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SEC. 4.-President and Vice-President to be removed on impeach-
SEC. 1.-Judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court and inferior
Courts, to be established by Congress.
Judges to hold office during good behavior.
compensation not to be diminished during
SEC. 2.-1. Jurisdiction to extend to all cases arising under the Con-
stitution, laws, and treaties.
to all cases affecting Ambassadors, Ministers,
to all cases of admiralty and maritime juris-
to controversies to which the U. S. is a party.
to controversies between two or more States.
between a State and citizens of another State.
between citizens of different States.
between citizens of the same State claiming
lands under grants of different States.
and between a State, or its citizens, and for-
eign States, citizens, or subjects.
2. Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction
in all cases affecting Ambassadors, Ministers, or
and cases in which a State is a party.
and appellate jurisdiction both as to law and
fact, under regulations to be made by Con-
3. Trials of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, to be
to be had in State where crime has been committed.
SEC. 3.-1. Treason consists in levying war against, or adhering to
no conviction unless on testimony of two wit-
or on confession in open Court.
2. Congress may declare the punishment for treason.
no attainder shall work corruption of blood or
forfeiture beyond the life of the party at-
SEC. 1.-Full faith and credit to be given to public acts, records, and
judicial proceedings of States.
SEC. 2.-1. Citizens of each State are entitled to the privileges and
immunities of citizens in the several States.
2. Fugitives from justice to be delivered up to State having
3. Fugitives from service or labor to be delivered up.
SEC. 3.-1. New States may be admitted by Congress, but they can-
nor by the junction of two or more States without consent
of States concerned and of Congress.
2. Congress may dispose of and make rules and regulations
SEC. 4.-A republican form of government guaranteed to each State,
to be ratified by Legislatures or conventions of
no State, without its consent, can be deprived of
1. All existing liabilities are valid against the U. S.
judges in every State bound thereby.
3. All officers, executive, legislative, and judicial, both Fed-
eral and State, to be bound by oath or affir-
mation to support the Constitution.
no religious test shall be required as a qualifi-
The ratification of nine States sufficient.
Congress can make no law respecting religion.
or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press.
or the right to peaceably assemble and petition for
The right of security against searches and seizures shall not
warrants on probable cause to be supported by
the place, person, and thing to be described in the
Presentment or indictment before grand jury essential to
except as to land or naval forces or militia in
no person to be put twice in jeopardy.
nor be compelled to be witness against himself.
nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property
nor shall private property be taken for public
In criminal trials, accused shall have the right to a speedy
by a jury, of State and district where crime was
and to be confronted with witnesses against him.
and to have compulsory process for witnesses in
and to have the assistance of counsel for his de-
In civil actions, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved
facts tried by jury are re-examinable only according
Excessive bail shall not be required.
Powers not delegated nor prohibited to the States are re-
The judicial power not to extend to actions against a State
Presidential electors to meet in their respective States.
and vote by ballot for President and Vice-Presi-
the ballots for each office to be distinct.
distinct lists to be made, signed, certified, and
transmitted to the President of the Senate.
the President of the Senate to open the certifi-
and the votes shall then be counted.
the person having the greatest number of votes
if there be no majority the House of Represent-
atives shall elect from those having the high-
est number, not exceeding three.
the votes shall be taken by States, each State
a quorum shall consist of a representation from
a majority of all the States necessary to a choice.
if the House neglect to choose a President, the
Vice-President shall act as such.
the person having the greatest number of votes
for Vice-President shall be Vice-President,
if it be a majority of the electors.
if not such majority, then the Senate shall
choose the Vice-President from the two high-
a quorum shall consist of two thirds of the
a majority shall be necessary for a choice.
constitutional ineligibility for President ren-
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except for crime,
SEC. 1.-All persons born or naturalized in the U. S. are citizens of
the U. S. and of the State where they reside.
States cannot abridge the privileges and immu-
nor deprive any person of life, liberty, or prop-
erty without due process of law.
nor deny to any person the equal protection of
SEC. 2.-Representatives shall be apportioned according to the whole
number of persons in each State, exclud-
but when the right to vote is denied to male
Art. XIV, Sec. 2.—Continued.
except for participation in the rebellion or
SEC. 3.-Persons engaged in insurrection or rebellion having previ-
Congress may by a two-third vote of each house re-
SEC. 4.-The validity of the public debt of the U. S., authorized by
debts or obligations incurred in aid of rebellion are ille-
claims for loss or emancipation of any slave are illegal
SEC. 5.-Congress shall have power to enforce these provisions.