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brought to such a state, that the sacrifice of many persons is the only means of reestablishing the general welfare.
The explanation which we have offered of the present distresses, founded on well known facts, and supported by the evi. dence of the West India body themselves, derives a remarkable confirmation from considering a part of the subject, not discussed in any of their pamphlets or reports. They confine their attention entirely to the state of the sugar trade; and our remarks have hitherto applied chiefly to that branch of the question. It may be asked, therefore, why the same difficulties are not felt by the growers of the other staples? And, in answering this question, we shall find, that every one of the positions formerly advanced rests upon additional proof.
Before the French revolution, no great supply of coffee was received from the British colonies. Jamaica, and the ceded islands, alone cultivated this staple. In Jamaica, however, the culture was increasing with considerable rapidity, having more than doubled in fifteen years, ending 1789.
Dominica had increased somewhat; and Grenada had fallen off greatly. The coffee exported from the British islands had, upon the whole, decreised; so that Great Britain did not import 33,000 cwt. in 1788, while, on an average of five years, ending 1775, she imported 52,000. But the reduction of duty in 1783, so much encouraged the Jamaica planters, that before the year 1792 the whole British importation stood much higher than it had ever done. At all times, coffee has been an article but little used in this country ; and more than nineteen twentieths of the quantity imported was destined for the Continental inarket. During this period, however, the coffee culture was increasing rapidly in the French colonies. St Domingo, which in 1770 did not export above 50,000 cwt., had increased its exportation tenfold in 1786. In 1789 it exported 760,000 cwt. ; and the crop of 1792 was expected to be 800,000 cwt. The total average export of. coffee from all the French islands, before 1785, was 600,000 cwt. ; so that the annual export of coffee from the French colonies, previous to 1799, must be estimated at above 900,000 cwt.
The whole remaining export of this article, from all the other colonies, dill not probably exceed 150,000 cwt. So rapidly was the supply of this produce augmented, and so great a part of the whole quantity was furnished by St Domingo. The consump1.3
• Sir W. Young Itates the exportation of St Domingo, in 1788, at 320,000 cwt. (p. 74.) evidenily from some mistake. The above fums are taken from the report of the Committee of Allemhly in Jamaica, 1792 ; and the remarks of Mr Vaughon, inserted in Bryan Edwards, B. V. c. 4.-Tlie official returns to the Legislative Arrimbly of France, make the exportation, 1791, above 680,000 cwt., although the rebellion broke out in August of that ycar.
tion of coffee, however, increased in proportion ; and, in 1791, its price stood at 70s. per cwt. The destruction of St Domingo took above seven tenths of the whole supply out of the European market; and the price immediately rose to 90s. The emigration of the French planters, and the new encouragements to speculation offered to our own, by the rise of price, accelerated the increase of this culture in Jamaica. In five years (the time required for the maturity of the coffee plant), the produce of that island had increased sevenfold; and, in 1805, it exported 190,000 cwt. The foreign colonies have been increasing their coffee planting during the same period; but it is manifest, that the blank occasioned by the loss of St Domingo has not yet been filled up; for the average import of this country for 1804 and 1805 was no more than 308,000 cwt., though it included the produce of all the coffee colonies except Martinico, Guadaloupe and Cuba, in which last, the sugar cultivation has very far outstripped that of coifee; and the average importation from the same colonies, in 191, cannot be taken at less than 100,000 cwt. ; so that the total increase of coffee in those settlements, where the principal efforts have been made to fill up a blank of 760,000 cwt., does not amount to more than 208,000 cwt. in 1805. * Accordingly, the price of coffee, in that year, was 6l. per cwt. in the British market, exclusive of duty. As the supply, however, is rapidly augmenting (Jamaica alone having, it is said, coffee walks sufficient speedily to produce 400,000 cwt.), and as considerable obstacles have lately been thrown in the way of our exportation to the Continent, it is certain that this price is on the decline. Indeed, it has fallen, since i S05, to 90 or 95s.
From these details, it is manifest, that the cofiee and sugar pianter have suffered so very differently from the excessive progress of West India agriculture, since the destruction of St Domingo, merely because that event diminished the whole supply of those two staples in a very different proportion. It is also obvious, that no other cause exists, for the distresses of the sugar trade, than the glut of the whole market of the world, otherwise the coffee trade would have suffered also, We find, on the confrary, that the exportation of coffee has been increasing rapidly to the present time, notwithstanding a duty not drawn back Yet the Americans carry coffee to the continental markets + much cheaper than we can do; and those who ascribe the stoppage of
* In the year ending September 16, the Americans, according to their official returns, carried to Europe about 420,000 cut, of coffee, keing nearly the whole crop of the enemy's illands. Adinitting that bialf of this was clear increase since the revolution (which is much above the truth), there remains a deficit of 340,000 cvt. †
See last Note.
our sugar exports to our being undersold by the neutral flags, must be sensible that coffee should, on their principles, be as much a drug as sugar. Further, it is clear, that the abolition of the slave trade having been carried into eilect before the cofice market had been in any degree glutted, there is 1:0 danger of the coffee planter falling into the same situation with the sugar pianter. Finally, as the deficiency in the supply occasioned by the revolution, has not yet been filled up, there is room for employing, in coffee planting, some of the regroes now engaged in sugar plantations; and as a great proportion of the capital vested in West India estates, consists of the value of the slaves, an opportunity' is thus left of obtaining, for this valuable property, something like its fair price.
