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XXXII. And the soft quiet hamlet where he dwelt 4 Is one of that complexion which seems made For those who their mortality have felt, And sought a refuge from their hopes decay'd In the deep umbrage of a green hill's shade, Which shows a distant prospect far away Of busy cities, now in vain display'd,

For they can lure no further; and the ray Of a briglit sun can make sufficient holiday,

The moon is up, and yet it is not night-
Sunset divides the sky with her - a sca
Of glory streams along the Alpine height
Of blue Friuli's mountains ; Heaven is free
From clouds, but of all colours seems to be
Melted to one vast Iris of the West,
Where the Day joins the past Eternity ;

While, on the other hand, meek Dian's crest Floats through the azure air- an island of the blest !!

XXVIII. A single star is at her side, and reigns With her o'er half the lovely heaven ; but still i Yon sunny sea heaves brightly, and remains Rolld o'er the peak of the far Rhatian hill, As Day and Night contending were, until Nature reclaim'd her order : - gently flows The deep-dyed Brenta, where their hues instil

The odorous purple of a new-born rose, Which streams upon her stream, and glass'd within it glows,

XXIX. Filld with the face of heaven, which, from afar, Comes down upon the waters ; all its hues, From the rich sunset to the rising star, Their magical variety diffuse : And now they change; a paler shadow strews Its mantle o'er the mountains; parting day Dies like the dolphin, whom each pang imbues

With a new colour as it gasp3 away, The last still loveliest, till — 't is gone - and all is gray.

XXXIII. Developing the mountains, leaves, and flowers, And shining in the brawling brook, where-by, Clear as its current, glide the sauntering hours With a calm languor, which, though to the cye Illesse it seem, hath its morality. If from society we learn to live, 'Tis solitude should teach us how to die;

It hath no flatterers; vanity can give No hollow aid; alone - man with his God must strive:

XXXIV. Or, it may be, with demons, who impair 5 The strength of better thoughts, and seek their prey In melancholy bosoms, such as were Of moody texture from their earliest day, And loved to dwell in darkness and dismay, Deeming themselves predestined to a doom Which is not of the pangs that pass away ;

Making the sun like blood, the earth a tomb, The tomb a hell, and hell itself a murkier gloom.

There is a tomb in Arqua; - rear'd in air,
Pillar'd in their sarcophagus, repose
The bones of Laura's lover : here repair
Many familiar with his well-sung woes,
The pilgrims of his genius. He arose
To raise a language, and his land reclaim
From the dull yoke of her barbaric foes :

Watering the tree which bears his lady's name? With his melodious tears, he gave himself to fame.

Ferrara 6 ! in thy wide and grass-grown streets,
Whose symmetry was not for solitude,
T'here seems as 't were a curse upon the seats
Of former sovereigns, and the antique brood
Of Este, which for many an age made good
Its strength within thy walls, and was of yore
Patron or tyrant, as the changing mood

Of petty power impellid, of those who wore
The wreath which Dante's brow alone had worn before.

They keep his dust in Arqua, where he died ;3
The mountain-village where his latter days
Went down the vale of years; and 't is their pride -
An honest pride - and let it be their praise,
To offer to the passing stranger's gaze
His mansion and his sepulchre; both plain
and venerably simple, such as raise

A feeling more accordant with his strain
Than if a pyramid form'd his monumental fane.

XXXVI. And Tasso is their glory and their shame. Hark to his strain ! and then survey his cell ! And see how dearly earn'd Torquato's fame, And where Alfonso bade his poet dwell : The miserable despot could not quell The insulted mind he sought to quench, and blend With the surrounding maniacs, in the hell

Where he had plunged it. Glory without end Scatter'd the clouds away - and on that name attend

her genial impulses. But in this he is changed; and in this Canto of Childe Harold, he will stand a comparison with the bext descriptive poets, in this age of descriptive poctry. — Wilsox.)

