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ALPHABETICAL LIST OF AUTHORS.

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ADDISON, JOSEPH...
ALTENBURG, MICHAEL (GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS)..
AUDUBON, JOHN JAMES..
BANCROFT, GEORGE.
BEECHER, Rev. HENRY WARD,
BROWN, DR. John...
BROWNING, ROBERT..
BRYANT, WILLIAM CULLEN..
BUNYAN, John..
BURKE, EDMUND..
BURNS, ROBERT.
BURROUGHS, John.
BYRON.
CLEMENS, SAMUEL L..
COLERIDGE, SAMUEL.
COLLINS, SIR WILLIAM..
DANA, R. H.....
DICKENS, CHARLES..
DRAKE, JOSEPH RODMAN..
EMERSON, RALPH WALDO..
EVERETT, Rev. C. C..
EVERETT, EDWARD..
FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN,
FRYE, ALEX. E......
GOODRICH, CHAUNCEY A.
GRADY, HENRY.
GRAY, THOMAS..
HALLECK, Fitz-GREENE..
HAWTHORNE, NATHANIEL.
HAYNE, Paul H....
HENRY, PATRICK...

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viii

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF AUTHORS.

HOLLAND, DR. Josiah G..
HOLMES, OLIVER WENDELL.
Hughes, Thomas..
Hugo, VICTOR..
IRVING, WASHINGTON..
JACKSON, HELEN HUNT.
JERROLD, Douglass...
JONES, SIR WILLIAM..
KEY, FRANCIS Scott..
KINGSLEY, Rev. CHARLES.
LANIER, SIDNEY...
LONGFELLOW, Henry W.
LOWELL, JAMES RUSSELL..
MACAULAY, THOMAS B..
MARTINEAU, HARRIET.
MAXcY, JONATHAN.
MONTGOMERY, D. H...
O'REILLY, JOHN BOYLE...
PLUTARCH.......
PoE, EDGAR ALLAN..
PRESCOTT, WILLIAM H..
PUMPELLY, RAPHAEL.
RUSKIN, John...
Scott, SIR WALTER.
SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM.
SOUTHEY, ROBERT..
SPAULDING, ARCH. MARTIN John.
STEPHENS, ALEXANDER H..
STERNE, LAURENCE....
STODDARD, WILLIAM 0......
STOWE, HARRIET BEECHER..
TENNYSON, BARON ALFRED.
THOREAU, HENRY D...
WALLACE, GENERAL LEW.
WEBSTER, DANIEL..
WHITTIER, John G...,
Wilson, John..
WORDSWORTH, WILLIAM
THE BIBLE...
ANONYMOUS.

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INTRODUCTION.

OUTLINES OF ELOCUTION.

The object of this series of Readers up to the present volume has been to help the student to an understanding of the words and the meaning of the sentences upon the printed page. It is necessary now that we give more attention to the expression, along with the conception of the thoughts, composition, and style of the selections chosen for this book. As a means to this end the pupil should learn the first steps in elocution.

It is the purpose of elocution to develop individuality, correct bad habits of speech and gesture, and make the body a fit instrument to serve the mind and soul. The value of the practice of elocution, and especially that branch of it known as “reading aloud,” can scarcely be overestimated. What higher and purer gratification can there be in the home or social circle han the artistic and truthful reading of a beautiful piece of literature! This accomplishment depends largely upon the voice. Thus the cultivation and development of the voice, which gives such a charm to conversation, reading, and speaking, should claim the earnest attention of the student.

Definition. Elocution is the science and art of expression by voice and action. Divisions. Part I. Respiration and the Development of the

Voice as an Instrument.
Part II. Pronunciation : (a) English Sounds, (b) Ar-

ticulation, (c) Syllabication, and (d) AC

centuation.
Part III. The Elements of Vocal Expression.
Part IV. The Principles of Action.

ix

PART I.

RESPIRATION.

There are two processes which make up respiration :-
Inspiration — the drawing in of the air ;
Expiration — the forcing out of the air.

PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS OF INSPIRATION. In a full inspiration the natural action of the organs is as follows:

1. The diaphragm contracts and therefore sinks.
2. The front wall of the abdomen pushes forward.
3. The ribs and sternum move outward and upward.

4. The upper part of the chest is expanded laterally and vertically.

As these acts of inspiration progress, the air rushes in to equalize the pressure and expand the lungs against the retreating walls of the chest.

PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS OF EXPIRATION. 1. The diaphragm relaxes and therefore rises. 2. The front wall of the abdomen is drawn in. 3. The ribs and sternum are drawn down and in. 4. The upper part of the chest sinks to repose.

The expiratory muscles are brought most strongly into action in coughing and sneezing ; less strongly in sobbing and sighing.

BREATHING EXERCISES. 1. Inhale slowly through the nostrils until the lungs are full, and exhale as slowly. This exercise should occupy from ten to fifteen seconds, and is designed to give the lungs a complete airing.

2. After a full, deep inspiration, exhale with a prolonged sound

of s.

3. Inflate the lungs, and, with a full action of the wrists, strike the chest ten times with the open palms, then exhale with a prolonged sound of hah.

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