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• In plains which contain a number of sea productions, and in foetz mountains which have the petrifa&tions of the continent, and of the seas of various zones, we meet with plants which bear seeds, and send their roots deep into the ground, as if they had grown there for ages. But experience tells us, that they could not have originally grown at those spoty. In the primitive mountains only, we may suspect, that every thing remaios unaltered, as their foundations never suffered from the gnawing tooth of time.
• We find that mountainous countries are richer in plants than fiat countries; and that, in primitive mountains, the number of plants exceeds that of the floetz mountains. A country, consisting of primitive rocks, has plants which other mountainous countries do not pofsefs. In all plains of the same latitude, however far they may extend, the same plants always occur, only with some little varieties, which depend. on the difference of the foil. In primitive rocks, and at their foot, we again meet with all the plants of fat countries. Wherever primitive rocks surround a plain country, we find all the plants of this at their root, and even at their summits. But after ascending and descending the opposite fide, we finid a different vegetation, which again extends as far as the next mountainous chain. The list of plants of the different countries in Europe, and other parts of the globe, will be of great service to us to prove this fact. Now, who will doubt, that all the plants of flat countries, which were formed at a later period, came from the high mountains ; and that the primitive mountains of our globe were the chief sources, as it were, of the floras of different countries? Hence America is so full of plants; because, from the north pole to the south, high mountainous chains, with numberless intermediate branches, interfect it. Hence, Canada produces different plants from Pennsylvania; this again from Virginia ; this again different plants from Carolina ;. and Carolina from Florida, &c. Hence, the north-west coast of North America produces plants which totally differ from those of the northfeast coast; the fouth-west coast different plants from those of the southeaft. Illands which are quite flat, have all the plants of the neighbouring continent; but if they are surrounded by high mountains, many quite peculiar plants are to be found in them. It would appear from these facts, that the vegetable kingdom did not suffer materially from all those very violent catastrophes. Perhaps those changes took place only gra. dually ; and several thousands of years, if not more, elapsed before all things came to that state in which we find them.'
A number of pages are occupied with speculations of this fort, to all of which we certainly cannot subscribe ; yet they evince much ingenuity, and prove, that M. Willdenow has taken a coinprehensive view of nature. After enumerating a variety of causes, which have contributed to the diffemination of vegetables, and, among the relt, the phare which men have had in transporting them from one region to anoiher, he proceeds (p. 402.) to illustrate the opinions he has advanced, by the difference which he thinks observable in the plants which are to be met with in different tracts of Europe.
• From what has been faid, it follows, that, after such various and manifold changes, it would be very difficult to fix accurately the point from whence each plant originally came. We Mall, however, endeavour to make some general remarks, with regard to the plants of our part of the globe, and their most probable dissemination, as we are better ac. quainted with this part, especially the northern countries, than with others. Greece only we muft exclude at present, as we know nothing at all of its botany. Its flora, however, seems to come from the moun tains of Sardinia, from the coasts of Asia and Africa, and from the aflands in the Archipelago.
• We suppose, then, that plants are disseminated from the highest mountains towards the flat countries ; and, according to this supposition, eftablish five principal floras in Europe, viz. the Northern flora, the Helvetic, the Austrian, the Pyrenean, and the Appeninian floras. The Northern flora originates in the mountains of Norway, Sweden and Lapland. All these nourish the same plants, which grow in the highest north. Scotland, with its mountains, appears to have cohered once with those of Norway, as both have nearly the same plants. The Helvetic flora originates in the mountains of Switzerland, Bavaria and Tyrol. The mountains of Dauphiny, as well as those in Bohemia and Siberia, are only lateral branches of the same chain. All have a great number of plants in common. The Austrian flora originates in the Alps of Anitria, Krain, Karinthia and Steyenmark. The. Karpathians are a Side branch of those. The Pyrerean flora originates in the Pyrenees; the mountains of Catalonia, Caltilia and Valentia, are its branches. The Appeninian flora originates in the Appenines, which send out many fide branches.
• If we take the lists of the plants of these five floras, we will find the molt marked difference.
