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for a half beer-glass of common spirits. From the day of crossimg the Niemen, during the whole of the march, not a dozen peasants were seen on either side of the route. Every thing was burnt up, destroyed, or removed. At the battle of Smolensko, the infantry alone were at first engaged, the cavalry on both sides lining the opposite banks of the river, in separate squadrons for a long distance, to prevent a surprise on either flank. But in the battle of Mojaisk, or Borodino, the cavalry had a large part. There he had two horses killed under him. Nothing can be said sufficient to give an idea of the horrors of that battle. The French troops, contrary to their usual custom, fought in a mournful silence. Cavalry and infantry, Cossacks and artillery, all were mixed together in the promiscuous carnage. The battle began at four in the morning, and the last cannon-shot was fired about nine at night.' pp. 167-169.

It is impossible, by any description, to exaggerate the horrors of the retreat. It was three hundred thousand men put to suffer all that human nature could endure, without entire destruction. His horses all died, and he was obliged to walk in the severity of the cold with his feet nearly bare. He saw forty louis given for a place in a common cart, for a distance of thirty miles; and a General, after making a bargain of that kind, being benumbed by the cold, was pushed out by common soldiers who had previously occupied the seats, and left to perish on the road' pp. 170, 171.

The post-waggons of Germany seem to afford a traveller very little prospect of comfort.

The hour appointed was eleven o'clock, but we did not depart till two. I then, with some astonishment, mounted a long narrow covered cart, or waggon, across which three or four seats were slung, and the after part of which was stuffed with packages. Six other passengers, of whom two were Jews, took their places at the same time. Those on the hinder seat were in the dark, and those in front had no room to extend themselves, or with difficuity to change their position. This, however, I was told, being covered, was a carriage of the first class.'

P 43.

In five hours they had travelled sixteen miles. No wonder that poor Mr. S. should declare in a pet, that it is hardly possible for the ancient Germans to have used ruder vehicles, than those hourly seen in the heart of civilized Germany,' 71; especially as his companions were none of the most pleasant; they repeated, and praised with enthusiasm,' Buonaparte's proclamation to his army at the commencement of the campaign, and expressed great surprise that our traveller should regard a most brilliant sun-rise with any kind of delight.

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On the whole, the book is mere chit-chat, and, as it is not very entertaining chit-chat, we do not see any very sufficient reason for its publication.

Art. VI. Clavis Calendaria; or, a Compendious Analysis of the Calendar illustrated with Ecclesiastical, Historical, and Classical Anecdotes. By John Brady. 2 vols. 8vo. pp. xxxvi. 782. price 11. 5s. boards. Longman and Co. 1813.

Art. VII. Time's Telescope for 1814; or, a Complete Guide to the Almanack containing an Explanation of Saints' Days and Holidays; with Illustrations of British History and Antiquities, and Notices of obsolete Rites and Customs. Astronomical Occurrences in every Month; comprising the Marks on the Phenomena of the Celestial Bodies, and a Popular View of the Solar System. The Naturalist's Diary; explaining the various Appearances in the Animal and Vegetable Kingdoms; and Meteorological Remarks. 12mo. pp. xxxvi. 370. Price 7s 6d. Sherwood and Co. 1814. AS these two works are both calculated to illustrate the calendar, and to enable persons to consult almanacks, generally, with greater interest, we shall speak of them in the same article; describing them separately, however, in the order of their dates.

Mr. Brady's work commences with an introductory essay, of about 140 pages, on time, its subdivisions, and its measures. Here he traces the origin of the year, the different lengths which have been assigned to it, and the various calendars, from the original Alban or Latin calendar, to the comparatively recent one of the French revolutionists: next he sketches the history of almanacks, including that of the run-stick, and other rude contrivances; then he describes the several kinds of months, as lunar, solar, &c. and traces the origin and authors of their several names: this is succeeded by similar inquiries into the origin of the minuter portion, a week, and of the names of the seven days in a week, the latter being illustrated by seven delicately engraved figures of Sun, Monan, Tuysco, Woden, Thor, Friga, and Seater: from these he descends to hours, (natural, Jewish, planetary, &c.) to minutes, and to seconds. Here, also, this author has given an account of several kinds of instruments which have been employed to measure time, from the simple sun-dial to the complex chronometer. Much of this preliminary matter is erudite and interesting; and well calculated to impart instruction to young persons.

