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ladies, who stared and smiled, and continued their applauses as another horse fell bleeding to the ground. One bull killed three horses of his own horns. He was saved by acclamations, which were redoubled when it was known he belonged to a priest.

An Englishman, who can be much pleased with secing two men beat themselves to pieces, cannot bear to look at a horse galloping round an arena with his bowels trailing on the ground, and turns from the spectacle and the spectators with horror and disgust.


"And afar The Tiber toinds, and the broad ocean laves The Latian coast," &c. &c.

Stanza clxxiv.

The whole declivity of the Alban hill is of unrivalled beauty, and from the convent on the highest point, which has succecded to the temple of the Latian Jupiter, the prospect ernbraces all objects alluded to in the cited stanza; the Mediterranean, the whole scene of the latter half of the Æneid, and the coast from beyond the mouth of the Tiber to the headland of Circæum and the Cape of Terracina.

The site of Cicero's villa may be supposed either at the Grotta Ferrata, or at the Tusculum of Prince Lucien Buonaparte.

The former was thought some years ago the actual site, as may be seen from Myddleton's Life of Cicero. At present it has lost something of its credit, except for the Domeni. chinos. Nine monks of the Greek order live there, and the adjoining villa is a cardinal's summer-house. The other villa, called Rufinella, is on the summit of the hill above Frascati, and many rich remains of Tusculum have been found there, besides seventy-two statues of different merit and preservation, and seven busts.

From the same eminence are seen the Sabine hills, embosomed in which lies the long valley of Rustica. There are several circumstances which tend to establish the identity of this valley with the “ Ustica" of Horace; and it seems possible that the mosaic pavement which the peasants uncover by throwing up the earth of a vineyard may belong to his villa. Rustica is pronounced short, not according to our stress upon - " Usticæ cubantis." - It is more rational to think that we are wrong, than that the inhabitants of this secluded valley have changed their tone in this word. The addition of the consonant prefixed is nothing ; yet it is necessary to be aware that Rustica may be a modern name which the peasants may have caught from the antiquaries.

The villa, or the mosaic, is in a vineyard on a knoll covered with chestnut trees. A stream runs down the valley ; and although it is not true, as said in the guide books, that this stream is called Licenza, yet there is a village on a rock at the head of the valley which is so denominated, and which may have taken its name from the Digentia. Licenza contains 700 inhabitants. On a peak a little way beyond is Civitella, containing 300. On the banks of the Anio, a little before you turn up into Valle Rustica, to the left, about an hour from the villa, is a town called Vicovaro, another favourable coincidence with the Varia of the poet. At the end of the valley, towards the Anio, there is a bare hill, crowned with a little town called Bardela. At the foot of this hill the rivulet of Licenza flows, and is almost absorbed in a wide sandy bed before it reaches the Anio. Nothing can be more fortunate for the lines of the poet, whether in a metaphorical or direct sease:

"Me quotiens reficit gelidus Digentia rivus,

Quem Mandela bibit rugosus frigore pagus." The stream is clear high up the valley, but before it reaches the hill of Bardela looks green and yellow like a sulphur rivulet.

Rocca Giovane, a ruined village in the hills, half an hour's walk from the vineyard where the pavement is shown, docs seem to be the site of the fane of Vacuna, and an inscription found there tells that this temple of the Sabine Victory was repaired by Vespasian. With these helps, and a position corresponding exactly to every thing which the poet has told us of his retreat, we may feel tolerably secure of our site.

The hill which should be Lucretilis is called Campanile, and by following up the rivulet to the pretended Bandusia, you come to the roots of the higher mountain Gennaro. Singularly cnough, the only spot of ploughed land in the whole valley is on the knoll where this Bandusia rises.

tu frigus amabile Fessis vomere tauris

Præbes, et pecori vago." The peasants show another spring near the mosaic pavement which they call “ Oradina," and which flows down the hills into a tank, or mill-dam, and thence trickles over into the Digentia. But we must not hope

" To trace the Muses upwards to their spring," by exploring the windings of the romantic valley in search of the Bandusian fountain. It seems strange that any one should have thought Bandusia a fountain of the Digentia. – Horace has not let drop a word of it; and this immortal spring has in fact been discovered in possession of the holders of many good things in Italy, the monks. It was attached to the church of St. Gervais and Protais near Venusia, where it was most likely to be found. We shall not be so lucky as a late traveller in finding the occasional pine still pendent on the poetic villa. There is not a pine in the whole valley, but there are two cypresses, which he evidently took, or mistook, for the tree in the ode. The truth is, that the pine is now, as it was in the days of Virgil, a garden tree, and it was not at all likely to be found in the craggy acclivities of the valley of Rustica. Horace probably had one of them in the orchard close above his farm, immediately overshadowing his villa, not on the rocky heights at some distance from his abode. The tourist may have easily supposed himself to have seen this pine figured in the above cypresses ; for the orange and lemon trees which throw such a bloom over his description of the royal gardens at Naples, unless they have been since displaced, were assuredly only acacias and other common garden shrubs.