The above description may seem fantastical or exagger. ated to those who have never seen an Oriental or an Italian sky, yet it is but a literal and hardly sufficient delineation of an August evening (the eighteenth), as contemplated in one of many rides along the banks of the Brenta, near La Mira. }," See Appendix, “ Historical Notes, " Nos. vin, and

" Half way up
He built his house, whence as hy stealth he caught,
Among the hills, a glimpse of busy life
That soothed, not stirred." – Rogers.]

The struggle is to the full as likely to be with demons as with our better thoughts Satan chose the wilderness for

the temptation of our Saviour, And our unsullied John Locke preferred the presence of a child to complete solitude.

& [In April, 1817, Lord Byron visited Ferrara, went over the castle, cell, &c., and wrote, a few days after, the Lament of Tasso. -" One of the Fcrrarese asked me," he says, in a letter to a friend, "If I knew • Lord Byron,' an acquaintance of his, now at Naples. I told him No!' which was true both ways, for I knew not !he impostor; and, in the other, no one knows himself. He stared, when told that I was the real Simon Pure. Another asked me, if I had not translated Tasso. You see what Fane is! ho v accurate ! how loundless! I don't know how others feel, but I am always the lighter and the better looked on when I have got rid of mine, It sits on me like armour on the Lord Mayor's chan pion; and I got rid of all the husk of liter.tture, and the attendant babble, by answering that I had not translated Tasso, but a namesake had; and, by the blessinz of learen, I looked so little like a poet, that every body believed me."]

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! See Appendix, " Historical Notes," No. X.

? (“ Scott," says Lord Byron, in bis MS. Diary, for 1821, " is certainly the most wonderful writer of the day. His novels are a new literature in themselves, and his poetry as good as any - if not hetter (only on an erroneous system), and only ceased to be so popular, because the vulgar were tired of hearing · Aristides called the Just,' and Scott the Best, and ostracised him. I know no reading to which I fall with such alacrity as a work of his. I love him, too, for his manliness of character, for the extreme pleasantness of his conversation, and his good-nature towards myself personally. May he prosper! for he deserves it." In a letter, written to Sir Walter, from Pisa, in 1822, he says "I owe to you far more than the usual obligation for the courtesies of literature and colomon friendship; for you went out of your way, in !817. to do me a service, when it required not merely kindness, but courage, to do so ; to have been recorded by you in such a manner, would have been a proud memorial at any time ; but at such a time, when . All the torld and his wife,' as the proverb goes. were trying to trample upon me, was something still higher to my self-esteem. Tlad it been a common criticism, however cloquent or panegyrical, I should have felt pleased and grateful, but not to the extent which the extraordinary good-heartedness of the whole proceeding must induce in any miad capable of such sensations."]

3 ["I do not know whether Scott will like it, but I have called him the Ariosto of the North' in my text. If he should not, say so in time."- Lord Byron to Mr. Murray, Aug. 1817.]

",", o See Appendix, “ Historical Notes," Nos. XI. XII. XIII.

7 The two stanzas xlii, and xliii. are, with the exception of a line or two, a translation of the famous sonnet of Filicaja : -" Italia, Italia, o tu cui feo la sorte!

8 The celebrated letter of Servius Sulpicius to Cicero, on the death of his daughter, describes as it then was, and now is, a path which I often traced in Greece, both by sea and land, in different journeys and voyages." On my retum froin Asia, as I was sailing from Egina towards Megara, I began lo contemplate the prospect of the countries around me: Ægina was behind, Megara before me: Piræus on the right, Corinth on the Icft : all which towns, once famous and Aourishing, now lie overturned and buried in their runs. Upon this sight, I could not but think presently within my self, Alins ! how do we poor mortals fret and rex ourselves in any of our ends happen to die or be killed, whose life is yet so short, when the carcasses of so many noble cities lie here exposed before me in one view. – Sce Middleton's Cicero, vol. ii. p. 37).

