Quantum Paradoxes and Physical Reality

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Springer Science & Business Media, 31 дек. 1989 г. - Всего страниц: 374
Although the debate about the true nature of the quantum behavior of atomic systems has never ceased, there are two periods during which it has been particularly intense: the years that saw the founding of quantum mechanics and, increasingly, these modern times. In 1954 Max Born, on accepting the Nobel Prize for his 'fundamental researches in quantum mechanics', recalled the depth of the disagreements that divided celebrated quantum theorists of those days into two camps: . . . when I say that physicists had accepted the way of thinking developed by us at that time, r am not quite correct: there are a few most noteworthy exceptions - namely, among those very workers who have contributed most to the building up of quantum theory. Planck himself belonged to the sceptics until his death. Einstein, de Broglie, and Schriidinger have not ceased to emphasize the unsatisfactory features of quantum mechanics . . . . This dramatic disagreement centered around some of the most funda mental questions in all of science: Do atomic objects exist il1dependently of human observations and, if so, is it possible for man to understand correctly their behavior? By and large, it can be said that the Copenhagen and Gottingen schools - led by Bohr, Heisenberg, and Born, in particula- gave more or less openly pessimistic answers to these questions.
 

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Содержание

Quantum Theorists and the Physical World
1
12 The Older Generation
4
13 The Middle Generation
8
14 The Younger Generation
17
15 Conclusions
24
Is Quantum Mechanics a Complete Theory?
33
22 De Broglies Paradox
36
23 The Spin12 System in Quantum Mechanics
40
48 Further Ideas about WaveParticle Duality
171
The EinsteinPodolskyRosen Paradox
181
52 Bohrs Answer
187
53 Two Types of State Vectors
191
54 Spin States for Two Particles
197
55 Reality and Separability
200
Quantum Mechanics Complete
204
Quantum Mechanics not Complete
210

24 A Simple Proof of von Neumanns Theorem
44
25 The Theorem is not General Enough
48
Assumptions Definitions and Results
51
27 General Proof of von Neumanns Theorem
54
28 Jauch and Pirons Theorem
61
29 The Debate on Impossibility Proofs
69
The WaveParticle Duality
73
32 Duality for Neutrons
77
33 Einsteins Discovery of Duality
81
34 De Broglies Duality
86
35 Schrodingers Waves
92
36 Bohrs Complementarity
97
37 Focks Relativity with Respect to the Means of Observation
103
38 Heisenberg Beyond Complementarity
107
39 The Consciousness Interpretation
111
310 Delayed Choices
114
311 How to do what Complementarity Forbids
118
Properties of Quantum Waves
123
42 Experiments on the Nature of Duality
130
43 Stimulated Emission
137
44 Quantitative Empty Wave Amplification
144
45 Two Further Experimental Proposals
156
46 TripleSlit Experiments
160
47 The BohmAharonov Effect
167
58 From Theory to Practice
216
59 The Experimental Information
226
Modifying the Past
235
Superluminal Connections
240
New Definitions of Probability
247
Modifications of Quantum Theory
254
The EPR Paradox in the Real World
264
62 Probabilistic Einstein Locality
269
63 New Proof of Bells Inequality
276
64 Probabilities for Pairs of Correlated Systems
279
65 A New Factorizability Condition
285
66 All the Inequalities of Einstein Locality
290
67 Tests of the EPR Paradox in Particle Physics
302
68 On the Possibility of New Experiments
307
69 Variable Probabilities
310
Perspectives of Physical Realism
321
72 Mathematics and Reality
325
73 The Role of History of Physics
334
74 Fragmentation of Modern Physics
338
75 Niels Bohr and Philosophy
345
76 Quantum Physics and Biological Sciences
352
77 Forms of Physical Realism
356
Index
367
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