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His errors,

No. XXXII. -Eustace's CLASSICAL TOUR. The extreme disappointment experienced by choosing the Classical Tourist as a guide in Italy must be allowed to find vent in a few observations, which, it is asserted without fear of contradiction, will be confirmed by every one who has selected the same conductor through the same country. This author is in fact one of the most inaccurate, unsatisfactory writers that have in our times attained a temporary reputation, and is very seldom to be trusted even when he speaks of objects which he must be presumed to have seen. from the simple exaggeration to the downright mis-statement, are so frequent as to induce a suspicion that he had either never visited the spots described, or had trusted to the fidelity of former writers. Indeed, the Classical Tour has every characteristic of a mere compilation of former notices, strung together upon a very slender thread of personal observation, and swelled out by those decorations which are so easily supplied by a systematic adoption of all the common-places of praise, applied to every thing, and therefore signifying nothing.

The style which one person thinks cloggy and cumbrous, and unsuitable, may be to the taste of others, and such may

I See Historical Illustrations of the Fourth Canto, p. 43. 3 See Classical Tour, &c. chap. vii. p. 250. vol. ii.

3* Under our windows, and bordering on the beach, is the royal farinn. Taid out in parterres, and walks shaded by rows of orange trucs. Chiesa Tour, &c. chap. 21. vol. ). oct. 363.

experience some salutary excitement in ploughing through relation of posterity to Mr. Eustace may be permitted to the periods of the Classical Tour. It must be said, however, appeal from cotemporary praises, and are perhaps more that polish and weight are apt to beget an expectation of likely to be just in proportion as the causes of love and value. It is amongst the pains of the damned to toil up a

hatred are the farther removed. This appeal had, in some climax with a huge round stone.

measure, been made before the above remarks were writte: The tourist had the choice of his words, but there was no for one of the most respectable of the Florentine publisbers, such latitude allowed to that of his sentiments. The love of who had been persuaded by the repeated inquiries of those virtue and of liberty, which must have distinguished the on their journey southwards to reprint a cheap editioa of the character, certainly adorns the pages of Mr. Eustace ; and Classical Tour, was, by the concurring advice of returning the gentlemanly spirit, so recommendatory either in an travellers, induced to abandon his design, although he has author or his productions, is very conspicuous throughout already arranged his types and paper, and had struck o the Classical Tour. But these generous qualities are the one or two of the first sheets. foliage of such a performance, and may be spread about it so The writer of these notes would wish to part (like Mr. prominently and profusely as to embarrass those who wish to Gibbon) on good terms with the Pope and the Cardinals, but see and find the fruit at hand. The unction of the divine, he does not think it necessary to extend the same discreet and the exhortations of the moralist, may have made this

silence to their humble partisans. work something more and better than a book of travels, but they have not made it a book of trarels; and this observation applies more especially to that enticing method of instruction convered by the perpetual introduction of the same Gallic Helot to reel and bluster before the rising generation, and

MARINO FALIERO. terrify it into decency by the display of all the excesses of the revolution. An animosity against atheists and regicides in general, and Frenchmen specifically, may be honourable, and may be useful as a record; but that antidote should either be

Note (A). Sec p. 224. administered in any work rather than a tour, or, at least should be served up apart, and not so mixed with the whole

[I am obliged for the following excellent translation of the mass of information and reflection, as to give a bitterness to

old Chronicle to Mr. F. Cohen, to whom the reader will

find himself indebted for a version that I could not myself every page : for who would choose to have the antipathies of any man, however just, for his travelling companions ? A

though after many years' intercourse with Italian - bare tourist, unless he aspires to the credit of prophecy, is not given by any means so purely and so faithfully. 3] answerable for the changes which may take place in the country which he describes; but his reader may very fairly


MCCCLIV. esteem all his political portraits and deductions as so much waste paper the moment they cease to assist, and more par- On the 11th day of September, in the year of our Lord ticularly if they obstruct, his actual survey.