• It follows, at the same time, that various commixtures of these Aoras, after the continent was formed and variously cohering, must have taken place. Hence is southern France, where the Helvetic and Pyrenean floras combine, so rich in plants. Hence, in Piedmont, the floras of the Pyrenees, of Helvetia and the Appenines, mix among each other, whither likewise the lea has carried many plants of Northern Africa. Hence, Great Britain has partly the Northern, partly the Helvetic flora ; and, in the southern extremity of that kingdom, in Cornwall, some plants of the Pyrenean flora, on account of the neighbourhood of Spain, appear among the relt. Sweden, Denmark and Russia, have not rerained the Northern fora unmixed ; they have got many plants of the Helvetic flora. The same is the case with Germany, especially in our Brandenburgh, which has, besides the Helvetic flora, got part of the Northern.'
When facts occur, which militate against his opinions, like other proposers of theories, he is willing to dous (p. 398.) the accuracy of the observations on which they are founded. F 3
• Swartz discovered no European alpine plants in the mountains of Jamaica, but a good number of our mosses; for instance, Funaria hygrometrica ; Bryum ferpillifolium, cælpititium ; Sphagnum palustre ; Dicranum glaucum, and many more.
We know, that the feeds of mosles are so minute, that a single feed escapes our view, and can only be observed with a considerably maguifying microscope. Should they not, as it is certain that they are sufpended in the atmosphere, have been driven there ły storms, and, as the climate was suitable, have germinatod? At least this seems to be the only way of explaining this fingular phen. menon. Blit when Messrs Foriters met, in the Tierra del Fuego, with Pim cicula alpina, Galium aparine, Statice armeria, and Ranunculus lapponicus ; it would certainly be very difficult to say, how those pla:its came to such a remote quarter of the globe. Perhaps the great like css betwen the European and Southern plants milled these great philosophers, though there might be diftinguihing marks, which, however, the two genel men, firmly believing them to be our European species, did not attend to.'
His history of the science should rather be called a Biography of Botanists; for he seems more anxious to tell us, where and when they were born, what accidents befel them in life, and when they diell, than to inform us what they have done to promote botanical knowledge. He certainly mentions all the principal discoveries in botany, very regularly arranged, but encumbered with much extraneous matter. We extract the following account of Clusius, (p. 421.) with whom he concludes his second epoch; an unfortunate mortal, who seems to have encountered as many hariships as ever befel the Knight of La Mancha.
· Cisárl-s Cintius, or Charles de l'Ecluse, was born at Artois, or Atrecht, in the Netherlands, 1526. His parents wished him to be. come a lawyer, and he went with this defign to Leowen. But he foon changed his mind, and, from his great love to botany, foon undertook the most tedious and troublefome journies, through Spain, Portugal, France, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Germany and Hungary. In his 24th year, he already became dropfical ; of which, however, he was cured, by the use of cichories, recommended to him by the famous plyfie an Rondeletius. In his 39th year, in Spain, he broke his right arm slose above the elbow', falling with his horse ; and, foon after, he had the faire accident with his right thigh. In his 55th year, in Vienna, he sprained his left foot ; and, eight years afterwaris, dislocated liis hip. This last dislocation was overlooked by his physician; and he had the misfortune to walk for the remainder of his life on crutches. The great pain and difficulty he had thus to suffer when walking, prevented him im taking the necessary exercise ; in consequence of which, he was oficted with a hernia, obstructions in his abdomen, and calculous compaints. Thus miserable and unhealthy, tired of the court of the Emperur, where he had refided for fourteen years past, and finding, befides, the fuperintendance over the gardens there too great a burden, he accept
ed, in the year 1993, an invitation as professor at Leyden, where he died April 6. 1609. Clufius was the greatest genius of his age, and profecuted the study of botany with an enthufiastic zeal, and a perse. verance, which was not equalled by any preceding philosophers, vor by any of his followers. His works show us the great botanilt; and they will always remain valuable and indispensably neceflary. The cuts an. nexed to them are neat, the figures diftinct, and his descriptions masterly. It was a pity that a man of so great merit should have suffered so much, and even become the first martyr for botany.
