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swer all the purposes of manure; and when we find pulverisation in fallow answer this purpose, and find too' a particular soil when well pulverised even without fallow produce a succession of the same crops without manure, we ought to pause before we smile at such a man as Tull, until we know what kind of land he cultivated and the means of pulverisation that he employed. With the exception of a few small portions of earths and alkaline salts, the grand constituents of vegetable matter are to be found in the atmosphere ; and from this, therefore, through the medium of the roots and leaves, the principal nourishment of plants must be derived. We find that seeds often will not germinate if the earth is kept caked above them, and the air thus excluded ; and that plants florish by a frequent stirring of the earth about their roots, admitting the atmosphere to mix with it. An able agricultural friend who farmed considerably in Berkshire informed me too, that for a period of four years he sowed wheat in alternate drills with turnips on a field, feeding the latter off with sheep on the removal of the wheat crop; and yet without applying a particle of extra manure, the wheat crops in this field rose from 15 bushels in the first year to 40 in the last, when he was forced at this period to decline the farther trial of the experiment from the too great luxuriance of the wheat. Here then, at the end of the fourth year, was a produce of about 2500 lbs of wheat and 4000 lbs of straw (besides the many pounds of fatted mutton) extracted from a single acre of land, all, or at least nearly all, derived from the atmosphere : for the land though unbenefited by extra manures was still rising in fertility, the only manure applied being that from the sheep fed on the turnips; and it was therefore only a portion of the turnip that was thus returned to the soil in shape of manure, because the sheep had a portion also of the turnip incorporated into their bodies in shape of fat and mutton. Seeing, therefore, that plants draw their principal sustenance from the atmosphere through the medium of the roots and leaves, the soil answering simply as a matrix for the roots to ramify through, we have impressed on us the propriety of reducing all our sterile and yet untamed lands into a fit matrix for them to grow in when such can be accomplished, and in this way increase the wealth and strength of the empire by making the land capable of sustaining a more dense population. In reference to the importation of corn it must be observed that a man may treat himself with several extra articles of dress annually, and improve his health and appearance thereby, but that he cannot indulge in an extra quantity of food without both suffering therefrom ; consequently it is obvious that for every bushel of foreign wheat consumed in England, a bushel of English wheat must be withdrawn from the market as long as England grows enough for her own supply. It is consequently highly impolitic to encourage the introduce tion of foreign wheat for home consumption, because English agricultural laborers will be thrown out of bread thereby; and it must matter little to the manufacturer therefore, in the most selfish point of view, whether he barters his wares for English or foreign wheat, as long as he can do so alike advantageously with both. It is the point of relative cheapness then of the two species of grain that requires to be considered, besides the danger of exclud. ing too rigidly foreign grain from the English market, both as introduced with a view of moderating the prices of English grain, and guarding against a season of starvation. If it is impolitic to encourage the home consumption of foreign grain on account of withdrawing capital and labor from English agriculture, it is still more impolitic to make us dependant on a foreign country for the very staff of life, degrading us as it must do into a state of slavish dependence on her. But if it is impolitic that a single bushel of foreign grain should be consumed in England, it is highly politic that foreign grain should be admitted at such a duty as afforded a proper protection to the English grower, while keeping him from extravagantly raising the price of food. As, however, we have to supply foreign countries to a large extent with our manufactures, if another country can be found capable of doing the like cheaper than us, that country will naturally have the preference of supply; and this will eventually be with the one where food can be supplied cheapest too: for skill in workmanship being an acquired gift, there will in course of time be an equality in this respect among all nations. The country then that has the fewest taxes to pay will, as a matter of course, be ultimately the one destined to carry the palm in foreign markets; and unless the taxes in England can therefore be greatly and permanently reduced, she must consent to the forfeiture in a considerable measure of her foreign commerce, which throwing manufacturers out of employment, will by the decrease of demand for food, &c. re-act on the corn. growers too, and all will be brought thus to a common state of suffering. Our immense capital, skill, industry, and unrivalled machinery for the abridgment of manual labor, may for a consi. derable time save us from this vortex; but into it at last we must be sucked, if the debt and expenses of the country remain at their present enormous amount. The principles of the Corn-bill lately introduced appear to be about the best adapted to the present state of things that could well have been thought of, but the duties are evidently too high to be continued for a length of time with safety to our foreign commerce. The landlords have been cunning enough to enlist, the farmers in their train in the general opposi

