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7 Ίνα δικαιωδέντες τη

7 That, being justified by his grace, we should

εκεινου χαριτι, κληρονομοι be made heirs according γενωμενα κατ' ελπιδα ζωης

to the hope of eternal life.

8 This is a faithful say

ing, and these things I will that thou affirm constantly, that they which have be

lieved in God might be

careful to maintain good works: these things are good and profitable unto

men.

αιώνιου.

8 Πιςος ὁ λόγος και περι τουτων βουλομαι σε διαβεβαιουσθαι, ἵνα φροντιζωσι καλων εργων προιςασθαι οἱ πεπιςευκότες τῷ Θεῷ· ταῦτα εξι τα καλα και ωφελιμα τοις ανθρωποις.

̇

on some occasions was shed down on the believing Jews and Gentiles from heaven, and on others, was imparted to them by the imposition of the apostle's hands, is with great propriety called the renewing of the Holy Ghost, because by that gift, their belief of the divine original of the gospel was greatly strengthened; so that the doctrines of the gospel, thus confirmed, must have had a powerful influence in producing such a change in their dispositions, as made them new creatures.

Ver. 6.—1. Which he poured out on us. Since in the preceding verse, the Holy Ghost, signifies the gift of the Holy Ghost, I have retained the common translation of the relative iu, namely, which, to shew, that what is said to have been poured out, was the gift, not the person, of the Holy Ghost.When the phrase, poured out, is used in scripture, to signify the communis cation of the spiritual gifts, it denotes that these gifts were imparted, not by the imposition of the hands of men, but immediately from heaven, accompanied with some visible sign or token; of which we have instances, Acts ii. 2, 3, 4. and x. 44.--Seeing the apostle speaks of himself here as one of those on whom the Holy Ghost was poured out, we are warranted to be, lieve that he received the gift of the Holy Ghost by an immediate illapse from heaven, and not by the imposition of the hands of Ananias; and that Ananias's words to Saul, Acts ix. 17. The Lord Jesus bath sent me that thou mightest receive thy sight, and be filled with the Holy Ghost, though preceded by putting his hands on the apostle, do not mean that Ananias was sent to communicate the Holy Ghost to him by the imposition of his hands: For, in that case Paul could not have said, 2 Cor. xi. 5. I am in nothing behind the very greatest of the apostles. But, his meaning is, that he was sent to restore Saul's sight, and to baptize him, that after his baptism he might be filled with the gifts of the Holy Ghost immediately from heaven, accompanied with the usual sensible sign, which Saul, having recovered his sight, was to see. Agreeably to this account of the matter, in Christ's commis, sion to Ananias, Acts ix. 12. no mention is made of his communicating the Holy Ghost to Saul, but only of his putting his hands on him that he might

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7 That being justified 1 by his grace we might be made heirs according to the hope of eternal life. (Tit. i. 2.)

8 ('0 hayos, 71. 60. 2.) This doctrine is true; (xa, 211.) yet concerning these HEIRS, I command, thee strongly to affirm, that they who have believed in God should take care to promote2 good works. These are (ra xxxα, 1 Tim. iii. 1. note 3.) the things honourable and profitable to men.

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7 That being delivered by the mere favour of God, from the wickedness and misery of our former state, we might be made children and heirs, agreeably to the hope of eternal life given us by the promise of God.

8 This doctrine, that men are justified and made heirs merely by God's grace, is true: Yet concerning these heirs I command thee strongly to affirm, That they who have believed in God should take care to promote good works. These are the things honourable and profitable to men: They are good for others, as making them happy; and most profitable to one's self, as productive of happiness both here and hereafter.

receive his sight: neither is any thing else mentioned by the apostle himself, Acts xxii. 13. 16.

Ver. 7.-1. Being justified. Concerning the forensic sense of the terms justify and justification. See Rom. ii. 13. note 2. The word justify, signifies likewise to deliver one from evil, Rom. iv. 25. note 2.

2. By his grace. As the pronoun used in this passage is not the relative aurs, but the demonstrative exeivo, which commonly denotes the remote antecedent, it is probable that the grace, not of Christ, who is last mentioned, but of God, who is mentioned ver. 4. is meant. By ascribing men's justification to the grace of God, the apostle did not mean to insinuate that good works are not necessary to justification. For he tells us, chap. ii. 12. that the grace of God which bringeth salvation teacheth us to live soberly, righteously, and godly in this present world.