It is unnecessary to enter into similar details respecting the cotton trade. The demand for manufactures having increased prodigiously while the growth of cotton was making a rapid progress, especially in the Dutch and Portuguese colonies, and in Georgia, the price of the raw article has kept up, until last year, when, from the obstacles thrown in the way of our trade, the cotton manufacture began to experience, in coinmon with the other branches of industry, the practical evils of a general war.
Art. X. Poems. By the Rev. J. Mant, M. A. 8vo. London.
Among the many injuries inflicted on the human intclle& by
the wits (for in truth they did not deserve the name of poets), who' Hourished in the reign of Charles the Second, none was more permanent in its effects, than tlie total forgetfulness of that style of poetry which delineates the beauties of the country, and the enjoyment of rural happinefs. Few of the inferior topics, however, are so interesting as this; and, to evince how natural it is to love even the plainesi description of pleasing and familiar objects, we need only appeal to the popularity fo long enjoyed by that dullest of all possible poems, the ingenious Mr Pomfret's Choice.' It is however true, that though all the
gentlemen who wrote with ease,' and rhyming persons of honour' of that and the preceding age, occasionally thought it neceffary to write paftorals, and to express their love of folitude and rural retirement, yet, by far the greater part knew nothing at all of what they profefled to admire; and, when fent by debts into the country, considered it only as a horrible banislıment anong parfons and favages. Their poetical predeceffors had no greater delight than in printing by words, and presenting to their readers 2 highly coloured image of those sublime natural phenomena
which the town-bred bards, whose idea of a mountain was acquir. ed at Richmond, and who knew nothing of rural beauties but a haycock and a fyllabub, had neither enthusiasm to imagine, or sufficient knowledge of the subject to describe. Their pastorals, accordingly, are merely imitations of the worst parts of Virgil ; and, instead of real nature, are filled with fauns and satyrs which exist no where, or with love and politics which may be had any where.
They seem never to have suspected, that a lover might despair in Moorfields as well as in Arcadia ; and that the stockjobbers at Garraway's, were at least as hearty as the fwains of Trent, in their regret for King William's death. Nor did those who, like Philips and Gay, were really accurate observers of rural manners, at all admire or comprehend what were, properly speaking, rural beauties.
The grand and pervading fault, however, of the poets of the early part of the last century, is the indistinctness of their drawing, and the want of picturesque grouping. Milton and Spencer paint the landscapes they describe. Their distances are really indistinct; nor, when Milton describes towers and battlements,
• bosom’d high in tufted trees,' does he describe the accurate form, or enter into a detail of their windows and furniture. Pope, on the other hand, and the author of Grongar Hill, (by no means the most feeble in their style of poetry), give rather a dry catalogue of beauties, than a representation of their general effect. Light and shade are disregarded ; and they describe alike the foreground and the horizon with all the monotonous glare of a Chinese screen.
Thomson was perhaps the first who restored the ancient perception of the more striking features of nature, and brought back to our island a knowledge of her own beauties. Yet his times had so much remaining of bad taste and bad habits, that even Thomson had little opportunity to describe the more remote and sublimer landscape. The country was still considered rather as a threat to disobedient wives, than a defireable residence; and the description of a moor or a waterfall would be little understood or relished by the frequenters of Hampton Court, or those who lik, tened with so much delight to the nightingales at Vauxhall. Goldsmith contributed, perhaps, even more than Thomson, to restore good taste in this instance; and Cowper, perhaps, poflefled it more than either. Yet, while we admire his powers of defcription, we must always lament those unfortunate circumstances, which doomed the eye of a real poet to rest on the flat and unmeaning pastures of Buckinghamshire. He may, however, be faid to have blown the enchanted horn; and all the ladies of hills, of woods, and of waters, were immediately in motion. Wealthy
clergymen clergymen began to walk in their forests; village curates to gather dandelions; and philosophers to mourn and moralyze, and murmur over ponds three feet long, and two feet wide. On the whole, we may be perhaps allowed to doubt, whether the advantages of a more accurate observation of nature, have not been counterbalanced, as well by the devouring flight of tourists, as by the equally annoying, and, now, equally periodical visitation of tame or forced, or filly descriptions of rural scenery, rural manners, or rural enjoyments.
Amid so much to disgust us, we are disposed, perhaps, to make large allowances, and to turn with real pleasure to the productions of a man of cultivated taste and unaffected, who, without the microscopic eye of some of our poetical Leuenhocks, is still an accurate observer of nature, and who feels what he writes, without professing to write from his feeling.
· I more safely like the bee
Whom most I love, and most would please.' Mr Mant's principal fault is an extraordinary occasional feebleness, which sometimes entirely spoils the effect of what would else be pleasing description.
With some exceptions of this kind, the Sunday Morning' has great merit as an imitation of the golden age of English poetry. It is painful, however, to have our course stopt in such a poem, by being desired,
Returning home, to muse
On sweet and folemn views.' —which may be an extract from a sermon, as the following is undoubtedly from a village epitaph,
· I hear a voice which speaks to me,
And burn with zeal to follow thee.' We were much pleased with the • Inscription in an Arbour,' which is remarkably free from that neglect of perspective which we have censured in the works of many superior poets.
• But if the thrush, with warbling clear,
Or whistling blackbird charm thine ear,-