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14 Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem (1 Tim. ii. 6. note 1.) us from all iniquity, and purify to himself a peculiar people,' zealous of good works.



15 These things 1 inculcate and exhort,2 and confute, (see 2 Tim. iv. 2.) with all authority. Let no one despise thee.3

14 Who, during his first appearing on earth, gave himself to death for us, that he might redeem us from the power as well as from the punishment of all iniquity, and purify to himself a peculiar people, not by circumcision and other ceremonial observances, but by being zealous of good works.

15 These things inculcate as necessary to be believed, and exhort all who profess the gospel to live suitably to them. And such as teach otherwise confute with all the authority which is due to truth, and to thee as a teacher commissioned by Christ. Let no one have reason to despise thee.

people, zealous, not of rites and ceremonies, but of good works. This being the great end of Christ's death, how dare any person pretending to be one of Christ's people, either to speak or to think lightly of good works, as not necessary to salvation.

Ver. 15.-1. These things; namely, concerning the universality of the gospel, and the excellent purpose for which it was given; the coming of Christ to judgment, the end for which he died during his first appearing on earth; and concerning the character of the people of Christ, as persons zealous of good works.

2. Inculcate and exhort. The Cretians being a sensual and obdurate people, and the Judaizing teachers having denied the necessity of good works, the apostle commanded. Titus, both to affirm the necessity, and to enjoin the practice of them, in the boldest and plainest manner.

3. Let no one despise thee. The apostle does not say, as to Timothy, despise thy youth, 1 Tim. iv 12. from which it may be inferred that Titus was an older man than Timothy.—In the compound word wepippover, the preposition weg, like xara, alters the meaning of the word with which it is compounded.



CHAP. III. 1 Put them

in mind to be subject to principalities and powers, to obey magistrates, to be ready to every good work.

View and Illustration of the Matters contained in this Chapter.

BECAUSE the Judaizers affirmed, that no obedience was due from the worshippers of the true God to magistrates who were idolaters, and because by that doctrine, they made not only the Jewish, but the Gentile believers, bad subjects, and exposed them to be punished as evil doers, (See Rom. xiii. Illustr.) the apostle commanded Titus to inculcate frequently on the Cretians, to obey the magistrates under whose protection they lived, although they were idolaters, ver. 1.—and not to speak evil of any one, on account of his nation, or religion, ver. 2.-Because, said the apostle, even we of the Jewish nation, who now believe the gospel, were formerly in behaviour as bad as the heathens; being foolish, disobedient, &c. ver. 3.—and merely through the mercy of God, and not by our own endeavours, have been delivered from our former sinful state, by the bath of regenera


2 To speak evil of no man, to be no brawlers, but gentle, shewing all meekness unto all men.


1 Ὑπομιμνησκε αυτους αρχαις και εξουσιαις ὑποτασσεσθαι, πειθαρχειν, προς παν έργον αγαθον · ἑτοιμους


2 Μηδενα βλασφημεῖν, αμαχους ειναι, επιεικεις, πασαν ενδεικνυμενους πρᾳοτητα προς παντας ανθρωπους.

3 For we ourselves also were sometimes foolish,

3 Ημεν γαρ ποτε και ήμεις ανοήτοι, απειθεις, πλαdisobedient, deceived, νωμένοι, δουλευοντες επιθυ pleasures, living in malice μιαις και ήδοναις ποικίλαις,

serving diverse lusts and

Ver. 1.1. Το obey magistrates. The word πεθαρχειν literally signifies to obey those who rule. The disposition of the Jews towards heathen rulers, see described Rom. xiii. View. 1 Tim. ii. 2.

Ver. 2.-1. To speak evil of no man. The word βλασφημεῖν, besides evil speaking, denote's all those vices of the tongue which proceed either from

tion and renewing of the Holy Ghost, ver. 4, 5, 6.-That being rescued from ignorance and wickedness by grace, we might become heirs of eternal life, ver. 7.-Next the apostle ordered Titus strongly to affirm, that every one, who hath believed on God is bound to practise good works; and that such works are really profitable to men, by rendering them acceptable to God, ver. 8. Also he commanded him in his discourses, to avoid the foolish questions and genealogies which the false teachers insisted on, ver. 9.—and to admonish heretical teachers, both concerning their doctrine and their practice: And after a first and second admonition, if they did not amend, to cast them out of the church, ver. 11.-Withal because the Cretians were disposed to be idle, Titus was to enjoin them to follow some honest occupation, whereby they might both maintain themselves, and do works of charity to the afflicted, ver. 14.-The apostle concluded his epistle with salutations: and with a benediction to all in Crete who acknowledged his apostolical authority, ver. 13.


NEW TRANSLATION. CHAP. III. 1 Put them in mind to be subject to governments and powers, to obey1 magistrates, to be ready to every good work;

2 To speak evil1 of no one; to be no fighters, BUT equitable, shewing all meekness to all men.

3 For even we ourselves were formerly foolish, disobedient, erring, slavishly serving diverse (ewvas) inordinate de


CHAP. III. 1 Put the Cretians in mind of what I have taught them; namely, to be subject to the governments and powers established in Crete; to obey magistrates though they be heathens; to be ready to perform every good work enjoined by the laws of their country;

2 To speak evil of no one on account of his nation or religion, to be no fighters, but of an equitable disposition, (Philip. iv. 5. note.) and to shew the greatest meekness to all men, even to enemies.