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the pictures would have been better if the painter had taken more pains, and to praise the works of Peter Perugino.'"]

Οφθαλμούς εστιά». " Alque oculos pascat uterque suos." - Ovid. dmor. lib. ii.

It may

! It is Poggio, who, looking from the Capitoline hill upon ruined Rome, breaks forth in the exclamation, “Ut nunc omni decore nudata, prostrata jacet, instar gigantei cadaveris corrupti atque undique exesi.”

3 See Appendix,“ Historical Notes," No. Xiv. 3 In 1917, Lord Byron visited Florence, on his way to Rome. “I remained," he says, “ but a day : however, I went to the two galleries, from which one returns drunk with beauty. The Venus is more for admiration than love ; but there are sculpture and painting, which, for the first time, at all gave me an idea of what people mean by their cant about those two most artificial of the arts. What struck me most were, the mistress of Raphael, a portrait; the mistress of Titian, a portrait ; a Venus of Titian in the Medici Gallery; the Venus ; Canova's Venus, also, in the other gallery: Titian's mistress is also in the other gallery (that is, in the Pitti Palace gallery); the Parcæ of Michael Angelo, a picture; and the Antinous, the Alexander, and one or two not very decent groups in inarble; the Genius of Death, a sleepinz figure, &c. &c. I also went to the Medici chapel. Fine frippery in great slabs of various expensive stones, to commemorate fifty rotten and forgotten carcasses. It is unfinished, and will remain so." We find the following note of a second Visit to the galleries in 1821, accompanied by the author of " The Pleasures of Memory:"" My former impressions were confirmed; but there were too many visitors to allow me to feel any thing properly. When we were about thirty or forty) all stuffed into the cabinet of gems and knick. knackeries, in a corner of one of the galleries, I told Rogers that it felt like being in the watch-house.' I heard one bold Briton declare to the woman on his arm, looking at the Venus of Titian, Well, now, that is really very fine indeed!'an observation which, like that of the landlord in Joseph Andrews, on the certainty of death,' was (as the landlord's wite observer) 'extremely true.' In the Pitti Palace, I did Dot ornit Goldsmith's prescription for a connoisseur, viz. that

5 [The delight with which the pilgrim contemplates the ancient Greek statues at Florence, and afterwards at Rome, is such as might have been expected from any great poet, whose youthful mind had, like his, been imbued with those classical ideas and associations which afford so many sources of pleasure, through every period of life. He has gazed upon these masterpieces of art with a more susceptible, and, in spite of his disavowal, with a more learned eye, than can be traced in the effusions of any poet who had previously expressed, in any formal manner, his admiration of their beauty. appear fanciful to say so ; - but we think the genius of Byron is, more than that of any other modern poet, akin to that peculiar genius which seeins to have been diffused among ail the poets and artists of ancient Greece; and in whose spirit, above all its other wonders, the great specimens of sculpture seem to have been conceired and executed. His creations, whether of beauty or of strength, are all single creations. He requires no grouping to give effect to his favourites, or to tell

His heroines are solitary symbols of loveliness, which require no foil ; his heroes stand alone as upon marble pedestals, displaying the naked power of passion, or the wrapped up and reposing energy of grief. The artist who would illustrate, as it is called, the works of any of our other poets, must borrow the mimic splendours of the pencil. He who would transfer into another vehicle the spirit of Byron, must pour the liquid metal, or hew the stubborn rock. What he loses in ease, he will gain in power. He might draw from Medora, Gulnare, Lara, or Manfred, subjects for relievos, worthy of enthusiasm almost as great as Harold has himself displayed on the contemplation of the loveliest and the sternest relics of the inimitable genius of the Greeks. Wilson.]

his story

LIII. I leave to learned fingers, and wise hands, The artist and his ape, ' to teach and tell How well his connoisseurship understands The graceful bend, and the voluptuous swell : Let these describe the undescribable : (stream I would not their vile breath should crisp the Wherein that image shall for ever dwell ;

The unruffled mirror of the loveliest dream
That ever left the sky on the deep soul to beam.

