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tors. M. Schwein, less vehement and of his private fortune to the accumulation adroit than Mirabean, but often as irre- of the numerous works on the subject sistible as the English Brougham. A published by his predecessors, as well as priest, Stenhammer, whose fiery elo- of all sorts of documents, especially obquence produces as strong an effect from jects of antiquity, necessary for its illusthe Tribune as in the pulpit. Danielson, tration. He has even visited the places less erudite, less correct perhaps, but he describes ; and, in short, has neglectmore vigorous and naif than his colleague ed no useful research. The King of BaBerg. In poetry, the influence of the Ger- varia, and the Academy of Munich, have man school bas produced of late several hastened to encourage M. Buchner; works remarkable for good sense and the one by his munificence, the other by good taste. M. Tegner has in this art its approbation and advice. He, bowever, surpassed his contemporaries, and given a seems less happy in tracing the history of national colour to the Swedish poetry. the people and their princes, than in deM. Atterborn has published some meri- scribing the country and the antiquities, torious works; but it must be admitted the manners, the customs, the laws, and that these are but few. The fine arts are

the religious ceremonies of its ancient in a deplorable state ; the time of their inhabitants. prosperity is gone by. In architecture the capital cannot shew a single building Temple at Corfu.—The remains of A in good taste, that does not belong to Temple have lately been discovered in the last century, and the paintings in the Corfu by Mr. W. Worsley; respecting old buildings show that pure taste no lon- which the following are some of the partiger rules. In sculpture, M. Dystrom is culars — “ This ruin is situate about half à name still remaining, but the short a league from the city of Cortu, beyond stay he lately made in his native country, the Fontana di Cardachio, and near the and the few works he was employed country-house of General Adam. The upon there, shew that a good sculptor is Temple is a small hexastyle of the Doric held in little estimation. The last exhi- order, the proportions of which, bowever, bition of the academy of painting spoke do not indicate any very high antiquity, the decline of the art, though there the columns being much slenderer than were numerous portraits that shewed those of any of the more celebrated Doric real talent. The dramatic art, music, temples ; those, for instance, of Ægina, and national taste, were naturally exhi- Athens, &c. or the more massive columns bited in all their eclat at the entertain- of the still more ancient Doric temples of inents giren on the marriage of Prince Corinth, Pæstum, &c. Oscar. Instead of a native piece they The pillars are fluted, something above gave “La Cleinence de Titus," which had

seven feet high, and hewn out of one no relation to the solemnity, with a piece, except the capital and the small wretched prologue, perhaps owing to the part of the top of the shaft united with it. want of good actors. In literature, The material is a free-stone found in Corproperly so called, the names of Tegner, fu. Of the peristyle three are still standLagerbielke, and Geyer, are worthy to ing, the six colunins of the back (the rank in any modern nation as ornaments. western) façade, three on the north, and

five on the south, not including the corner In the Museum of Natural History at pillars. As this stone is rather soft, the Berlin is a rock specimen (porphyry, con- surface of the columns is much damaged. taining small particles of hornblend,) taken This little Temple has not been buried at from the highest point which Humboldt once, but at different periods. The several was able to reach on Chimboraço. This accumulations may be perceived, and we celebrated traveller had, with his charac- even distinguish a gradual increase in the teristic spirit, refused his valuable collec- corrosion of the surface of the pillar3. tion of mineralogy to the repeated soli- On both sides of the Temple, at the discitations of Bonaparte, who wished him tance of about twenty feet, two cisterns to give it to the Museum at Paris; and were discovered in a line with an internal though the restoration of his estates, building, which has been called an altar ; which he had lost in the Prussian war, they are square, forty feet deep, and end was proffered as a compensation, Hum- below in small square chambers, from boldt presented the whole to the Berlin which there are subterraneous channels Museum.