Ver. 8.-1. That they who have believed in God, ‘Oi reiseunores. They who have believed, and who continue to believe; according to the known use of the preterite tenses, Ess. iv. 10.

2. Take care to promote good works. Пgoisaodai nanov egywv, literally to preside over good works; that is, to practise them ourselves, and by our example and exhortation to encourage others to practise them, and to argue in their defence, against those who speak of them slightingly as not necessary to salvation.-In this, as in other places of scripture, good works signify virtuous actions in general, but especially charitable and beneficent ac tions. Thus, Matt. v. 16. Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works.-John x. 33. For a good work we stone thee not.-1 Tim. v. 10. Borne witness to for good works; That she hath brought up children; That she hath lodged strangers; That she hath washed the saint's feet; That she bath relieved the afflicted; That she hath diligently followed every good

9 But avoid foolish

questions, and gencalogies, and contentions, and strivings about the law; for they are unprofitable and vain.

9 Μωρας δε ζητήσεις, και γενεαλογιας, και ερεις, και μαχας νομικας, περιιςασο' εισι γαρ ανωφελεις, και μα

ταιοι.

10 A man that is an he

rctic, after the first and

second

ject;

10 Αἱρετικόν ανθρωπον, μετα μιαν και δευτεραν νουadmonition, re- δεσιαν, παραιτου.

work.—1 Tim. vi. 18. That they be rich in good works, ready to distribute, &c.— What a blessing, as Benson observes, would the ministers of the gospel be to the world, if all of them were careful strongly and often to urge their people to good works, and were themselves examples of such works!-We have the phrase, aanwv fggwv @goisao Jai, repcated ver. 14. But there the connection leads us to adopt the translation mentioned in the margin of our Bible; to practise honest trades.

Ver. 9.—1. And genealogies. The genealogies condemned in this and other passages of scripture, in the opinion of Bengelius, are the absurd genealogies of the Eons, taught by the Gnostics. See Col. ii. 9. note. But as the genealogies of the Æons were not invented till long after this epistle was written, I prefer the account given of them in the commentary; the rather that the apostle hath joined genealogies, with strifes and fightings about the law. See also 1 Tim. i. 4.

2. Fightings about the law. Maxas vopnas, are those disputes about the efficacy and necessity of obedience to the law in order to salvation, which the Judaizing teachers in Crete maintained with great violence, against all who asserted that obedience to the gospel alone was sufficient to salvation.

Ver. 10.-1. An heretical man. See 2 Pet. ii. 1. note 2. where it is shewed, that an heretic is one who, from worldly motives, teaches doctrines which he knows to be false; as the Judaizers did, who made the rituals enjoined by the law, more necessary to salvation than a holy life. He also is a heretic who from the same motives makes a party in the church, in opposition to those who maintain the truth. In this latter sense, some understand ‘ArgeTincv avparov here; and think the phrase should be translated, A man who maketh a sect: And that is, properly is a sect, either in philosophy or religion.—In the first age, when the doctrines of the gospel were delivered by the apostles in person, under the guidance of inspiration, and when the true meaning of these doctrines was not liable to any doubt, because it was ascertained by the apostles themselves, if any teacher taught differently from them, and made a party in the church in opposition to them, he must have done these things contrary to his conscience, either from the love of money, or the lust of power, or from an immoderate propensity to sensual pleasures. Hence, Gal. v. 20. Heresy is reckoned among the works of the flesh.-Doddridge, by beresy, understands the denying the fundamental doctrines of the gospel, and the maintaining of that denial with obstinacy, to

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9 But foolish questions and genealogies and strifes and fightings about the law 2 resist; for they are unprofitable and false. (See 1 Tim. vi. 4. 2 Tim. ii. 14. 16. 23.)

10 An heretical man1 after a first and second admonition 2 reject. 3

9 But the frivolous questions proposed by the Judaizers, and the ge nealogies by which they pretend to prove individuals rightly descended from Abraham, and their strifes and fightings about the law, resist; for they are unprofitable and destitute of -foundation.

