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14 Who gave himself 14 Who, during his first appearing for us, that he might re- on earth, gave himself to death for us, deem (1 Tim. ii. 6. note that he might redeem us from the 1.) us from all iniquity, power as well as from the punishand purify to himself a ment of all iniquity, and purify to himpeculiar people, zealous self a peculiar people, not by circumof good works.
cision and other ceremonial observances, but by being zealous of good
works. 15 These things 1 incul- 15 These things inculcate as necescate and exhort, and con- sary to be believed, and exhort all fute, (see 2 Tim. iv. 2.) who profess the gospel to live suitawith all authority. Let no bly to them. And such as teach otherone despise thee. 3
wise confute with all the authority which is due to truth, and to thee as a teacher commissioned by Christ. Lei no one have reason to despise thee.
people, zealous, not of rites and ceremonies, but of good works. This being the great end of Christ's death, how dare any person pretending to be one of Christ's people, either to speak or to think lightly of good works, as not necessary to salvation.
Ver. 15.-1. These things ; namely, concerning the universality of the gospel, and the excellent purpose for which it was given ; the coming of Christ to judgment, the end for which he died during his first appearing on earth; and concerning the character of the people of Christ, as persons zealous of good works.
2. Inculcate and exhort. The Cretians being a sensual and obdurate people, and the Judaizing teachers having denied the necessity of good works, the apostle commanded Titus, both to affirm the necessity, and to enjoin the practice of them, in the boldest and plainest manner.
3. Let no one despise thee. The apostle does not say, as to Timothy, despise thy youth, 1 Tim. iv 12. from which it may be inferred that Titus was an older man than Timothy.-- In the compound word roepsopoverta, the preposition wigs, like xeta, alters the meaning of the word with which it is compounded.
View and Illustration of the Matters contained in this Chapter.
Because the Judaizers affirmed, that no obedience was due from the worshippers of the true God to magistrates who were idolaters, and because by that doctrine, they made not only the Jewish, but the Gentile believers, bad subjects, and exposed them to be punished as evil doers, (See Rom. xiii. Illustr.) the apostle' commanded Titus to inculcate frequently on the Cretians, to obey the magistrates under whose protection they lived, although they were idolaters, ver. 1.-and not to speak evil of any one, on account of his nation, or religion, ver. 2.-Because, said the apostle, even we of the Jewish nation, who now believe the gospel, were formerly in behaviour as bad as the heathens; being foolish, disobedient, &c. ver. 3.-and merely through the mercy of God, and not by our own endeavours, have been delivered from our former sinful state, by the bath of regenera
OLD TRANSLATION. .
GREEK TEXT. CHAP. III. 1 Put them 1 Υπομιμνησκε αυτους in mind to be subject to αρχαις και εξουσιαις υποτασprincipalities and powers, σεσθαι, σειθαρχειν,
ώρος to obey magistrates, to be
ταν εργον αγαθον ετοιμους ready to every good work.
ειναι 2 To speak evil of no 2 Μηδενα βλασφημειν, man, to be no brawlers, αμαχους ειναι, επιεικείς, σαbut gentle, shewing all
σαν ενδεικνυμενους σραοτητα meekness unto all men.
προς παντας ανθρωπους. 3 For we ourselves also
3 Hμεν γαρ ποτε και ηwere sometimes foolish,
μεις ανοήτοι, απειθεις, πλαdisobedient, , deceived,
νωμένοι, δουλευοντες επιθυserving diverse lusts and pleasures, living in malice μιας και ηδοναις ποικιλαις,
Ver. 1.-1. Το obey magistrates. The word αειθαρχειν literally signifes to obey those who rule. The disposition of the Jews towards heathen rulers, See described Rom. xiii. View. 1 Τim. ii. 2.
Ver. 2.-1. To speak evil of no man. The word βλασφημειν, besides evil speaking, denotes all those vices of the tongue which proceed either from
tion and renewing of the Holy Ghost, ver. 4, 5, 6.-That being rescued from ignorance and wickedness by grace, we might become heirs of eternal life, ver. 7.—Next the apostle ordered Titus strongly to affirm, that every one who hath believed on God is bound to practise good works; and that such works are really profitable to men, by rendering them acceptable to God, ver. 8.-Also he commanded him in his discourses, to avoid the foolish questions and genealogies which the false teachers insisted on, ver. 9.--and to admonish heretical teachers, both concerning their doctrine and their practice: And after a first and second admonition, if they did not amend, to cast them out of the church, ver. 11.-Withal because the Cretians were disposed to be idle, Titus was to enjoin them to follow some honest occupation, whereby they might both maintain themselves, and do works of charity to the afflicted, ver. 14.-The apostle concluded his epistle with salutations: and with a benediction to all in Crete who acknowledged his apostolical authority, ver. 13.
COMMENTARY. CHAP. III. 1 Put CHAP. III. 1 Put the Cretians them in mind to be sub- in mind of what I have taught them; ject to governments and namely, to be subject to the governpowers, to obeyl magis- ments and powers established in trates, to be ready to every Crete ; to obey magistrates though good work;
they be heathens; to be ready to perform every good work enjoined
by the laws of their country; 2 To speak evil' of no 2 To speak evil of no one on acone ; to be no fighters, count of his nation or religion, to BUT equitable, shewing all be no fighters, but of an equitable meekness to all men. disposition, (Philip. iv. 5. note.)
and to shew the greatest meekness to
all men, even to enemies. 3 For even we our- 3 This behaviour towards those selves were formerly 1 fool. who profess - false religions beish, disobedient, erring, cometh us Jews: For even we ourslavishly serving diverse selves were formerly foolish in our (Ewi Jura) inordinate de- notions of religion, and in observing
hatred or from contempt of others, and which tend to hurt their reputation ; such as railing, reviling, mocking speeches; whisperings, &c.