hewn in the rock. No fragments of sculpBavaria.-Professer Buchner, of Ratis- ture or inscriptions have been dug up; bon, has within the last three years pub- some coins were found, but no rare ones. lished two rolumes respecting the History There is one of silver, with a Corcyrian of Bavaria, derived from various sources. bow, (of the time of the Archons, if not This author has devoted the greater part earlier,) and some of bronze, perbaps of


more numerous

the same period; one of Leucas, some of In all great cities in America, the fethe Corinthian colonies, with the usual males are more numerous than the males. type, the Pegasus, and several of the The average of the six largest cities, Bos. time of the Roman Emperors. Mr. Mus- ton, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, toxidi, in the third book of his work upon Charleston, and New Orleans, gives 109 Coreyra, observes that Strabo (in the 2d females to every 100 males, while the Book) speaks of a temple on this spot. average of the whole United States gives He also quotes an inscription explained by but 97 females to every 100 males, makMaffei, in which it is said that this Temple ing the females in the cities about twelve was repaired, and the wall which supports per cent. more numerous than in the the eminence was erected ; that a serpent country at large. This great excess of made of metal was given as a present, female population in the large cities, is and an altar, marked with the initial letter to be attributed in part to the fact that A: that the two cisterns were made, as many of the males are engaged in occuwell as several subterraneous channels, pations in which there is unusual risk of to unite the waters and lead them to the life. The seamen, for example, are arsenal. The inscription concludes with taken principally from the towns on the the remark that much saltpetre (?) was coast. This, however, does not account used in building the altars, and with a ca- for the whole difference; for it is a sintalogue of the expenses. We see from it gular fact that in every one of the above that the Temple was dedicated to Ascle- mentioned cities, among the children pios, and that the arsenal must have been under sixteen years of age, where of near it. The site of the Temple is pictu- course the cause referred to does not ope. resque. At the bottom of a pleasant hill, rate, the females are planted with olive-trees, are its ruins than the males; while in every state in hanging over a precipice, into which the the Union, the fact is the reverse ; and in whole of the east front and part of the two the new States especially, the excess of sides have fallen. Directly under the males among the children is very great. ruins, on the precipice, is the fountain of In the states of Alabama, Mississippi, Cardachio. Formerly there was a modern Indiana, Mlinois, and Missouri, for examchurcb on this spot, but not a trace of it ple, all of which have been recently setnow remains. This church was dedicated tled, there are among the children under to St. Nicholas, for which reason it is ten years of age, 76,067 boys, and 70,038 pretty generally affirmed in Corfu that the girls; that is, for every 100 boys there Temple must bave been consecrated to are only 92 girls; in the old States of Neptune, for, as you well know, St. New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Nicholas, among us Greeks, has in some Island, Connecticut, and the district of measure succeeded to the office of the Colombia, there are 158,113 boys, and God of the Sea. Opposite the ruins we 153,384 girls; that is, for every 100 boys see the rock of St. Michael, called the there are 97 girls; whilst in the six largest Fortezza Vecchia, the Island of Illyria, cities, there are, under ten years of age, and, in the background, the majestic 38,319 boys, and 38,223 girls; that is, for mountains of Epirus."

every 100 boys there are nearly 100 girls. AMERICA.

American Tea.-A letter from W. Y. New York is now amply provided with Lewis, of New Orleans, states, that Mr. water from the river Schuylkill; an ex- Mallet, of Louisiana, had succeeded in pensive establishment having been just raising Green Tea from the seed. His finisbed for that purpose at Mount Fair plantation is near the river Amite. The above the city at the falls of the Schuyl- bed of shrubs is of considerable extent. kill; the expense of which is 426,330 The climate appears to favour its growth. pounds sterling. At these falls the river Mr. M. thinks the shrub might be cultiis 900 feet broad, and its greatest depth is vated with perfect success if proper atthirty feet. By means of eight wheels tention was paid to it. A specimen of and the same number of pumps, ten mil- the Hyson Tea thus raised in the South, lions of gallons of water can be thrown accompanied Mr. Lewis's letter, and on into the reservoir every day. There are repeated trial bas been found to be palatwo reservoirs, one of which is 139 feet table and refreshing. The rolling and wide, 362 long, and 12 deep, and con- twisting operation upon the leaves, and tains about 3,000,000 of gallons, com- the scenting and flavouring by other sweet municating with the second holding scented substances, seem to be all that 4,000,000. The water is raised 56 feet was wanting to render it equal to the above the highest ground of the city, and article we import from Canton. In short is distributed in cast-iron pipes a length there is every reason to believe that the of 35,200 feet. These pipes were all cast United States is as favourable as China in America.

for the cultivation of the Tea Plant.


