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flames their passions, and with their strength increases their pretensions. They go on, conquering and to conquer. The Persians under Cyrus were irresistible: the Macedonians under Alexander were irresistible; so were the Romans; the Saracens who invaded Europe from the south; and the hordes of Tartars that have poured at different periods into the north of Europe and of Asia. To come nearer to our own times, and a case the most similar in history to what is now alluded to, Charlemagne, triumphing over all confederation and resistance, carried his conquests over Europe to the banks of the Vistulaprecisely to the territory that witnessed the peace of Tilsit in 1807. Scarcely had that great and enterprising prince remitted his exertions for the farther extension of his empire, or ceased from aggression, when the Norwegians and Danes appeared, and made predatory descents on the coast of Aquitaine. In the reign of his successors, they' effected settlements in Sicily, Naples, France, and Great Britain : thus proving still the truth of the maxim, that enthusiasm and aggression usually prevail over the power attacked, or combinations among different powers for common safety. .

On the other hand, the spirit of liberty, in as many or more instances, and some of them against the most fearful odds, has proved invincible. Not to multiply examples which will readily occur to readers of history, the Dutch maintained or regained their liberty, after a struggle with both the branches of the House of Austria, then in the zenith of its power, continued for half a century. The mountaineers of Chili were not to be subdued by the arms of Charles V., nor those of his successors, to this day. Whatever be the issue of the present contest in the Penmsula, it is proper to record the efforts of patriotism and courage, and the resources of necessity—we had almost said, of despair. .. While doubts and fears were entertained that the poli. tical independence of Old Spain was hastening to a period, a gleam of hope arose, that, in all events, the Spanish name and nation would still be preserved in both Asia and America--plus ultra.



For the YEAR 1808.




E U R O P E.


The Parliamentary proceedings of this Year, a naiural Bond of Connerion between the great Events of 1807 and 1808.-Speech from the

Throne.- Debates ihereen in both Houses.--Moved in the Peers by the Earl of Galloway.-- Amendment moved by the Duke of Norfolk. This Amendment seconded by Lord Sidmouth.-Opposed by the Earl of Aberdeen.-Supported by Lord Grenville.- Opposed by Lord Hawkesbury.-Supported by the Earl of Lauderdale.-Opposed by Lord Mulgrave.-The Amendment rejected.-- In the House of Commons the Address moved by Lord Hamilton.--Motion for the Address seconded by Mr. C. Ellis.-Obserrations by Lord Milton respecting the Attack on Copenhagen.-Speech of Mr. Ponsonby, and Notice of a Motion respecting the affair of Copenhagen.-The Addreşe supported by Mr. Milnes.--Strictures on the Address by Mr. Whitbread.Speech of Mr. Canning in support of the Address.--Lord H. Petty against the attack on Copenhagen.-Mr. Bathurst ditto. -Mr. Hindhan ditio.- Reply of Mr. Perceval.-The Question carried without a Division.--Report of the Address.- Fresh Debates.


THE wonderful events that had were brought into discussion in the

come to pass on the continent imperial parliament of Great Britain of Europe in the summer and au- and Ireland, that was assembled on tumn of 1807, formed a great por- the 31st of January, 1808. Il.is tion of the various subjects that therefore proper, in the history of Voj. L,



this year, for the sake of order, of the enemy to compel the courts both chronological and natural, in of Denmark and Portugal to subthe first place to give some account scribe their navies to a general couof the proceedings and debates of federacy about to be formed against this great national council; the this country. This formidable only great council in Europe in combination had been frustrated which political affairs could be treat with respect to Denmark by force ed with freedom. The attention of of arms. The hostile sentiments parliament towards the close of the of the court of Denmark, eviaced session was rouzed with equal impor- in many ways for some years past, tunity by the most unexpected events had rendered every other mode of in the west of Europe : events which proceeding useless. It was an unseemed to be as fortunate and bright, fortunate circumstance that the as those in the north and east had Danish fleet should be encircled by been disastrous and cloudy. Though the walls of the capital, thereby therefore parliamentary affairs con- causing misfortune which every

bustitute only a secondary and subor- man mind would wish to bave dinate part of the history of Europe, avoided. But it was creditable to in the present case, they form a the arms of this country, and merivery natural bond of connexion be- torious in the officers commanding tween the great events of 1807 and the expedition, that every attempt those of 1808.

was made to prevent that evil. As The speech from the throne*, soon as success had enabled us to delivered by commission, turned as judge for ourselves, every predicusual on the great public questions tion of government had been verithat would come under discussion fied. An arsenal was found to be in parlianient; the most important over supplied with every article of of which were the expedition to equipment, magazines replete with Copenhagen; our relations with stores, ascertained to have been Russia, Austria, and Sweden ; the purchased by agents of France, and departure of the royal family of demonstrations which could not Portugal for the Brazils; and the escape the eye of seamen, that the orders in council respecting neutral fleet was on the eve of being fitted commerce. In the house of peers

out. It was gratifying to reflect on an address, in answer to his majesty's the means that had been ernployed speech, was moved by the earl of 'to secure the navy of Portugal from Galloway, who recapitulated with the grasp of France, by recomgreat approbation its most promi- mending to the court to transfer the nent features. In the speech from seat of their government to the the throne, tlreir lordships had been Brazils; to see one government of informed, that soon after the treaty Europe preferring emigration to subof Tilsit had announced the dire- mission to France, an event from liction of Russia, of the cause she which, provided a strict friendship bad espoused, his Majesty's minis- and liberal policy should be observed Ters received the most positive in- by both Britain and Portugal, the formation that it was the intention most beneficial results were to be