1354, Marino Faliero was elected and chosen to be the Duke Neither encomium nor accusation of any government, or of the Commonwealth of Venice. He was Count of Valdegovernors, is meant to be here offered; but it is stated as an

marino, in the marches of Treviso, and a knight, and a incontrovertible fact, that the change operated, either by the wealthy man to boot. As soon as the election was completed, address of the late imperial system, or by the disappointment it was resolved in the Great Council, that a deputation of of every expectation by those who have succeeded to the twelve should be despatched to Marino Faliero the Duke, Italian thrones, has been so considerable, and is so appa- who was then on his way from Rome ; for when he was rent, as not only to put Mr Eustace's antigallican philippics chosen, he was ambassador at the court of the Holy Father, entirely out of date, but even to throw some suspicion upon at Rome,- the Holy Father himself held his court at Arignon. the competency and candour of the author himself. A re- When Messer Marino Faliero the Duke was about to land ia markable example may be found in the instance of Bo- this city, on the 5th day of October, 1354, a thics haze carne logna, over whose papal attachments, and consequent on, and darkened the air : and he was enforced to land on desolation, the tourist pours forth such strains of condolence the place of St. Mark, between the two columns, on the spot and revenge, made louder by the borrowed trumpet of Mr. where evil-doers are put to death ; and all thought that this Burke. Now Bologna is at this moment, and has been for was the worst of tokens. — Nor must I forget to write that some years, notorious amongst the states of Italy for its which I have read in a chronicle. When Messer Mariso attachment to revolutionary principles, and was almost the Faliero was Podesta and Captain of Treviso, the Bisbop only city which made any demonstrations in favour of the delayed coming in with the holy sacrament, on a day when a unfortunate Murat. This change may, however, have been procession was to take place. Now, the said Marino Failers made since Mr. Eustace visited this country; but the tra- was so very proud and wrathful, that he buffeted the Bishop. veller whom he has thrilled with horror at the projected and almost struck him to the ground: and, therefore, Hearea stripping of the copper from the cupola of St. Peter's, must allowed Marino Faliero to go out of his right senses, in order be much relieved to find that sacrilege out of the power of that he might bring himself to an evil death. the French, or any other plunderers, the cupola being When this Duke had held the dukedom during nine months covered with lead. I

and six days, he, being wicked and ambitious, sought to make If the conspiring voice of otherwise rival critics had not himself Lord of Venice, in the manner which I have read in given considerable currency to the Clasical Tour, it would an ancient chronicle. When the Thursday arrived upon have been unnecessary to warn the reader, that however it which they were wont to hunt the bull, the bull hunt too's 11 may adoru his library, it wil be of little or no service to him place as usual ; and, according to the usage of those times, in his carriage; and if the judgment of those critics had after the bull hunt had ended, they all proceeded unto the hitherto been suspended, no attempt would have been made palace of the Duke, and assembled together in one of his to anticipate their decision. As it is, those who stand in the halls; and they disported themselves with the women.

" What, then, will be the astonishment, or rather the horror, of my reader, when I inform tim

the French ('ommittee turned its attention to Saint l'eter's, and employed a company of Jews to estimate and purchase the gold, silver, and bronze tha: adorn the inside of the entifice, as well as the comper that covers the vaults and done on the outside." Cluical Tour, chap. iv. p. 130. rol. ij. The story about the Jews is posse tively denied at Rome.

2 (Mr. Francis Cohen, now Sir Francis Paltare, K. H., the learned Ruthor of the “ Rise and Progress of the English Constitution,* "llistory of the Anglo-Saxons," &c. &c.")

3 (In a letter to Mr. Murray, dated Ravenna, Juls 30. 1821. Lerd says : -" Enclosed is the best account of the Doge Falfero, which was ori sent to me, from an old S, the other day. Get it transialed, and area it as a note to the next edition. You will, pehar, be pleased to se le my conceptions of his character were correct; though I regret mot harre met with the extract before. You will perceive that he himselt sal aan what he is made to say abou: the Histop of Tretts. You will see is he yoke little, and iliose only words et race and distan, AFTER his are: which is the case in the play, erort when he breaks out at the same net finh. Rut his peech to the conspirators is better in the US, thee in the play. I wish I had met with it in time.")

until the first bell tolled they danced, and then a banquet was served up. My Lord the Duke paid the expenses thereof, provided he had a Duchess, and after the banquet they all returned to their homes.