Account of a new Esculent Vegetable the following treatment: the seed should called Tetragonia, or New Zealand Spinach. be sown in the latter end of March in a -Though known to botanists, says Mr. pot, which must be placed in a melon Anderson, for many years, and notwith- frame; the seedling plants, while small, standing its value as an esculent had been should be set out singly in small pots, and ascertained by the first discoverers of the kept under the shelter of a cold frame, plant, the tetragonia expansa has been until about the twentieth of May, when only cultivated as a matter of curiosity the mildness of the season will probably till within these few years. The Count allow of their being planted out, without D'Ourches, who had obtained seeds of it risk of being killed by frost. At that from the Jardin du Roi, at Paris, first time a bed must be prepared for the republished an account of it as an esculent, ception of the plants, by forming a trench and a notice respecting it, which had not two feet wide, and one foot deep, which been given before, is inserted among the must be filled level to the surface with esculent vegetables in the Bon Jardinier rotten dung from an old cucumber bed; of the present year. In the spring of the dung must be covered with six inches 1820, M. Vilmorin sent a small packet of garden mould, thus creating an eleof the seeds to the Horticultural Society vated ridge in the iniddle of the bed, the as a novelty; these were sown in the sides of which must extend three feet from garden of the Society at Kensington, and the centre. The plants must be put out the excellence of the plant was admitted three feet apart; 1 planted mine at only by several persons who tasted it. Last two feet distance from each other, but winter, Lord Essex brought some of the they were too near, In five or six weeks seeds from Paris, which I raised, and from the planting, their branches will their produce has been continually used have grown sufficiently to allow the gaat Cassiobury through the summer, and thering of the leaves for use.

In dry up to the present time.

seasons, the plants will probably require Our first knowledge of this plant was a good supply of water. They put forth derived from Sir Joseph Banks, who dis- their branches vigorously as soon as they covered it in the beginning of the year have taken to the ground, and extend 1770, at Queen Charlotte's Sound, in before the end of the season three feet on New Zealand, when with Captain Cook each side from the centre of the bed. The in his first voyage round the world. In branches are round, numerous, succulent, the account of that voyage, edited by Dr. pale-green, thick, and strong, somewhat Hawkesworth, it is mentioned amongst procumbent, but elevating their terminathe plants of New Zealand as having been tions. The leaves are fleshy, growing almet with once or twice, “ and resembling ternately at small distances from cach the plant called by country people lamb’s- other, on shortish petioles; they are of a quarters or fat-hen; it was boiled and daltoid shape, but rather elongated, being eaten instead of greens." Specimens and from two to three inches broad at the seeds were brought to England, and its top, and from three to four inches long; introduction by Sir Joseph Banks to Kew the apex is almost sharp-pointed, and the gardens is recorded to have taken place two extremities of the base are bluntly in 1772. The value of the plant became rounded; the whole leaf is smooth, with more known in Captain Cook's second entire edges dark green above, below voyage.

Forster, who went with that paler, and thickly studded with aqueous expedition, found it also at Queen Char- tubercles; the mid-rib and veins project lotte's Sound in great abundance in 1773; conspicuously on the under surface. The and during the stay of the ships at that flowers are sessile in the alæ of the leaves, place, the sailors were daily supplied with small and green, and, except tbat they shew it at their meals. Thunberg found it their yellow antheræ when they expand, growing wild in Japan, where it is called they are very inconspicuous. The fruit isura na, or creeping cabbage. Besides when ripe has a dry pericarp of a rude the works above-mentioned, it has also shape, with four or five horn-like probeen described and figured by Scopoli, by cesses inclosing the seed, which is to be Roth, and by M. de Candolle. Several seen in its covering. In gathering for use, of the writers which I have referred to the young leaves must be pinched off the note the plant as biennial, but in our cli- branches, taking care to leave the leading mate it certainly is only an annual shoot uninjured ; this, with the smaller From the experience which I have had in branches which subsequently arise from the cultivation of the tetragonia, in the the alæ of the leaves which have been present year, I can venture to recommend gathered, will produce a supply until a late period in the year, for the plants are frequent sowing of spinach through the sufficiently hardy to withstand the frosts warm season of the year ; without that which kill nasturtiums, potatoes, and trouble it is impossible to have it good, such tender vegetables. The tetragonia and with the utmost care it cannot always is, I understand, dressed exactly in the be even so obtained exactly as it ought to same manner as spinach, and whether be (particularly when the weather is hot boiled plain or stewed, is considered by and dry), from the rapidity with which many superior to it; there is a softness the young plants run to seed. There and 'mildness in its taste, added to its seems considerable difficulty in obtaining flavour, which resembles that of spinach, the seeds of the tetragonia ; the rapid in which it has an advantage over that growth and succulence of the shoots, in herb. My whole crop in the present year consequence of the bed being so highly consisted solely of nine plants, and from manured, prevent their ripening, and I these I have been enabled to send in a am disposed to think it will be desirable gathering for the kitchen every other to make a separate plantation on a poorday since the middle of June, so that I er soil for the especial purpose of getting consider a bed with about twenty plants seed, or perhaps to retain some plants in quite sufficient to give a daily supply if garden pots, to be kept stunted and dry, required, for a large table. The great and to be treated as ice-plants usually advantage of this vegetable is as a sub