10 An heretical teacher, who, after a first and second admonition, continues in his evil courses, cast out of the church, and have no farther communication with him, because he is irreclaimable.

the breaking of the peace of the church. But, as the apostle saith, the heretic sinneth being self condemned, I rather think beresy, is such an error in opinion as results from pravity in the will. For, if a person after prayer and sincere examination, embraces or rejects opinions in religion, according as they appear to him to be true or false, without being biassed by vicious inclinations, can he be blamed, even although he should maintain these opinions with firmness, and suffer for them?

2. After a first and second admonition. Some copies want the words, and second. But the best and greatest number of MSS. together with the Syriac and Vulgate versions, have these words. See Mill in loc. Nov Deσia, denotes an admonition which puts a right mind into the person admonished. Titus was not to reject an heretic, till he had tried by a first and second admonition to bring him to repentance, and on trial found him incorrigible.

3. Reject. Пaparòs, Cast him out of the church. In this manner, the apostle himself treated Hymeneus and Alexander, 1 Tim. i. 20. By this apostolical Canon, an obstinate heretic, after a first and second admonition without effect, is to be cast out of the church, to prevent the faithful from being led astray by his false doctrines and vicious example.-This method of treating heretics is worthy of attention. For, as Benson observes, the Spirit of God doth not order heretics to be banished and their goods confiscated, far less doth he order them to be imprisoned, tortured, and burnt, if they will not retract their errors. He doth not even give allowance to rail at, or speak evil of them. Such methods of treating heretics, never proceeded from the college of the apostles, but from the synagogue of Satan. To disown a wicked man as a brother Christian, and to avoid all familiar society with him, and to cast him out of the church by a public sentence of excommunication, is what the church, and every society hath a right to do, agreeably to our Lord's rule, Matth. xviii. 15. 17. and is all that should be done in such a case. See 2 Thess. iii. 14. note 2.

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11 ́ Ειδως ότι εξεςραπται τοιουτος, και ἁμαρτανει, ων αυτοκατακριτος.

11 Knowing that he that is such is subverted, ὁ and sinneth, being con

demned of himself.

12 When I shall send

12 Οταν πεμψω Αρτεμαν

chicus, be diligent to come unto me to Nicopolis; for I have determined there to winter.

Artemas unto thee, or Ty- προς σε η Τυχικον, σπουδασον ελθειν προς με εις Νικοπολιν· εκει γαρ κεκρικα παραχειμασαι.

13 Bring Zenas the lawyer and Apollos on their journey diligently,

that nothing be wanting unto them.

15 Ζηναν τον νομικον και Απολλω σπουδαιως προπεμψον, ἵνα μηδεν αυτοις λεις

πῃ.

14 Μανθανετωσαν δε και εργων προιςασθαι εις τας εναγκαιας χρειας, ἵνα μη ωσιν ακαρ

ποι.

14 And let ours also

learn to maintain good ὁι ἡμετέροι καλων

works for necessary uses, that they be not unfruit

ful.

Ver. 11.-I. Knowing that such a person is perverted. Estius says, the word para is commonly applied to buildings, and signifies to be overturned from the foundation. According to others, it signifies to be turned out of the way. Wherefore, when it is said of an heretic that he is perverted, the meaning is, that he is so utterly depraved, that there is no hope of his amendment.

2. Being self condemned. Doddridge, who thinks heresy consists in denying the fundamental doctrines of the gospel, interprets self condemned, of the heretic's furnishing by his actions matter of condemnation against himself; just as some are said to condemn others, Matt. xii. 41, 42. Heb. xi. 7. who afford matter for condemning them.Grotius, Barlow, Hammond, Hallet, Benson, &c. by the heretic's condemning himself, understand his cutting himself off from the church by separation or otherwise; a punishment which the church inflicts on its faulty, or unsound members.—I think this mark of an heretic that he is self-condemned, implieth that an heretic is one who teacheth erroneous doctrines knowing them to be erroneous. For as Whitby justly observes, no man who acts according to his judgment, how erroneous soever it may be, is self-condemned by that action.

Ver. 12.-1. When I shall send Artemas to thee, or Tychicus. Tychicus is often mentioned in St. Paul's epistles. But of Artemas we know nothing: only from this passage it appears, that he was a faithful and able teacher, and fit to supply Titus's place in Crete.

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