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it, leaving the end out. Then cover it three or four inches deep: with earth, having first secured it in its place with a hooked peg.'. The layers of some trees root the same summer, others require three or four years.
Grafting ---Apple and pear trees are grafted upon apple, pear, and quince stocks. The pear is also grafted upon the thorn, but it is a method not to be recommended. Some persons graft cherry and plum trees, but the proper way is to bud them; directions for doing which shall be given at the right season. Scions are to be taken from the middle of last year's shoots, and selected from the side branches of healthy trees that have borne fruit.
Whip Grafting, is performed on stocks, the dia. meter of which does not much exceed that of the scion. The head of the stock is to be cut off in a sloping direction, and the lower part of the scion in the opposite, exactly as if it were intended to splice them, as is done with a fishing-rod, or whip handle. A slit is then to be made downwards, rather above the pith of the stock, and a similar one upwards in the scion. The part of the seion, above the cleft, (technically, tongue) is then to be inserted in the slit made in the stock, placing it so that the bark of the sciou may accurately join that of the stock on one side at least.
Root Grafting, is performed on pieces of the small roots of apple and pear trees, by whip grafting. Select such as are well furnished with fibres. The grafts are to be planted so deep that the clay be buried,
Cleft Grafting, is executed on larger stocks. The head of the tree is sawn off obliquely, and the upper part of the sloping surface pared, so as to make it horizontal. The stock is cleft across the horizontal part, by driving a chisel into it a little on one side of the pith. The lower part of the scion, for an inch and a half, is formed like a wedge, but a little thicker on one side than the other, much in the shape of the blade of a pen-knife; it is then placed in the cleft, the thickest edge outwards, and its bark corresponding exactly with the inner bark of the stock. On withdrawing the chisel, the cleft will close upon it, and secure it firmly. Or the head of the stock may be cut off horizontally, and three or four scions inserted into a corresponding number of clefts.
Crown Grafting, is resorted to when the stock is so thick that it cannot be easily split. The head is sawn off horizontally, and the section pared smooth. The scion, or pen, is cut in a sloping direction, for an inch and a half, and at the upper part of the cut, a small shoulder is made to rest upon the stock. The bark of the stock is then gently raised, so that the pen may be thrust down between the bark and wood, till the shoulder rests upon the wood of the stock. Several pens may be inserted round the edge of the stock,
Whatever method is adopted, the stocks must be neatly bound round with a piece of bass-mnat, (worsted will do) and clayed over. Apply the clay in the form of a ball, terminating an inch above the stock, and as much below the bottom of the scion.
E. W. B.
Nurseryman. Birmingham, Feb. 6, 1824.
P.S. Answer to the query of " why it is a bad practice to water transplanted trees, excepting when it is necessary to remove them at an improper season?" Between the fall and spring of the leaf the roots of trees are in a very slightly absorbent state, and the only effect of water (except in very sandy soils) then applied, is to cause the smaller and wounded roots to rot; and with regard to setting the earth, a little care in returning it into the hole is all that is necessary.
* A young
WINTER GREENS. To the Editor of the Cottager's Monthly Visitor.
SIR, Every cottager knows the value of winter greens, which form such a pleasant addition to his bit of bacon. But many do not know the best sorts : and others suffer their ground to be occupied during the winter with old cabbage stumps, which may throw out a few sprouts in a mild autumn, but which the first severe frost usually kills. The Horticultural. Society has published a list of all the winter greens ; and, having myself tried them for three years, I am able to state what those are which I should think best for a cottager's garden.
1. The first sort which comes in after the summer cabbages is the “ savoy," which is so well known that I need not say any thing about it.
2. The second sort which I recommend is, the “ Brussels sprout.” This is not yet very generally known, the proper sort having been only introduced into England since the peace. It has a long stalk which bears small close green heads all the way up. Those who live at some distance from London will, perhaps, find a difficulty in getting seed or plants: but it will be soon inore known, as it is a most delicious vegetable, and very productive.
3. The next sort which I recommend, is the green borecole, or Scotch kale. This is a fine tall curley green. It is much cultivated in Oxfordshire, and many other parts, but is not so much known as it deserves to be, for it is a most excellent vegetable, very easily cultivated, and capable of enduring very severe frosts.ii08.
4. The last sort which I recommend, is the Buda kale, called also the Manchester, the Russian, or Prussian kale. This is a short plant with little or no stem. It is very hardy. The frost of last win,
ter, which killed all the other greens in a cold situation, did not hurt this sort at all. It remains till late in the spring before it pushes to flower, and so keeps up the supply of greens till the early cabbages are ready
These four sorts will keep up a constant supply from November till May. If a cottager has a large garden, he should have some of each. If he has room for one sort only, he should, without doubt, choose the Scotch kale.
Cultivation. The three first sorts may be gown in the third week in March, or not later than the first week in April, and the strongest plants put out in June, leaving others which are smaller, to be planted out in July. The Buda kale should not be sown till the middle of May, nor planted out till Julyo
W.E. H. S. N. Oxon. Feb. 10. 1824
A CAREFUL COUPLE. To the Editor of the Cottager's Monthly Visitor.
Sir, I Am a constant reader of your useful publication, and observe that you are willing to receive little histories of worthy characters. I send you the enclosed, which I know to be perfectly true; it is an instance of the advantages arising from industry and economy.
Thomas and Mary R-, lived fellow-servants for many years, in one family. He served in the capacity of coachman, and it is probable the woman filled the station of upper housemaid, or lady's maid, as she accompanied the family when they travelled. They did not marry until they had saved a sum sufficient to buy a little farm, but I am uncertain whether it enabled then to stock it. They, however, let the land for twenty-seven pounds per annum, reserving the house belonging to it, for their own residence. They lived many years comfortably and creditably on this small income, maintained a little girl, a great niece of the husband, whom they put to a day-school in the neighbourhood. When she grew old enough, they taught her to be useful in household work, and finally procured a respectable service for her. They kept bees, and always made mead of the honey. An elder tree in their garden, supplied them with a little cask of wine, and if a friend called, there was generally a piece of plain cake offered with the above mentioned beverages. They killed bacon in the winter, but they never ate butcher's meat, or poultry, excepting when invited to a neighbour's table, which was often the case, as they made a very decent appearance, and were respected for their good character. The house and garden were always in the neatest order. Their highest gratification seemed to consist in giving, what they called a bean feast, at the time when that vegetable was in perfection. They invited those who had regaled them, to a dinner of bacon, beans, and a gooseberry pie. Some of the guests generally sent them a hot joint of meat, at the hour appointed, and others contributed their best home-brewed beer. I once saw them on t this joyous festival. The parish Church was nearly three miles from their humble dwelling, yet they resorted thither as often as the weather and their healths would admit. They were very charitable to their former neighbours, though both were incapacitated from adding to their income, being afflicted with the rheumatism, since I became acquainted with them. I wish there were inore instances of good management. If you think this worthy of a place in your Monthly Visitor; you are Welcome to insert it. At the time of which I am