when sced is designed to be obtained stitute for summer spinach. Every gar- from them.-Trans. Hurt. Society. dener knows the plague that attends the

USEFUL ARTS. Mr. T. GAUNTLETT's Patent for Im- spiration which ensues ; so that, on all provements on Vapour Baths:- This inven- accounts, the vapour-bath is safer, as it tion consists in a portable apparatus, is in most cases more effectual, than the which Mr.G. calls a portable vapour-bath, hot-water bath, and may be employed and by means of which apparatus he con- with success where the hot-bath would veys steam, for the purposes of a vapour- be attended with danger. The vapourbath, in two or more directions at the bath may be applied to the whole body, same time, and by the same movement; or to any part of it: its immediate effects one of the two directions being under or are, to excite or increase the action of immediately about the feet, and the other the superficial arteries, by which the deor others upwards generally, into a casing termination of blood to the deeper-seated or dress, suspended by a portable frame parts is diminished : this increase of cirover the patient. And the invention also culation at the surface of the body proconsists in such an arrangement of the duces a copious perspiration, which may said apparatus, that the said two or more be continued, as it is excited, at pleasure. different directions may be given to the It should, however, always cease before steam, and the steam regulated either by debility begins. The utility of this apthe patient or an assistant by means of a plication is obvious in all cases of interhandle and universal joint, which handle nal inflammation ; it draws a great quanmay be brought by means of the universal tity of blood to the surface, and relieves joint to any situation most convenient to the internal parts by the secretion of the meet the hand of the operator. This va- skin, which is the mode nature takes pour-bäth is simple in its construction, to resolve inflainmations and fevers. Beand effectual in its application; it is well sides an increased perspiration, other adapted for the use of hospitals and dis- effects are produced on the system ; pensaries ; and is calculated, from its equal and due action is restored to the simplicity and efficacy, to bring into surface, and a highly-agreeable sensation gencral use an agreeable and salutary is produced, which renders the influence practice, as well as a powerful remedy, of cool air safe and desirable. The boiler in many obstinate diseases. In this ap- should receive about three quarts of waparatus the stimulant power of heat is ter, which is sufficient for the production modified and tempered by the moisture of steam, at the requisite temperature, diffused through the air ; and, as the for one hour's use. It should be a clear elastic vapour, like air, is a less powerful fire ; and, if of coal, a little small wood conductor of heat than a watery fluid, the is found useful in regulating the heat. effect of vapour in raising the tempera- Any volatile substance may be introduced ture of the body is much less than that of into the receiver, as camphor, &c. for the the hot-bath. Its heating effect is also purpose of medicating the vapour, which farther diminished by the copious per- is found highly beneficial in many cutaneous affections and rheumatic com- blish a model brick-yard with improved plaints. The apparatus, when used near overs for baking the bricks. Three or the bedside, is not attended with any in- four men can produce, it is said, with convenience as to the production of damp. this machine from 10 to 12,000 bricks ness, all the condensed vapour being com- daily, of different forms. pletely absorbed by the calico covering Hatching Fish.-The Chinese have a meor hood.