Now to this seast there came a certain Ser Michele Steno, a gentleman of poor estate, and very young, but crafty and daring, and who loved one of the damsels of the Duchess. Ser Michele stood amongst the women upon the solajo ; and he behaved indiscrectly, so that my Lord the Duke ordered that he should be kicked off the solajo ; an i the esquires of the Duke Aung him down from the solajo accordingly. Ser Wichele thought that such an affront was beyond all bearing; and when the feast was over, and all other persons had left the palace, lie, continuing heated with anger, went to the hall of audience, and wrote certain unseemly words relating to the Duke and the Duchess upon the chair in which the Duke was used to sit ; for in those days the Duke did not cover his chair with cloth of sendal, but he sat in a chair of wood. Ser Michele wrote thereon -“ Marin Falier, the hu and of the fair wife; others kiss her, but he keeps her." In the morning the words were seen, and the matter was considered to be very scandalous; and the Senate commanded the Avogadori of the Commonwealth to proceed therein with the greatest diligence. A largess of great amount was immediately proffered by the Avogadori, in order to discover who had written these words. And at length it was known that Michele Steno had written them. It was resolved in the Council of Forty that he should be arrested ; and he then confessed that in the fit of vexation and spite, occasioned by his being thrust off the solajo in the presence of his mistress, he had written the words. Therefore the Council debated thereon. And the Council took his youth into consideration, and that he was a lover; and therefore they adjudged that he should be kept in close confinement during two months, and that afterwards he should be banished from Venice and the state during one year. In consequence of this merciful sentence the Duke became exceedingly wroth, it appearing to him that the Council had not acted in such a manner as was required by the respect due to his ducal dignity; and he said that they ought to have condemned Ser Michele to be hanged by the neck, or at least to be banished for life.

Now it was fated that my Lord Duke Marino was to have his head cut off. And as is necessary when any effect is to be brought about that the cause of such effect must happen, it therefore came to pass that on the very day after sentence had been pronounced on Ser Michele Steno, being the first day of Lent, a gentleman of the house of Barbaro, a choleric gentleman, went to the arsenal, and required certain things of the masters of the galleys. This he did in the presence of the Admiral of the arsenal, and he, hearing the request, answered, — No, it cannot be done. High words arose between the gentleman and the Admiral, and the gentleman struck him with his fist just above the eye ; and as he happened to have a ring on his finger, the ring cut the Admiral and drew blood. The Admiral, all bruised and bloody, ran straight to the Duke to complain, and with the intent of praying him to inflict some heavy punishment upon the gentleman of Cà Barbaro. -" What wouldst thou hare me do for thee ?” answered the Duke:-" think upon the shameful gibe which hath been written concerning me! and think on the manner in which they have punished that ribald Michele Steno, who wrote it; and see how the Council of Forty respect our per. son." - l'pon this the Admiral answered, -"My Lord Duke, if you would wish to make yourself a prince, and to cut all those cuckoldy gentlemen to pieces, I have the heart, if you do but help me, to make you prince of all this state ; and then you may punish them all." - IIcaring this, the Duke said, -" How can such a matter be brought about ?" - and so they discoursed thereon.

The Duke called for his nephew, Ser Bertuccio Faliero, who lived with him in the palace, and they communed about this plot. And without leaving the place, they sent for Philip Calendaro, a seaman of great repute, and for Bertuccio Israello, who was excccdingly wily and cunning. Then

taking counsel amongst themselves, they agreed to call in some others; and so, for several nights successively, they met with the Duke at home in his palace. And the following men were called in singly; to wit;- Niccolo Fagiuolo, Giovanni da Corfu, Stefano Fagiono, Niccolo dalle Bende, Niccolo Biondo, and Stefano Trivisano. - It was concerted that sixteen or seventeen leaders should be stationed in various parts of the city, each being at the head of forty men, armed and prepared ; but the followers were not to know their destination. On the appointed day they were to make affrays amongst themselves here and there, in order that the Duke might have a pretence for colling the bells of San Marco ; these bells are never rung but by the order of the Duke. And at the sound of the bells, these sixteen or seventeen, with their followers, were to come to San Marco, through the streets which open upon the Piazza. And when the noble and leading citizens should come into the Piazza, to know the cause of the riot, then the conspirators were to cut them in pieces ; and this work being finished, my Lord Marino Faliero the Duke was to be proclaimed the Lord of Venice. Things having been thus settled, they agreed to fulfil their intent on Wednesday, the 15th day of April, in the year 1355. So covertly did they plot, that no one ever dreamt of their machinations.