tion to the cheaper introduction of grain, by persuading them it was their cause they were advocating, while perfectly aware all the while it was only their own. It was sufficiently easy for them to have allayed the fears of the farmers by proposing a clause rendering it compulsory for rents to be liquidated for the three succeeding years by the average value of wheat, and new leases from thence to be granted, throwing thus that loss (if any) immediately on their own shoulders, which ultimately must have rested there, but present need overpowered the feelings of humanity, patriotism, or prudential views to futurity that might have been rising in their bosoms, and almost one universal yell of disapprobation from them accompanied the bill throughout its whole progress. An effect is apparently wished to be produced in favor of the landlords, by a parliamentary motion to show the amount of imposts which the land pays, but a moment's consideration must evince the utter groundlessness of an appeal on that head; for as the present race of landlords either inherited or purchased their lands burdened with these very imposts, they have as much right to complain of the like, as a man would have in purchasing land, or having it bequeathed to him burdened with certain annuities. It is quite akin to the same ridiculous outcry about the hardship of farmers paying tithes; whereas the farmers pay only the value in tithes now to the parson which they would have added to the tent in the event of the tithes being done away with, while the landholder has still as little cause to complain, seeing the land was burdened with the tithes when he heired or purchased it. Neither have the landholders any right to demur at the low rate of interest arising from the investment of money in land when it was not compulsory on them so to invest it; while the low profit from this source is only in unison with the low profits from the funds and other modes of investing money from whence there is a tolerably certain fixed return without any exertion required on the part of the holder. But profit is not the only object aimed at in the investment of money in land, a greater degree of consequence in the country, and amusement in the improving of the purchase, being in about the same degree looked to as the other ; and an individual may with as much reason, therefore, complain of his equipages, library, &c., making him no profitable return, as he may of land making him but an indifferent one. As demonstrated before then, that the foreign commerce of England, depending on the profitable exchange of her manufactures in foreign markets, must ultimately fall, unless the price of food in England admits of her supplying these manufactures as cheaply as other rival countries, and by this means eventually involving both manufacturers and corn-growers to a certain extent in one common wortex of rúiny it becomes a question how this can be warded Toff until the energies of the country have time to recruit, and the eyes of the nation and the government are fairly opened to the only remedy that can fully obviate this fatal crisis ; namely, the progressive extinction of the National Debt. The remedies to be looked forward to as most likely to conduce to these results are

i Firstly; The composition of tithes, which although just in principle are most unwise in the mode of application, because the amount demanded resting on no fixed data, beconies a constant source of vesatious dispute between the farmer and the parson, engendering hatred instead of love between the pastor and the flock, besides impeding the improvement of the present sterile wastes of the country; for even after the recovery of these from a state of nature, years often pass away before there is a penny of profitable return, while the moment profits begin to come in, or often before this, the titheproctor comes with his demand of a tenth of the actual produce, a tenth of the actual profits not contenting him, which must be admitted to be very modest indeed. If ten per cent, nay even if five per cent could be insured on money invested in the improve. ment of land, hundreds of thousands would be quickly so invested; but if the tithing-man steps in, and takes from you the whole of the profits of your invested capital, who would be fool enough to expend money thus fruitlessly: for if an individual could realise profits on his money expended to the amount, or even to half the amount of the titheman's demand, he would consider himself well paid, and a great portion of our yet waste lands will probably not do more than this. A composition of tithes, therefore, should be forthwith had recourse to, or the kind of equivalent to it, that of constituting all land tithe-free that is recovered hereafter by cultivation from a state of nature. This last, however, would again injure the tithe-owner by inducing pro. prietors to cultivate their waste lands, and lay down their present cultivated tracts in pasture, so that the compounding of the tithes for a fixed money payment is both the wisest and most just me thod of proceeding. . Secondly; Opening up free communications by means of canals and railroads of every portion of the country with the other, particularly of those parts where food is cheap with those where it is dear, by these means equalising the prices of British corn over the empire, affording a readier and more abundant supply thereof, and improving to a greater extent the remote places these communications pass through ; for canals and roads, like streams of fertilising irrigation, make themselves.com spicuous wherever they meander by the green and florishing belt of 'verdure which betrays the secret of their courses. But

canals and roads form also one of the strongest bonds of union between the various portions of a country, by connecting them more intimately and strongly together; and it is by means of these that the once tottering fabric of the American Union is now so indissolubly united, that the rudest shocks of foreign aggression or domestic contention will fail, to burst asunder. By means of the canal from the waters of New York to Lake Érie, and thence to the Ohio, and again by the canal connecting the Potomac with the waters of the Missisippi, the interests of the Eastern and Western states are so intimately amalgamated, as bid defiance to human effort to disjoint; while farther, the canals now in em. bryo to connect the Eastern states with each other, will produce the same beneficial effect there-thus both dispensing prosperity, and linking at the same time the whole in bonds of the most enduring union together. By cutting a canal through the centre of Ireland between Dublin and Galway bays, and another through the centre of England between the Solway Firth and Northumberland coast (if practicable), for vessels of 350 tons, a free communication would thus be formed between the opposite coasts of England and Ireland, to connect their interests, together by admitting of them exchanging freely their respective productions ; while vessels from the eastern and western coasts of England, and a portion of the eastern coast of Ireland, with foreign vessels also bound to America, would be enabled to pass westerly through these canals, and save much time thereby in the voyage ; while, again, vessels from all parts of Ireland and the western parts of England would pass easterly through when bound to the English ports in that direction, or to ports on the continent. A capal for vessels of 150 tons from Donegal bay, again, on the west coast of Ireland to Dundalk bay on the east coast, would still farther enable the produce of the fertile western provinces of Ireland (now a complete drug there) to be supplied to the manu. facturing establishments of England, while a canal for the same class of yessels (or else a railway on a grand scale) stretching from the river Dee near Chester to London with a branch towards Hull, and another of the same dimensions between Bristol and London, would complete the link of communication to the fullest extent that could be wished. A canal through Cornwall also to cut off the Land's End would serve an excellent purpose ; while the immense obvious advantages attending one between London and Portsmouth are such, that it is truly astonishing it should have been so long overlooked. This canal would not only save much time and distance from the complex nature of the space cut off, requiring a variety of winds to circumnavigate it, but the route is also a dangerous one, and more particularly so during war,

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