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The best evidence of this fact is shown in the wonderful growth of alfalfa, which crop, instead of diminishing, seems to increase in abundance year by year. The selection of farm lands is now better understood, as the light of experience has shown where the earlier settlers were at fault.

At first the rancher confined himself to the natural meadows of the well-watered valleys, and was slow to discover that in the adjoining sagebrush desert a more prolific soil might be found, which, by irrigation, would produce abundant crops of grain and vegetables. So the sagebrush of the desert is slowly and surely disappearing, to be superseded by large areas of grain, alfalfa, and vegetables.

As nearly all the available waters of the State have been appropriated, there are many places where reservoirs may be constructed and artesian wells may be driven that will afford water enough to irrigate hundreds of thousands of acres of these desert wastes, and the time is rapidly approaching for their irrigation under the many reclamation projects now being formed for that purpose.

THE CAREY ACT Section 4 of the Act of Congress, approved August 18, 1894, and the Acts supplemental thereto, authorized the Secretary of the Interior, with the approval of the President, to contract and agree to patent to certain States in which may be found desert lands, free of cost as to survey and price, not to exceed one million acres of such desert lands to each State, including Nevada, under certain conditions set forth in the Act and in the regulations of the Secretary of the Interior.

The Acts of the State Legislature approved March 8, 1897, and March 6, 1901, sought to give the Carey Act effect in this State, but it was not until under the Act of the Legislature approved March 23, 1909, that anything was accomplished in the efforts of the State on the part of the promoters of the Carey Act projects to secure the reservations contemplated in the said Acts of Congress. The said Act of the Legislature approved March 23, 1909, placed the Carey Act in practical operation in this State and made it possible for the selection of large tracts for reclamation and settlement under the several Acts of Congress.

By an Act of the State Legislature approved March 17, 1911, a department of the State Commission of Industry, Agriculture and Irrigation was established, known as the "Department of Carey Act Lands" and the selection, management and disposal of said lands are vested in said Commissson. The Surveyor-General is designated as "State Register of Lands under the Carey Act” and is in charge of said department, subject to the general supervision and control of the Commission.

The State Engineer is designated as the "selecting agent" for the State to determine and make affidavit as to the desert character of the land as required by the General Land Office.

This Act went into effect April 1, 1911.

The Act of March 23, 1909, did not provide filing fees nor a price for the lands, consequently large tracts of land were covered by applications for speculative purposes, so much so that the original grant of one million acres became exhausted when Congress by an Act approved March 4, 1911, granted Nevada an additional one million acres.

The State Act of March 17, 1911, providing for a filing fee of one cent per acre with other fees on all applications subsequently filed, which

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reduced the number of applications for reservations to a more legitimate basis, but did not entirely obliterate speculation.

Prior to April 1, 1911, the date when the present law went into effect, there had been filed in the State Land Office applications aggregating 107,003.88 acres for segregation under the Acts of Congress of August 18, 1894, and for 610,174.49 acres for temporary withdrawal under the amendatory Act of March 15, 1910, and reservations for 1, 102,817.57 acres under the State Act of March 23, 1909, making a total area of 2,120,025.94 acres filed on. Under the present law, applications aggregating 54,292.59 acres have been filed for segregation, and 487,606.67 acres for temporary withdrawal of one year-a total of 541,899.26 acres.

The total number of acres filed on in the State Land Office and the Department of Carey Act Lands, under the several Acts of Congress and the State Legislature, are as follows: Total number of acres for segregation.

161,296.47 Total number of acres for withdrawal

1,097,781.16 Total reservations in State Land Office.

1,402,817.57 Grand total.

2,661,925.20 These applications for the above enormous acreage have been reduced by cancelations, relinquishments, rejections and expirations of reservations, until there now remains on file in the General Land Office the following applications:

Segregations Approved List No. 9. Pacific Reclamation Company, Metropolis, Nevada; 9,766.02 acres, in portions of T. 38 and 39 N, R. 61 E, and T. 39 N, R. 62 E, Bishop Creek Valley, Elko County. Filed Oct. 21, 1909. Approved June 17, 1910.