But the Lord, who hath always helped this most glorious city, and who, loving its righteousness and holiness, hath never forsaken it, inspired one Beltramo Bergamasco to be the cause of bringing the plot to light, in the following manner. This Beltramo, who belonged to Ser Niccolo Lioni of Santo Stefano, had heard a word or two of what was to take place ; and so, in the before-mentioned month of April, he went to the house of the aforesaid Ser Niccolo Lioni, and told him all the particulars of the plot. Ser Niccolo, when he heard all these things, was struck dead, as it were, with affright. He heard all the particulars; and Beltramo prayed him to keep it all secret; and if he told Ser Niccolo, it was in order that Ser Niccolo might stop at home on the 15th of April, and thus save his life. Beltramo was going, but Ser Niccolo ordered his servants to lay hands upon him, and lock

Ser Niccolo then went to the house of Messer Giovanni Gradenigo Nasoni, who afterwards became Duke, and who also lived at Santo Stefano, and told him all. The matter scemed to him to be of the very greatest importance, as indeed it was; and they two went to the house of Ser Marco Cornaro, who lived at San Felice ; and having spoken with him, they all three then determined to go back to the house of Ser Niccolo Lioni, to examine the said Beltramo; and having questioned him, and heard all that he had to say, they left him in continement. And then they all three went into the sacristy of San Salvatore, and sent their men to summon the councillors, the Avogadori, the Capi de' Dieci, and those of the Great Council.

When all were assembled, the whole story was told to them. They were struck dead, as it were, with affright. They determined to send for Beltramo. He was brought in before them. They examined him, and ascertained that the matter was true; and, although they were exceedingly troubled, yet they determined upon their measures. And they sent for the Capi de' Quarante, the Signori di Notte, the Capi de' Sestieri, and the Cinque della Pace; and they were ordered to associate to their men other good men and truc, who were to proceed to the houses of the ringleaders of the conspiracy, and secure them. And they secured the foreman of the arsenal, in order that the conspirators might not do mischief. Towards nightfall they assembled in the palace. When they were assembled in the palace, they caused the gates of the quadrangle of the palace to be shut. Aud they sent to the keeper of the bell-tower, and forbade the tolling of the bells. All this was carried into effect. The before. mentioned conspirators were secured, and they were brought to the palace ; and, as the Council of Ten sar that the Duke was in the plot, they resolved that twenty of the leading men of the state should be associated to them, for the purpose of consultation and deliberation, but that they should not be allowed to ballot.

him up.

The councillors were the following:- Ser Giovanni Mo. cenigo, of the Sestiero of San Marco : Ser Almoro Veniero da Santa Marina, of the Sestiero of Castello; Ser Tomaso Viadro, of the Sestiero of Canaregio ; Ser Giovanni Sanudo, of the Sestiero of Santa Croce ; Ser Pietro Trivisano, of the Sestiero of San Paolo ; Ser Pantalione Barbo il Grando, of the Sestiero of Ossoduro. The Avogadori of the Common. wealth were Zufredo Morosini, and Ser Orio Pasqualigo : and these did not ballot. Those of the Council of Ten were Ser Giovanni Marcello, Ser Tomaso Sanndo, and Ser Micheletto Dolfino, the heads of the aforesaid Council of Ten. Ser Luca da Legge, and Ser Pietro da Mosto, inquisitors of the aforesaid Council. And Ser Marco Polani, Ser Marino Veniero, Ser Lando Lombardo, and Ser Nicoletto Tririsano, of Sant' Angelo.

Late in the night, just before the dawning, they chose a junta of twenty noblemen of Venice from amongst the wisest, and the worthiest, and the oldest. They were to give counsel, but not to ballot. And they would not admit any one of Cà Faliero. And Niccolo Faliero, and another Niccolo Faliero, of San Tomaso, were expelled from the Council, because they belonged to the family of the Doge. And this resolution of creating the junta of twenty was much praised throughout the state. The following were the members of the junta of twenty:- Ser Marco Giustiniani, Procuratore, Ser Andrea Erizzo, Procuratore, Ser Lionardo Giustiniani, Procuratore, Ser Andrea Contarini, Ser Simone Dandolo, Ser Niccolo Volpe, Ser Giovanni Loredano, Ser Marco Diedo, Ser Giovanni Gradenigo, Ser Andrea Cornaro, Cavaliere, Ser Marco Soranzo, Ser Rinieri du Mosto, Ser Gazano Mar. cello, Ser Marino Morosini, Ser Stefano Belegno, Ser Niccolo Lioni, Ser Filippo Orio, Ser Marco Tririsano, Ser Jacopo Bragadino, Ser Gioranni Foscarini.