thod of hatching the spawn of fish, and Tanning.-Mr. G. Spilsbury of Walsal thus protecting it from those accidents has succeeded in reducing the hitherto which ordinarily destroy so large a portedious process of tanning to a very short tion of it. The fishermen collect with period. Skins are prepared by his pro- care on the margin and surface of waters cess in nine days, requiring by the old all those gelatinous masses which contain six weeks or two months. Moderately the spawn of tish. After they have found thick hides gtb inch thick in six weeks : a sufficient quantity, they fill with it the these take commonly from pine to twelve shell of a fresh len egg, which they have months. The leather is in every respect previously emptied, stop up the hole, and equal in strength and toughness, and will put it under a sitting fowl. At the expibe superior to any hitherto produced. ration of a certain number of days, they There is no difference in the substances break the shell in water warmed by the employed, but only in the method of sun. The young fry are presently hatched, applying them. The principle is pressure. and are kept in pure fresh water till they This important invention bas been secured are large enough to be thrown into the by patents for the three kingdoms. pond with the old fish. The sale of spawn

Brick-making—A patent has been grant- for this purpose forms an important ed at St. Petersburgh for a press for making branch of trade in China. In this, as bricks, which is not only to diminish the in some other matters, we may perhaps labour, but perfect the form of the brick. take some useful lessons from the ChiBy means of this machine, not only nese.

The destruction of the spawn of bricks, both solid and hollow, can be fish by troll-nets, threatens the existence made, but tubes, straight or crooked, of the fishery in many parts. While so cornices, flutes for columns, and other much care is taken for the preservation of architectural ornaments. The patentee game, some care ought to be bestowed on is a Mr. Thomas, who proposes to esta- the preservation of fish.


J. Ranking, of New Bond-street, for the means of securing valuable property in mail and other stage coaches, travelling carriages, waggons, caravans, and other similar public and private vehicles, from robbery. November 1, 1823.

G. Hawkes, of Lucas-place, Commercial--road, Stepney Old Town, for an improvement in the construction of ships' anchors. November 1, 1823.

G. Hawkes, of Lucas-place, Commercial-road, for certain improvements on capstans. November 1, 1823.

W. Bundy, of Fulhain, for an anti-evaporating, cooler, to facilitate and regulate the refrigerating of worts or wash in all seasons of the year, from any degree of heat between boiling and the temperature required for fermenting. November 1, 1823.

T. F. Gimson, of Tiverton, for improvements in, and additions to, machinery pow in use for doubu liug and twisting coltod, silk, and other fibious substances. Partly communicated to him by a certain person residing abroad. November 6, 1823.

T. Gawan, of Fleec-street, for improvements on trusses. November 11, 1823.

J. Day, of Barnstaple, for improvements ou percussion guo-locks, applicable to various descriptions of fire-arms. November 13, 1823.

J. Ward, of Grove-road, Mile End-road, for inprovements in the construction of locks and other fastenings. Noveinber 13, 1823.

S. Servill, of Brown's-hóll, Gloucestershire, for a mode or improvement for dressing of woolleu or other cloths. November 13, 1823.

R. Green, of Lisle-street, for improvements in constructing gambadoes, or mud bools, and attache ing spuis therelo; and part of which said improvements are applicable to other boots. November 13, 1823.

R. Stain, of the Tower Brewery, London, for an improved construction of a blast-furnace, and apparatus to be connected therewith, which is adapted to burn or consume fuel in a more economical and useful manner than has been hitherto practised. November 13, 1823.

J. Gillman, of Newgate-street, London, and J. H. Wilson, of Manchester, for improvements in the manufacture of hats and bonnets. November 18, 1823.

J. Heathcoat, of Tiverton, for a machine for the manufacture of a platted substance, composed either of silk, cotton, or other thread or yarn. November 20, 1823.

T. Hopper, of Reading, for improvements in the manufacture of silk-hats. November 20, 1823.

A. Deane, of Deptford, for an apparatus or machine to be worn by persons entering rooms or other places filled with smoke or other vapour, for the purpose of extinguishing fire, or extricating persons or property therefrom. November 20, 1893

J. Perkins, of Hul-street, London, and J. Martineay the younger, of the City-road, Middlesex, for au improvement in the construction of the furnace of steam-boilers and other vessels, by which fuel is economised and the smoke cousumed. November 20, 1823.

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