List No. 10. Las Vegas Irrigated Fruit Land Company. J. A. Gilchrist, Kansas City, Mo.; 8,857.43 acres, in portions of T. 21 S, R. 61 and 62 E, and T. 22 S, R. 61 E, in Las Vegas Valley, Clark County. Filed Nov. 16, 1909. Approved Jan. 6, 1911.

List No. 14. Amargosa Land and Irrigation Company, Goldfield, Nevada; 17,705.14 acres, in portions of T. 17 S, R. 49 E, and T. 16 S, R. 50 E, in the Amargosa Valley, Nye County. Filed March 8, 1910. Approved July 6, 1910.

Segregations-Action Pending List No. 11. Las Vegas Farming Lands Company, Goldfield, Nevada; 7,523.48 acres, in portions of T. 22 S, R. 60 and 61 E, in Las Vegas Valley, Clark County. Filed Feb. 23, 1910.

List No. 12. Charles S. Wilkes, 233 South Third West Street, Salt Lake City, Utah; 2,404.94 acres, in portions of T. 21 and 22 S, R. 61 E, in Las Vegas Valley, Clark County. Filed Feb. 23, 1930.

List No. 13. Vegas Irrigated Lands Company, Las Vegas, Nevada; 6,800.00 acres, in portion of T. 22 S, R.61 E, Las Vegas Valley, Clark County. Filed Feb. 28, 1910.

Lists Nos. 15-16. Las Vegas Valley Land Company, Las Vegas, Nevada; 6,717.52 acres, located in portions of T. 21 S, R. 60 E, and T. 22 S, R. 61 E, in Las Vegas Valley, Clark County. Filed March 15, 1910.

List No. 18. Carey Act Reclamation Association. E. C. McClellan, manager, Elko, Nevada; 16,988.79 acres, in portions of T. 39 N, R. 68 E, T. 38, 39, 40, and 41 N, R. 69 E, and T. 39 and 40 N, R. 70 E, in Tecoma Valley, Elko County, Nevada. Filed July 1, 1911.

List No. 19. Ellison Ranching Company, 420 Judge Building, Salt Lake City, l'tah; 37,303.80 acres, in portions of T. 42 N, R. 36 E, and T. 42, 43, 44, 45, and 46 N, R. 37 E, in Quinn River Valley, Humboldt County. Filed Oct. 9, 1911.

Temporary Withdrawals Approved List No. 28. Carey Act Reclamation Association. E. C. McClellan, manager, Elko, Nevada; 23,327.92 acres, in portions of T. 38 and 39 N, R. 59 E, and T. 37, 38, 39 and 40 N, R. 60 E, in Mary's River Valley, Elko County. Filed May 12, 1911. Approved Nov. 20, 1912.

List No. 44. The Walker River Power Company, Sonoma,care of P. G. Conway, Sweetwater, Nevada; 54,533.65 acres, in portions of T. 10, 11, 12, and 13 N, R. 25 E, T. 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 N, R. 26 E. and T. 9 and 10 N, R. 27 E, in Mason Valley, in Lyon and Mineral Counties. Filed Jan. 30, 1912. Approved Aug. 1, 1912.

List No. 46. William B. Thompson. W. B. Thompson, care of Jonathan Club, Los Angeles, Cal.; 68,447.43 acres, in portions of T. 1 and 2 S, R. 34 E, T. 1, 2, and 3 S, R. 35 E, and T. 1 and 2 S, R. 36 E, in Fish Lake Valley, Esmeralda County, Nevada. Filed April 12, 1912. Approved Nov. 20, 1912.

Temporary Withdrawals-Action Pending List No. 31. Clover Valley Land and Stock Company. F.W.Noble, manager, North’s Ranch, Nevada; 4,932.29 acres, in portions of T. 37 N, R. 42 E, and T. 37 and 38 N, R. 43 E, in Kelley Creek Valley, Humboldt County, Nevada. Filed June 23, 1911.

List No. 32. South Land Irrigation Company, Goldfield, Nevada; 14,397.68 acres, in portion of T. 15 S, R. 56 E, in Indian Springs Valley, Clark County, Nevada. Filed July 3, 1911.

List No. 34. Oasis Land Company. F. W. Kerns, engineer, Postal Telegraph Building, San Francisco, Cal.; 11,105.00 acres, in a portion of T. 21 S, R. 53 E, in Pahrump Valley, Nye County, Nevada. Filed July 7, 1911.