These twenty were accordingly called in to the Council of Ten; and they sent for my Lord Marino Faliero the Duke: and my Lord Marino was then consortir.g in the palace with people of great estate, gentlemen, and other good men, none of whom knew yet how the fact stood.

At the same time Bertucci Israello, who, as one of the ringleaders, was to head the conspirators in Santa Croce, was arrested and bound, and brought before the Council. Zanello del Brin, Nicoletto di Rosa, Nicoletto Alberto, and the Guardiaga, were also taken, together with several seamen, and people of various ranks. These were examined, and the truth of the plot was ascertained.

On the 16th of April judgment was given in the Council of Ten, that Filippo Calendaro and Bertuccio Israello should be hanged upon the red pillars of the balcony of the palace, from which the Duke is wont to look at the bull hunt: and they were hanged with gags in their mouths.

The next day the following were ndemned: - Niccolo Zuccuolo, Nicoletto Blondo, Nicoletto Doro, Marco Giuda, Jacomello Dagolino, Nicoletto Fidele, the son of Filippo Calendaro, Marco Torello, called Israello, Stefano Trivisano, the money changer of Santa Margherita, and Antonio dalle Bende. These were all taken at Chiozza, for they were endearouring to escape. Afterwards, by virtue of the sentence which was passed upon them in the Council of Ten, they were hanged on successive days; some singly and some in couples, upon the columns of the palace, beginning from the red columns, and so going onwards towards the canal. And other prisoners were discharged, because, although they had beun involved in the conspiracy, yet they had not assisted in it: for they were given to understand by some of the heads of the plot, that they were to come armed and prepared for the service of the state, and in order to secure certain crimi. nals ; and they knew nothing else. Nicoletto Alberto, the Guardiaga, and Bartolommeo Ciricolo and his son, and several others, who were not guilty, were discharged.

On Friday, the 16th day of April, judgment was also given in the aforesaid Council of Ten, that my Lord Marino Faliero, the Duke, should have his head cut off ; and that the execution should be done on the landing place of the stone staircase, where the Dukes take their oath when t.ey first enter the

palace. On the following day, the 17th of April, the doors of the palace being shut, the Duke had his bead cut of, about the hour of noon. And the cap of estate was taken from the Duke's head before he came down stairs. When the execution was over, it is said that one of the Council of Ten weat to the columns of the palace over against the place of St. Mark, and that he showed the bloody sword unto the people, cryag out with a loud voice — “ The terrible doorn hath fallen upon the traitor!" - and the doors were opened, and the people all rushed in, to see the corpse of the Duke, who had been beheaded.

It must be known that Ser Giovanni Sanudo, the councilor. was not present when the aforesaid sentence was pronounced; because he was unwell, and remained at home. So that only fourteen balloted ; that is to say, fire councillors, and nine of the Council of Ten. And it was adjudged, that all the lands and chattels of the Duke, as well as of the other traitors, should be forfeited to the state. And, as a grace to the Duke, it was resolved in the Council of Ten that he should be allowed to dispose of two thousand ducats out of bis own property. And it was resolved, that all the councillors and all the Avogadori of the Commonwealth, those of the Council of Ten, and the members of the junta, who had assisted in passing sentence on the Duke and the other traitors, shoald have the privilege of carrying arms both by day and by nigbat in Venice, and from Grado to Cavazere. And they were also to be allowed two footmen carrying arms, the aforesaid footmen living and boarding with them in their own houses. And he who did not keep two footmen might transfer the privilege to his sons or his brothers, but only to two. Permission of carrying arms was also granted to the four notaries of the chancery, that is to say, of the Supreme Court, who took the depositions: and they were, Amedio, Nicoletto di Lorino, Steffanello, and Pietro de Compostelli, the secretaries of the Signori di Notte.

After the traitors had been hanged, and the Duke bad bad his head cut off, the state remained in great tranquillity and peace. And, as I have read in a chronicle, the corpse of the Duke was removed in a barge, with eight torches, to his tomb in the church of San Giovanni e Paolo, where it was buried. The tomb is now in that aisle in the middle of the little church of Santa Maria della Pace, which was built by Bishop Gabriel of Bergamo. It is a coffin of stone, with these words engraven thereon : “ Heic jacet Dominus Marinas Faletro Duz." - And they did not paint his portrait in the ball of the Great Council; but in the place where it ought to bare been, you see these words: “ Hic est locus Marini Faietro. decapitati pro criminibus." - And it is thought that his bouse was granted to the church of Sant' Apostolo; it was that great one near the bridge. Yet this could not be the case, or else the family bought it back from the church ; for still belongs to Ca Faliero. I must not refrain from noting that some wished to write the following words in the place w bere his portrait ought to have been, as aforesaid :-“ Marinus Faletro Dur, temeritas me cepit. Pænas lui, decapitatres pro criminibus." - Others, also, indited a couplet, worthy of being inscribed upon his tomb. “ Drus Venetum jacet heic, patriam qui prodere tentans,

Sceptra, decus, censum perdidit, aique caput."