Ver. 3.-1. For even we ourselves were formerly foolish, &c., Because the pouring out of the Holy Ghost, on those of whom the apostle speaks, is men
and envy, hateful and ha- εν κακια και φθoνω διαγονting one another.
τες, συγητοι, μισόυντες αλ
ληλους. 4 But after that the
4 Οτε δε η χρηςοτης και kindness and love of God η φιλανθρωπια επεφανη του our Saviour toward man
σωτηρος ημων Θεου, appeared, , 5 Not by works of righ
Ουκ εξ εργων των εν teousness which we have δικαιοσυνη ων εποιησαμεν ηdone, but according to his
μεις, αλλα κατα τον αυτου mercy he saved us, by the
ελεον εσωσεν ημας, δια λουwashing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy τρου παλιγγενεσιας, και αναGhost;
καινωσεως πνευματος αγιου 6 Which he shed on us
Ου εξεχεεν εφ' ημας abundantly through Jesus πλουσιως, δια Ιησου Χριςου Christ our Saviour; του σωτηρος ημων
tioned, ver. 6. Jerome, Estius, the author of Misc. Sacra, and Benson, are of opinion that the character of the believing Jews before their conversion is described here; and among the rest the character of the apostle himself. But any reader who compares wħat he says of his own behaviour in his un. converted state, Acts xxiii. 1. Gal. i. 14. 2 Tim. i. 3. will hardly think the apostle speaks of himself. Only, being about to say things disagreeable to the Jews, he classed himself with them, according to his custom, to prevent their being offended with him. See 1/Thess. iv. 15. note.—The sentiment in this passage is beautiful; namely, that the recollection of our own faults ought to make us equitable in judging of the faults of others, and prevent us from passing severe sentences on them when they fall into sin.
Ver. 4.-1. Of Gud our Saviour. That the Father is here called God our Saviour is evident from ver. 6. where the same person is said to have poured out the Holy Ghost richly on the Jews through Jesus Christ our Saviour. The title of our Saviour, justly belongs to the Father because he formed the scheme of our salvation, and sent his Son into the world to accomplish it: John iii. 16. Rom. v. 8. 1 Jolin iv. 9. on which account the title of Saviour is given to the Sun likewise.
Ver. 5.-1. He saved us. The word saved in scripture doth not always denote eternal salvation ; but it signifies, sometimes the knowledge of salvation, Rom. xiii. 11. note 2. and sometimes the obtaining the means of salvation : See Rom. xi. 26. note 1. Here saved us, signifies delivered us from the miserable and wicked state in which we were living, before we believed the gospel. This deliverance is called justification, ver. 7. See the note there.
eires and pleasures, liv- the tradition of the fathers, disobeing in malice and envy, dient to God, erring from the truth, hated and hating one an- slavishly serving diverse inordinate deother.
sires and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hated by the Gentiles, and hat
ing one another. 4 But when the goodness 4 But when·the goodness and phiand the philanthropy of God lanthropy of God our Saviour, (ETTEour Saviour 1 shone forth, Qave), chap. ii. 11. note 2.) shonc
forth to all mankind through the
preaching of the gospel, 5 He saved us, not (5, 5 He saved us Jews from the mi. 156.) on account of works of serable and wicked state in which righteousness which we were living, not on account of any had done, but according to works of righteousness which we had his own mercy,(dice) through done under the law to merit such a (187p8, Ephes. v. 26. note deliverance, but in firosecution of his 1.) the bath of regenera- own merciful purpose, which he action, and the renewing of complished through the bath (radiya the Holy Ghost,
YEVEGlas) of regeneration, and (ava-
Ghost, 6 Which he poured out 1 6 Which he poured out on us richon us richly through Jesus ly, in his 'various gifts at our conChrist our Saviour. version, through Jesus Christ our
Saviour, who procured these gifts for men :
2. Through the bath of regeneration : Through baptism ; called the barb of regeneration, not because any change in the nature of the baptized per. son is produced by baptism, but because it is an emblem of the purification of his soul from sin. Hence Ananias, in allusion to the emblematical meaning of baptism, said to our apostle, Acts xxii. 16. Arise and be baptized, and wash away thy sins : Be baptized in token of thy resolution to forsake thy sins, and among the rest thy sin in persecuting the disciples of Jesus.- In the term regeneration, when joined with baptism, there is an allu. sion to the phraseology of the Jewish doctors, who, when they admitted a proselyte into their church by baptism, always spake of him as one born again. Nevertheless the real change in the nature of a believer, which entitles him to be called a son of God, is not effected by baptism, but by the renewing of the Holy Ghost, mentioned in the next clause. Hence our Lord, whom the apostle hath followed here, joined the two together, in his discourse to Nicodemus, John iii. 5. Except a man be born of water and of she Spirit, be cannot enter into the kingdom of God.
3. And renewing of the Holy Ghost. The gift of the Holy Ghost, which