List No. 35. G. B. Stannard. G. B. Stannard, Hawthorne, Nevada; 2,497.82 acres, in portions of T.5 N, R. 30 E, and T. 5 and 6 N, R. 31 E, in Whiskey Flat Valley, Mineral County, Nevada. Filed July 8, 1911. List No. 36. Dillon Roberts. Dillon Roberts, Wells, Nevada; 1,680.00 acres,

in a portion of T. 37 N, R. 62 E, in Clover Valley, Elko County, Nevada. Filed July 27, 1911.

List No. 37. W. Mont Ferry. W. Mont Ferry, Utah Savings and Trust Building, Salt Lake City, Utah; 25,084.55 acres, in portions of T. 14 S, R. 65 E, and T. 13 and 14 S, R. 66 É, in Muddy River Valley, Clark County, Nevada. Filed July 31, 1911.

List No. 38. Warm Springs Valley Development and Colonization Company, Room 6, Gazette Building, Reno, Nevada; 7,535.66 acres, in portions of T. 23 N, R. 20 E, T. 22 N, R. 21 E, and T. 21 and 22 N, R. 22 E, in Warm Springs Valley, Washoe County. Filed Sept. 26, 1911.

List No. 40. Western Land and Irrigation Syndicate, McGill, Nevada; 5,005.88 acres, in portions of T. 21 and 22 N, R. 63 E, and T. 21 and 22 N, R. 61 E, in Steptoe Valley, White Pine County, Nevada. Filed Oct. 3, 1911. List No. 41. C. A. Hascall, C. W. Kinney and G. B. Williams. C. A. Hascall

, Fallon, Nevada; 19,752.82 acres, in portions of T. 19 N, R. 37 E, and T. 19 and 20 N, R. 38 E, in Edwards Creek Valley, Churchill County, Nevada. Filed Oct. 4, 1911.

List No. 42. Oasis Land Company, F. W. Kerns, engineer, Postal Telegraph Building, San Francisco, Cal.; 1,303.88 acres, in a portion of T. 21 S, R. 54 E, in Pahrump Valley, Nye County, Nevada. Filed Dec. 6, 1911.

List No. 43. Nevada Irrigation Land and Development Company, 908 Broadway, Oakland, Cal.; 29,231.98 acres, in portions of T. 8 and 9 N, R. 65 E, and T. S and 9 N

R. 66 E, in Duck Valley, Lincoln County, Nevada. Filed Jan. 22, 1912. List No. 54. Land Development Company, Geo. L. Kaeding, manager, 108 S. Figuero Street, Los Angeles, Cal.; 7,152.73 acres, in portions of T. 34 N, R. 44 E, and T. 34 N, R. 45 E, in Humboldt River Valley, Humboldt and Lander Counties, Nevada. Filed March 21, 1912.

List No. 47. E. L. Fletcher. E. L. Fletcher, Tonopah, Nevada; 60,262.06 acres, in portions of T. 12 and 13 N, R. 55 E, T. 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13 N, R. 56 E, and T. 9, 10 and 11 N, R. 57 E, in Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada. Filed June 27, 1912.

List No. 48. M. C. Quin, A. Tetrault and W.F. Kane. W. F. Kane, Millers, Nevada; 5,118.62 acres, in portions of T. 4 and 5 N, R. 40 E, in Big Smoky Valley, Esmeralda and Nye Counties, Nevada. Filed Oct. 25, 1912.

A summary of the above applications shows their status to be as follows: Segregations approved by Secretary of Interior..

36,328.59 Segregations pending action..

77,738.53 Temporary withdrawals approved by Secretary of Interior. ... 146,309.00 Temporary withdrawals pending action..

195,044.97 Total

455,421.09 Contracts for the construction of irrigation works and reclamation have been entered into between the State and the Pacific Reclamation Company, and with the Las Vegas Irrigated Fruit Lands Company on its approved segregations.

The Amargosa Land and Irrigation Company has not as yet entered into a contract with the State for the construction of irrigation works, but may be expected to at no distant date, as capital has become interested in the project with a view to the development of the same.