MARIXO FALIERO, 1 “ Al giovane Doge Andrea Dandolo succedette un vecchio, il quale tardi si pose al timone della repubhlica, ma sempre prima di quel, che facea d' uopo a lui, ed alla patria: egli Marino Faliero, personaggio a me noto per antica dimestichezza. Falsa era l'opinione intorno a lui, giacchè egli si

1 ("Had a copy taken of an extract from Pertareh's 12*073, with refer ence to the contrar of the Dome Vanino Paliero, containing the poet. opinion of the inatter. - Byron Dury, Feb. 11. 1921.)

mostro fornito più di corraggio, che di senno. Non pago della other historical notes which I have collected, it may be inprima dignità, entrd con sinistro piede nel pubblico Palazzo: ferred that Marino Faliero possessed many of the qualities, imperciocche questo Doge de Veneti, magistrato sacro in but not the success of a hero; and that his passions were too tutti i secoli, che dagli antichi fa sempre venerato qual nume violent. The paltry and ignorant account of Dr. Moore falls in quella città, 'altr' jeri fo decollato nel vestibolo dell' to the ground. Petrarch says, “that there had been no greater istesso Palazzo. Discorrerei fin dal principio le cause di un event in his times " (our times literally), “ nostri tempi," iu tale evvento, e cosi vario, ed ambiguo non ne fosse il grido. Italy. He also differs from the historian in saying that Nessuno però lo scusa, tutti affermano, che egli abbia voluto Faliero was “on the banks of the Rhone," instead of at Rome, cangiar qualche cosa nell' ordine della repubblica a lui tra- when elected ; the other accounts say, that the deputation of mandato dai maggiori. Che desiderava egli di più ? lo son the Venetian senate met him at Ravenna. How this may d'avviso, che egli abbia ottenuto ciò, che non si concedette a have been, it is not for me to decide, and is of no great nessun altro: mentre adempiva gli ufficj di legato presso il importance. Had the man succeeded, he would have changed Pontefice, e sulle rive del Rodano trattava la pace, che io the face of Venice, and perhaps of Italy. As it is, what are prima di lui avevo indarno tentato di conchiudere, gli fa

they both ? conferito l'onore del Ducato, che ne chiedeva, ne s'aspettava. Tornato in patria, penso a quello, cui nessuno non pose mente giammai, e sotfri quello, che a niuno accadde mai di soffrire: giacchè in quel luogo celeberrimo, e chiarissimo, e bellissimo infra tutti quelli, che io vidi, ove i suoi antenati avevano

Note (C). – VENETIAN SOCIETY AND MANNERS. ricevuti grandissimi onori in mezzo alle ponipe trionfali, ivi egli fu trascinato in modo servile, e spogliato delle insegne " Vice without splendour, sin without relief ducali, perdette la testa, e macchid col proprio sangue le soglie

Even from the gloss of love to smooth it o'er;

But, in its stead, coarse lusts of habitude," &c. del tempio, l'atrio del Palazzo, e le scale marmoree rendute