Mr. Brady next proceeds to an orderly and pretty copious explication of the several particulars in our modern calendars, as they occur in each respective month. In pursuing this plan, he, of course, gives a great deal of miscellaneous, and sometimes of curious information. Accounts of ancient or of modern ceremonies observed on certain days, details of monkish superstitions, of Romish festivals, of papistical legends, of mythological stories, of humorous practices, and

of idle superstitions, are blended promiscuously with authentic histories and biographical sketches of the few great men whose names adorn the calendar; and among these, again, will be found accounts of the origin and object of different civil and ecclesiastical laws, and splendid examples of magnanimous, virtuous, or holy conduct. The author has endeavoured to gratify the present taste of a numerous class of persons for miscellaneous reading; though it must be allowed that, in general, he has as much aimed at their instruction as their amusement.

They who are conversant in this class of inquiries, are well aware, that Mr. Brady must have freely availed himself of the previous labours of Verstegan, Brand, Ellis, Shepherd, &c. although he may have condensed the results of their enquiries, and given them in his own language. But, be this as it may, it is impossible for any man of moderately correct judgment, to write with such aids, and not produce an interesting work. From such a performance it is easy to make quotations; but the limits we must assign to this article will compel us to be sparing. first relates to the subject of New Years' Gifts.


The Romans who settled in Britain soon spread this custom among our forefathers, who afterwards getting into the habit of making presents to the magistrates, some of the fathers of the church wrote against the immoralities committed under the protection thus purchased, and the magistrates were forced to relinquish their advantages. The nation however continued the custom through all ranks in social life, from age to age; while it is also to be remarked that TOKENS, Considered as a more respectable term than Gifts, were continued to be received and bestowed by our monarchs and nobles, until the reign of James the Second. Bishop Latimer sent to Henry the Eighth a New Testament, richly illuminated, with an inscription on its cover, expressive of what he wished to impress upon his royal master's mind, though perhaps under no other licence dared he to have offered it; The words were, "Fornicatores et adulteros judicavit Dom nus;" of the intended application of which, Henry was but too conscious. Sir William Paget, afterwards Lord Paget, in the same reign, presented to the Duke of Somerset a new year's token, accompanied by a letter couched in terms of advice, which he thought imperiously requisite, though beyond such evident yet disguised reproof, nothing offensive appeared. It was emphatically


"Deliberate maturelye in all things: Execute quicklye the determynations:-Do justice without respecte ;-make assured and stayed wise men mynisters under you: Maynetayne the mynisters in their office: punnyshe the disobedient according to their deserts :-In the King's causes give comyssion in the King's name: rewarde the King's worthye servants liberallye and quicklye; Give your own to your owne, and the King's to the King's franklye;-Dispatche suyters shortlye;

be affable to the good, and stern to the evil: follow advice in coun. sail. Take fee or rewarde of the King onlye: Keepe your mynisters about you incorrupte. Thus God will prosper youe, the King favour youe, and all men love youe."

