke of Richmond, the Earl of Shaftesbury, the Bishop of Bristol, Lord Auckland, Lord Melbourne, and Viscount Hatherton.
Sept. 4. On the motion of Viscount Melbourne, the alterations made by the Commons on their Lordships' amendments to the CORPORATION Bill were taken into consideration, when Lord Lyndhurst addressed the House at considerable length, and in his speech took a review of the alterations made by the Commons to the several amended clauses, to some of which he gave his assent, especially to that relative to Church patronage. To that which went to restrict the King's prerogative in the appointment of Magistrates he had strong objections, as also to that relating to the appointment of Aldermen; but he should not oppose the alteration. The Duke of Wellington was disposed to take the same view of the amendments of the Commons as his Noble Friend; especially that which related to the Aldermen. He still thought they should have remained for life. Atter some further conversation, all the Commons' amendments, to clause 99, were agreed to. Upon clause 99, Lord Abinger proposed, as an amendment, the introduction of certain words to vest the appointment of Magistrates in the Crown, instead of making them elective, as proposed by the Bill. Their Lordships, after some discussion, divided-for Lord Abinger's amendment, 144; against it 82. Lord Ellenborough proposed to restore the number 6000, as that at which towns should be divided into wards, instead of 9000, as fixed by the Commons. For Lord Ellenborough's amendment, 79; against it, 33.
HOUSE OF COMMONS, Sept. 7. A Conference having taken place with the Lords, Lord John Russell stated that their Lordships insisted on certain amendments that they had made in the MUNICI PAL CORPORATIONS Bill. He said that the question now arose whether they ought to endanger the Bill by rejecting the amendments. He proposed that the House do not press the opposition to the amendments on which the Lords now insisted. He considered that the Bill was the foundation of very good local Governments. At the same time he intimated he did not consider himself precluded from bringing forward a Bill next Session to effect what he then deemed to be imperfect. With respect to the appointment of borough Justices of the Peace, though the Lords left the nomination with the King independently of the