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expected. It was gratifying also he, " we must make a stand someto reflect, that at the very moment where, and where can we do it betwhen our mercoants were deprived ter than in defence of our seamen of their trade with Russia, so large and our trade, which the Ameria portion of the continent of Ame- cans unequivocally demanded? If rica was thrown open to their enter- America prefer French alliance to prize. He hoped that we should British connection, it is not in your become independent of Russia for power to controul her choice, nor ever. If the legislature of these can you prevent that war which I kingdoms would grant a liberal do not wish to take place; but bounty to encourage the cultivation which, if it does take place, I am of hemp and flax, both at home and confident, if pursued by us with in the British colonies, we might judgient and reference to the yet live to greet the day of our American character and situation, quarrel with Russia, and even bail no man need to fear.” But lord with satisfaction the inauspicious Galloway observed, our chief contreaty of Tilsit.

cern was with France; "She proWith respect to the other powers claims, my lords, that she will of Europe, lord Galloway observed, not lay down her arms, but will that with the single exception of augment hier force until she Sweden, they were prostrate at the has conquered the liberty of the feet of France, and obedient to the seas, the first right of all nations. mandates of their domineering In recommending to us an armed master. But the conduct and spirit truce, which she calls a peace, she. of the independent monarch of says, it shall endure until she Sweden merited every eulogium. chooses to proclaim anew the prinHe trusted that a British force ciples of her armed neutrality," would aid him in the Baltic to defy when she permits you to proclaim his enemies, and that British grati- your principles of maritime law. tude would compensate any loss he is this what you are willing to acmight be obliged to suffer, by trans- cept as your peace ? llave we alferring to bim some of those colo- ready forgot the peace of Amiens ? nies we could so well spare, and Do we wish to see the seamen of must soon take from our joint foes. France all restored, and the pendAs to our dispute with the United ants of her ships going up, while States of America, local knowledge ours will necessarily be coming obtained by him at the early periods down? My lords, although the of the French revolution had en- arnis of Europe may appear on the abled him to form a very decided side of France, I cannot believe opinion with respect to that country, that her heart is against this counand he was sorry to say, he could try. If we remain firm and unapnot form a flattering one; and he palled, as recommended by bis was happy to learn by the tevour: majesty, and exemplified by hirdof his majesty's speech, that it was self,, some balance may yet be prenot the intention of his majesty's served in Europe; if we yield, no government to concede one single may can forsee the consequences." point more to that illiberal and pre- The earl concluded by moving an judiced people, “My lords," said address to his majesty, which, as

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usual, re-echoed the sentiments of been apprized of the intention the speech. Tbis motion was se- of the enemy to combine the conded by lord Kenyon, who powers of the contineut in one gendwelt chiefly on the passage in the eral confederacy, to be directed speech which related to the emi- either to the entire subjugation of gration of the court of Portugal to this kingdom, or to the imposing the Brazils, and the spirit with upon his majesty an insecure and which ministers coulucted them- inglorious peace; that for this purselves in not surrendering the paval pose, states formerly neutral, were rights of this country to the Ameri. to be forced into hostility, and cạns. The duke of Norfolk was compelled to bring to bear against sorry that it would be impossible for the different parts of bis majesty's him to give his unqualified assent to dominions, the wbole of the naval the address as it stood. The speech force of Europe, and specifically from the throne declared, that it the tleets of Portugal and Denmark. was with the deepest reluctance bis If this were really the case, it would majesty had found himself com- be a complete justification of the pelled to resort to the extremity of conduct of this country, not only force against Denmark. Now the in our own eyes, but those of the duke, looking in the most careful whole world. For the 'monent a manner to the speech, did not per-nation meditates hostility against ceive that it was in the contempla. you, that is to be regarded as a tion of his majesty's servants to af-' declaration of war. But then, to ford to the liouse any such infor- give effect to this justification, some mation on the subject as should proof of its existence must be adenable them to say that they saw duced. “A hostile disposition," it reason for concurring in a declara- had been said, on the part of the tion that there was a necessity for Danish government towards this the measure.

He was aware it country, bad manifested itself for would be said that every species of the last seven years ; and the fact discretion should be observed in of their having acceded to the views exposing matters of such delicacy. of France, was evident from the This principle, and the propriety of immense quantity of stores and acting upon it, in most cases, he ammunition found in their arsenals. was far from disputing ; but he Lord S. asked if it was consistent thought it was carrying the doctrine with human reason, or even with the too far to desire of that house to words of the speech itself, in anexpress their opinion of the necessity. other paragraph, that the court of

of a measure of so extreme a nature, Denmark should be in amily with ** without the most distaut tittle of France at a time when France was evidence to justify it. His grace carrying on hostilities against Russia! herefore moved, that the clause re- or if it could be supposed, that bespecting the expedition to the Baltic, tween the period of the battle which in the redress, should be omitted. preceded the peace of Tilsit, and

The amendment proposeil was our attack on Copenhagen, these seconded by lord visount Sid- stores had been collected? Where Imouth. The speech referred to then were the demonstrations of the fact of his majesty having hostility manifested on the part of


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