From this specimen, our readers may judge, whether we have done wrong or otherwise, in saying that the hiltory was mirnamed; they may likewise judge, what proportion the boranical information contained in this extract, bears to the irrelevant maiter with which it is connected.
Upon the whole, however, it is our d'ity to say, that the fame dil, ince and judgment is displayed in this volume, that we already have had occasion to ascribe to M. Willdenow, when pronouncing our opwion of his edition of the Species Plantarum of Linnæus; ani we venture, without hifitation, to recommend the Principles of Botany and Vegetable Phyfiology, to those who wish to become acquainted with the fence, as the most complete introductory treatise on the subjcct hitherto published.
The translator seems to bave understood the subject; for the lan juage he employs is in general corre&. In the Terumology, however, an attempt to translite one word of tin into one word of Esglish, has led him to make us of funę rather awkward exprellions; e. g. præmorsum is translated bitten, the worii, lowever, we conccive, lignitics somewhat more than bitt'n, 1. e. fo.nething bitten before or towards the point; thus, præınorsun folium, or præmoisa radix, (for both are given, and the same definition is repeated to each), ogniacs a leaf or root, that terminates so abruptly, is tu seem to have its point or extremity bitt'n off. Were the bare word bitten to be employed to express prenorfum, and any one to talk of a bitren kif, or bitten root, he would be but ill understood by the bulk of his h arers. Both fistularis and concavu, are translated boilsw : the sam: exprelions lhould not have been employed to expreis two terins lo very distint, particularly as cincave is so well naturalized as to become a denizen in the English
Fios multiplicatus, is improperly translated a double flower, and flos plenus, a ful flower. When a flower makes an appro.ch to become soubk, that is, when its petals are double, treble, &c. the uiual number, provided they do not entirely occupy the place of the itamina and pistilium, it is called a semidouble flower (fios multiplicatus); when the petals are to numerous as to leave 110 room for itamina and piftillum, a double flower is form. (flos F 4
plenus.) These two expressions of femidouble, and double flower, are not only understood by botanists and florists, but are so well establifhed, as to be very generally understood ; but a full flower by no means expresses what is meant by flos plenus.
Art. VI. Observations on a Journey through Spain and Italy to
Naples; and thence to Smyrna and Constantinople : comprising a Description of the Principal Places in that Route, and Remarks on the present Natural and Political State of those Countries. By Robert Semple, author of “Walks and Sketches at the Cape, &c. 2 vol. 8vo. pp. 484. London. Baldwin. 1807.
E have repeatedly had occafion to remark, that the world is
laid under great obligations to those who, in the pursuit of some profelional object, visit foreign countries, and afterwards deliver to the public, in a plain unambitious manner, the result of the inquiries which they may have incidentally been led to make during their excursions. From this class of writers, we cannot certainly expect such full and valuable information as we are entitled to require of profeffed travellers. But they are exceedingly useful, and merit every encouragement, because, the stuff of which they are made exists at all times in great abundance, and is ta be found during a period peculiarly unfavourable to the production of the other class.-In order to contribute our humble share to this obje&t, we have made it a rule, not indeed to praise their publications indiscriminately, but to bestow an unusual degree of attention upon them, as foon as they appeared ; and, in purfuance of this plan, we haften to make our readers acquainted with the work now before us, which belongs to the fame description.
Mr Simple, though an English merchant, was born in Ame. rica, and this circumstance enabled him to travel, in 1805 and 1806, over countries from which British subjccts, in general, were excluded. llis tour comprchended fome of the moft interesting parts of Europe, many of which were, at that time, the feat of war, and although his profeffioral avocations both thortened his itay in places which it would have been peculiarly important to examine, and privented him from employing, in the manner molt pr: fitable to his readers, the time which he did devote to matters of mere curiosity, yet he has, in general, obferved well what he faw, and he delivers his remarks, for the most part, like a fenfible man. His book is according's both intrudive and entertaining, and leaves us only the more cause to regret