3 This behaviour towards those who profess false religions becometh us Jews: For even we ourselves were formerly foolish in our notions of religion, and in observing

hatred or from contempt of others, and which tend to hurt their reputation; such as railing, reviling, mocking speeches; whisperings, &c.

Ver. 3.-1. For even we ourselves were formerly foolish, &c. Because the pouring out of the Holy Ghost, on those of whom the apostle speaks, is men



and envy, hateful and ha- εν κακια και φθονῳ διαγον

ting one another.


τες, ζυγητοι, μισούντες αλληλους.

4 But after that the

4 Οτε δε ἡ χρηςότης και

kindness and love of God ἡ φιλανθρωπια επεφανη του σωτηρος ἡμῶν Θεον,

our Saviour toward man appeared,

5 Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration,

and renewing of the Holy

Ghost ;


Ουκ εξ εργων των εν δικαιοσύνῃ ὧν εποιησάμεν μεις, αλλα κατα τον αυτον έλεον εσωσεν ἡμας, δια λουτρου παλιγγενεσίας, και ανακαινώσεως πνευματος ἁγιου· 6 Ου εξεχεεν εφ' ήμας abundantly through Jesus πλουσίως, δια Ιησου Χριςου του σωτηρος ἡμων·

6 Which he shed on us

Christ our Saviour;

tioned, ver. 6. Jerome, Estius, the author of Misc. Sacra, and Benson, are of opinion that the character of the believing Jews before their conversion is described here ; and among the rest the character of the apostle himself. But any reader who compares what he says of his own behaviour in his unconverted state, Acts xxiii. 1. Gal. i. 14. 2 Tim. i. 3. will hardly think the apostle speaks of himself. Only, being about to say things disagreeable to the Jews, he classed himself with them, according to his custom, to prevent their being offended with him. See 1/Thess. iv. 15. note.-The sentiment in this passage is beautiful; namely, that the recollection of our own faults ought to make us equitable in judging of the faults of others, and prevent us from passing severe sentences on them when they fall into sin.

Ver. 4.--1. Of Gud our Saviour. That the Father is here called God our Saviour is evident from ver. 6. where the same person is said to have poured out the Holy Ghost richly on the Jews through Jesus Christ our Saviour. The title of our Saviour, justly belongs to the Father because he formed the scheme of our salvation, and sent his Son into the world to accomplish it: John iii. 16. Rom. v. 8. 1 John iv. 9. on which account the title of Saviour is given to the Son likewise.

Ver. 5.-1. He saved us. The word saved in scripture doth not always denote eternal salvation; but it signifies, sometimes the knowledge of salvation, Rom. xiii. 11. note 2. and sometimes the obtaining the means of salvation: See Rom. xi. 26. note 1. Here saved us, signifies delivered us from the miserable and wicked state in which we were living, before we believed the gospel. This deliverance is called justification, ver. 7. See the note there.

eires and pleasures,, living in malice and envy, hated AND hating one another.

4 But when the goodness and the philanthropy of God our Saviour 1 shone forth,


5 He saved us,1 not (, 156.) on account of works of righteousness which we had done, but according to his own mercy, (dia) through (878, Ephes. v. 26. note 1.) the bath of regeneration, and the renewing of the Holy Ghost, 3


6 Which he poured out1 on us richly through Jesus Christ our Saviour.

the tradition of the fathers, disobedient to God, erring from the truth, slavishly serving diverse inordinate desires and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hated by the Gentiles, and hating one another.

4 But when the goodness and philanthropy of God our Saviour, (ɛɛQave), chap. ii. 11. note 2.) shone forth to all mankind through the preaching of the gospel,

5 He saved us Jews from the miserable and wicked state in which were living, not on account of any works of righteousness which we had done under the law to merit such a deliverance, but in prosecution of his own merciful purpose, which he accomplished through the bath (wanyVEVEC Las) of regeneration, and (avaxxwwows) the renewing of the Holy Ghost,

6 Which he poured out on us richly, in his various gifts at our conversion, through Jesus Christ our Saviour, who procured these gifts for men:

2. Through the bath of regeneration: Through baptism; called the bath of regeneration, not because any change in the nature of the baptized person is produced by baptism, but because it is an emblem of the purification of his soul from sin. Hence Ananias, in allusion to the emblematical meaning of baptism, said to our apostle, Acts xxii. 16. Arise and be baptized, and wash away thy sins: Be baptized in token of thy resolution to forsake thy sins, and among the rest thy sin in persecuting the disciples of Jesus. In the term regeneration, when joined with baptism, there is an allusion to the phraseology of the Jewish doctors, who, when they admitted a proselyte into their church by baptism, always spake of him as one born again. Nevertheless the real change in the nature of a believer, which entitles him to be called a son of God, is not effected by baptism, but by the renewing of the Holy Ghost, mentioned in the next clause. Hence our Lord, whom the apostle hath followed here, joined the two together, in his discourse to Nicodemus, John iii. 5. Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.

3. And renewing of the Holy Ghost. The gift of the Holy Ghost, which

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