The results so far attained under the operations of this grant in this State to the present time cannot be calculated.

The problem which is being solved is the conservation of the flood waters which run to waste from the melting snows in the mountains, the sinking of artesian wells and the construction of pumping plants.

Active operations are being diligently prosecuted in many of the fertile valleys of the State, which have resulted in the development of many fine flowing wells. Underground streams and lakes have been found at varying depths, from eighty to five hundred feet, in many valleys.

The beneficial effects of the Carey Act are just beginning to be felt. Applications for the final segregation on all lands now withdrawn may be expected during the next two years, when active development work will be commenced in preparing the lands for settlers.

Former reports issued from this office have devoted considerable space to the subject of irrigation and reclamation of the arid lands of this State by government and private enterprise. Further reference to this subject will not be made in this report, but those who are seeking information regarding the same are referred to the reports of the Commissioner of Industry, Agriculture and Irrigation and the State Engineer, who are dealing inexhaustibly on this paramount industry of the State. GRANTS OF LAND BY THE UNITED STATES TO NEVADA

Their History and Present Status There have been granted by the United States to the State of Nevada, at different times, lands to the amount of 2,732,844.70 acres in different grants. All these grants to the State have been exhausted by selections, but, as there are several thousand acres of selections, to be adjusted on account of suspended, duplicate and erroneous approvals, all the grants have not as yet been closed up because many of the selections will be canceled for various causes, hence it is impossible at the present time to give their exact status.

Sixteenth and Thirty-sixth Section Grant The Act of Congress approved March 21, 1861, appropriated sections numbered sixteen (16) and thirty-six (36) in each township in the State

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of Nevada, amounting to about 3,992,000 acres to school purposes. Of this quantity the state authorities had sold prior to June 16, 1880, 61,967.08 acres, or about 1%, per cent of the whole amount in sixteen years.

By relinquishing to the United States all sixteenth and thirty-sixth sections remaining unsold on the 16th of June, 1880, the State of Nevada on that date secured a grant of 2,000,000 acres of land to be selected from any unappropriated nonmineral land in this State, and to be disposed of under such laws, rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the Legislature of the State of Nevada. (See "The 2,000,000-Acres Grant")

The Indemnity or "Lieu” Grant The Act of Congress approved February 26, 1859, permits States to select lands as indemnity for sixteenth and thirty-sixth sectious lost"in place" to the State. "Where settlements with a view to preemption have been made before the survey of the lands in the field, which are found to have been made on sections sixteen and thirty-six, those sections shall be subject to the preemption claim of such settler, and if they or either of them have been or shall be reserved for colleges or schools in the State or Territory in which the lands lie, other lands of like quantity are appropriated in lieu of such as may be patented by preemptors, and other lands are also appropriated to compensate deficiences for school purposes, where sections sixteen or thirty-six are fractional in quantity, or where one or both are wanting by reason of the township being fractional, or from any natural cause whatever.

Under this law the State of Nevada has selected and reserved, indemnity for losses, 9,228.62 acres of land.

Internal Improvement Grant-500,000 Acres Acts of Congress approved September 4, 1841, and March 21, 1861, granted to the State of Nevada 500,000 acres of land for purposes of internal improvement.

An Act of Congress approved July 4, 1866, provides: "That the appropriation by the Constitution of the State of Nevada, to educational purposes, of the 500,000 acres of land granted to said State by the law of September 4, 1811, for purposes of internal improvement, is hereby approved and confirmed.

Under the terms of this grant the State has selected all the lands donated therein with the exception of 0.30 of an acre.

Agricultural College Grant-90,000 Acres By the Act of Congress approved July 2, 1862, 30,000 acres of land for each Senator and Representative in Congress of each State is donated for the establishment of an agricultural college therein.

An Act of Congress approved March 16, 1873, provides: "That the grant made to the State of Nevada, under section 3 of the Act of July 4, 1866, entitled 'An Act concerning certain lands granted to the State of Nevada,' shall not cease by reason of the failure of the said State to provide at least one college, as required by the several Acts of Congress as a condition on said grant, but the same shall continue in full force; provided, that all the conditions of the law be complied with prior to the 10th of May, 18775

A joint resolution, relative to continuing in force a grant of 90,000

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