How far presents to those who had to decide between contending parties, (which first stopped these presents, and with them such occasional seasonable reproof, was fraught with danger, merits perhaps some consideration: there have been instances of judges having been bribed, though certainly not by the trifling presents usually sent as new-year's gifts: and therefore it were uncandid to charge that innocent custom with such gross turpitude. The mere possibility of a suspicion of prejudice in a judge ought, no doubt. to be avoided, and, so, wisely thought the great, but unfortunate Sir Thomas More. -When Mrs. Croaker had obtained a decree in Chancery against Lord Arundel, she availed herself of the first new-year's-day after her success, to present to Sir Thomas, then the Lord Chancellor, a PAIR OF GLOVES, Containing forty pounds in angels, as a token of her gratitude; the gloves he received with satisfaction, these could not per haps, as the offering of the heart, be refused, but the gold he peremptorily, though politely returned: "It would be against good manners to forsake a gentlewoman's new-year's-gift," said that eminent man, "and I accept the gloves; their lining you will be pleased otherwise to bestow." Of presents of gloves many other instances might be adduced, some with linings, as Sir Thomas termed his proffered compliment, some without; and probably we may from thence account for the term "Glove money," to be found in old records, as well as the expression still in use of "Giving a pair of gloves.' pp. 146-149, Vol. I.

This, by a kind of rambling from topic to topic, into which the authors of such books as the present are very apt to fall, leads our author to descant upon the venality of judges; where he either makes a mistake, or expresses himself loosely.

Our present most gracious sovereign (says he) conscious of the high importance of the judicial character, nobly resigned a prero. gative tenaciously retained by his predecessors; and, by the first ACT of his reign, rendered the judges independent of the crown; continuing them in their offices for life, unless removed by an im.. peachment for improper conduct.'

The truth is, that judges were independent of the crown before the present king's reign, but what he earnestly recommended from the throne, was a measure which made them also independent of the king's ministers, and of his successors. In order to maintain both the dignity and independence of the judges in the superior courts, it was enacted by the stat. 13 W. III. c. 2, that their commissions should be made (not as formerly durante bene placito, but) quam diu se bene gesserint, and their salaries established; but that it may be lawful to remove them op VOL. XI.

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the address of both Houses of Parliament. After this, the stat. 1 Ann, c. 8. continued the commissions of the judges for six months after the demise of the crown. But now, by the stat. 1 Geo. III. c. 23, the judges are kept in their offices during their good behaviour, notwithstanding any such demise. This extension of privilege, however, is of the utmost importance, and reflects the highest honour upon the monarch who recommended it.

The legal information given by our author under his account of Bishop Blaze, will be interesting to many:

By the statute 35th George the Third, all those who have served apprenticeship to the trade of a woolcomber, or who are by law entitled to exercise the same, and also their wives and children, may set up and exercise such trade, or any other trede or business they are apt and able for, in any town or place within this kingdom.”'

The following anecdote, respecting the behaviour of his present majesty at his coronation, deserves to be recorded and remembered.


The whole behaviour of George the Third, at his coronation, (says Bishop Newton) was justly admired and commended by every one, and particularly his manner of ascending and seating himself on his throne after his Coronation. No actor in the character of Pyrrhus, in the Distrest Mother,' (not even BOOTH himself, who was celebrated for it in the Spectator,) ever ascended the throne with so much grace and dignity. There was another particular which those only could observe who sat near the communion table, as did the prebendaries of Westminster. When the king approached the communion table, in order to receive the sacrament, he enquired of the archbishop, whether he should not lay aside the crown,'-the archbishop asked the Bishop of Rochester; but neither of them could say what had been the usual form. The King determined within himself that humility best became such a solemn act of devotion; and took off his crown, and laid it down during the administration.'

Mr. Brady gives an interesting account of the principal circumstances of the trial, sufferings, and death, of Charles the First. But there are one or two particulars mentioned in the Life of Philip Henry" (who himself was at Whitehall when that ill-fated monarch was beheaded) which we should like to see introduced into such collections as the "Ciavis Calendaria."

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With a very sad heart he saw that tragical blow given and two things he used to speak of that he took notice of himself that day, which I know not whether any of the historians mention.


was, that at the instant when the blow was given, there was such a dismal universal groan among the thousands of people that were within sight of it (as it were with one consent) as he never heard before, and desired he might never hear the like again, nor sce such a cause for it. The other was-' -That immediately after the stroke ⚫ was struck, there was, according to order, one troop marching from

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