(See p. 231.) spesse volte illustri o dalle solenni festività, o dalle ostili spoglie. Ho notato il luogo, ora noto il tempo: è l'an nodel “ To these attacks so frequently pointed by the govern. Natale di Cristo 1355, fu il giorno 18 d' Aprile. Si alto è il ment against the clergy, - to the continual struggles between grido sparso, che se alcuno esaminerà la disciplina, e le costu. the different constituted bodies, - to these enterprises carried manze di quella città, e quanto mutamento di cose renga on by the mass of the nobles against the depositaries of power, minacciato dalla morte di un sol uomo (quantunque molti - to all those projects of innovation, which always ended by altri, corne narrano, essendo complici, o subirono l'istesso a stroke of state policy ; we must add a cause not less fitted supplicio, o lo aspettano) si accorgerà, che nulla di più grande to spread contempt for ancient doctrines ; this was the excess arvenne ai nostri tempi nella Italia. Tu forse qui attend il of corruption. mio giudizio: assolvo il popolo, se credere alla fama, benchè “ That freedom of manners, which had been long boasted abbia potuto e castigare più mitemente, e con maggior dol- of as the principal charm of Venetian society, had degenerated cezza vendicare il suo dolore: ma non cosi facilmente. si into scandalous licentiousness: the tie of marriage was less modera un' ira giusta insieme, e grande in un numeroso sacred in that Catholic country, than among those nations popolo principalmente, nel quale il precipitoso, ed instabile where the laws and religion admit of its being dissolved. volgo aguzza gli stimoli dell'irracondia con rapidi, e scon- Because they could not break the contract, they fcigned that sigliati clamori. Compatisco, e nell' istesso tempo mi adiro it had not existed; and the ground of nullity, immodestly con quell' infelice uomo, il quale adoruo di un'insolito onore, alleged by the married pair, was admitted with equal facility non so, che cosa si volesse negli estremi anni della sua vita : by priests and magistrates, alike corrupt. These divorces, la calamità di lui diviene sempre più grave, perchè dalla sen- veiled under another name, became so frequent, that the tenza contra di esso promulgata aperirà, che egli fu non solo most important act of civil society was discovered to be misero, ma insano, e demente, e che con vane arti si usurpo amenable to a tribunal of exceptions; and to restrain the open per tanti anni una falsa fama di sapienza. Ammonisco i scandal of such proceedings became the office of the police. Dogi, i quali gli succederano, che questo e un' esempio posto In 1782, the Council of Ten decreed, that every woman who inanzi ai loro occhj, quale specchio, nel quale veggano d' essere should sue for a dissolution of her marriage should be connon Signori, ma Duci, anzi nemmeno Duci, ma onorati servi pelled to await the decision of the judges in some convent, to della Repubblica. Tu sta sano; e giacchè fluttuano le pub- be named by the court.' Soon afterwards the same council bliche cose, sforsiamosi di governar modestissimamente i summoned all causes of that nature before itself. 2 Tbris privati nostri affari.” – LEVATI, Viaggi di Petrarca, vol. iv. infringement on ecclesiastical jurisdiction having occasioned

some remonstrance from Rome, the council retained ouly the The above Italian translation from the Latin epistles of right of rejecting the petition of the married persons, and Petrarch proves - Istly, That Marino Faliero was a personal consented to reier such causes to the holy office as it should friend of Petrarch's ; “ antica dimestichezza,” old intimacy, not previously have rejected. 3 is the phrase of the poet. 2dly, That Petrarch thought that “ There was a moment in which, doubtless, the destruction he had more courage than conduct, “ più di corraggio che di of private fortunes, the ruin of youth, the domestic discord senno." 3dly, That there was some jealousy on the part of occasioned by these abuses, determined the government to Petrarch ; for he says that Marino Faliero was treating of the depart from its established maxims concerning the freedom peace which he himself had “ vainly attempted to conclude." of manners allowed the subject. All the courtesans were 4thly, That the honour of the dukedom was conferred upon banished from Venice ; but their absence was not enough to him, which he neither sought nor expected, “che nè chiedeva reclaim and bring back good morals to a whole people brought në aspettava," and which had never been granted to any up in the most scandalous licentiousness. Depravity reached other in like circumstances, “cid che non si concedette a the very bosoms of private families, and even into the cloister ; nessun altro," a proof of the high esteem in which he must and they found themselves obliged to recall, and oven to have been held. 5thly, That he had a reputation for wisdom, indemnify* women who sometimes gained possession of in. only forfeited by the last enterprise of his life, “ si usurpd per portant secrets, and who might be usefully employed in the tanti anni una falsa fama di sapienza." _“ He had usurped for ruin of men whose fortunes might have rendered them so many years a false fame of wisdom," rather a difficult task, dangerous. Since that time licentiousness has gone on inI should think. People are generally found out before eighty creasing; and we have seen mothers, not only selling the years of age, at least in a republic. - From these, and the innocence of their daughters, but selling it by a contract.

P. 323

1 Correspondence of M. Schlick, French chargé d'affaires. Despatch of Nth August, 1752.

2 Ibid. I bespatch, 31st August. 3 Ibid. Despatch of 30 September, 1785.

4 The decree for their recall designates them as nostrebenenunte mere. trici: a fund and some houses, called Cusenmptne, were assigned to thern; hence the approbrious appellation of Carumani.

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