In Santa Croce's holy precincts lie 2
Ashes which make it holier, dust which is
Even in itself an immortality,

Though there were nothing save the past, and
The particle of those sublimities
Which have rclapsed to chaos : -- here repose
Angelo's, Alfieri's bones, and his, 3

The starry Galileo, with his woes ; Here Machiavelli's carth return'd to whence it rose. 4

These are four minds, which, like the elements,
Might furnish forth creation :- Italy ! (rents
Time, which hath wrong'd thee with ten thousand
Of thine imperial garment, shall deny,
And hath denied, to every other sky,
Spirits which soar from ruin : - thy decay
Is still impregnate with divinity,

Which gilds it with revivifying ray ;
Such as the great of yore, Canova is to-day.

But where repose the all Etruscan three-
Dante, and Petrarch, and, scarce less than they,
The Bard of Prose, creative spirit ! he
Of the Hundred Tales of love - where did they lay
Their bones, distinguish'd from our common clay
In death as life? Are they resolved to dust,
And have their country's marbles nought to say ?

Could not her quarries furnish forth one bust ? Did they not to her breast their filial earth entrust ?

LVII. Ungrateful Florence ! Dante sleeps afar, 5 Like Scipio, buried by the upbraiding shore ; 6 Thy factions, in their worse than civil war, Proscribed the bard whose name for everinore Their children's children would in vain adore With the remorse of ages ; and the crown 7 Which Petrarch's laureate brow supremely wore,

Upon a far and foreign soil had grown, [own. His life, his fame, his grave, though rified- not thine

Boccaccio to his parent earth bequeath'd 8
His dust,

and lies it not her Great among, With many a sweet and solemn requiem breathed O'er him who form'd the Tuscan's siren tongue ?

[Only a week before the poet visited the Florence gallery, he wrote thus to a friend :-“I know nothing of painting. Depend upon it, of all the arts, it is the most artificial and unnatural, ard that by which the nonsense of mankind is most imposed upon. I never yet saw the picture or the statue which came a league within my conception or expectation ; but I have seen many mountains, and seas, and rivers, and views, and two or three women, who went as far beyond it." - Byron Letters.]

2,},+ See Appendix, “ Historical Notes," Nos. 15. Xvi. XVII. -- (" The church of Santa Croce contains much illustrious nothing. The tombs of Machiavelli, Michael Angelo, Galileo, and Alfieri, make it the Westminster Abbey of Italy. I did not admire any of these tombs - beyond their contents.

That music in itself, whose sounds are song,
The poetry of speech ? No; - even his tomb
Uptorn, must bear the hyæna bigot's wrong,

No more amidst the meaner dead find room,
Nor claim a passing sigh, because it told for whom !

And Santa Croce wants their mighty dust;
Yet for this want more noted, as of yore
The Cæsar's pageant, shorn of Brutus' bust,
Did but of Rome's best Son remind her more:
Happier Ravenna ! on thy boary shore,
Fortress of falling empire ! honour'd sleeps
The immortal exile; - Arqua, too, her store

Of tuneful relics proudly claims and keeps, (weeps. While Florence vainly begs her banish'd dead and

What is her pyramid of precious stones ? 9
Of porphyry, jasper, agate, and all hues
Of gem and marble, to encrust the bones
Of merchant-dukes ? the momentary dews
Which, sparkling to the twilight stars, infuse
Freshness in the green turf that wraps the dead,
Whose names are mausoleums of the Muse,

Are gently prest with far more reverent tread Than ever paced the slab which paves the princely head.

LXI. There be more things to greet the heart and eyes In Arno's dome of Art's most princely shrine, Where Sculpture with her rainbow sister vies ; There be more marvels yet - but not for mine; For I have been accustom'd to entwine My thoughts with Nature mther in the fields, Than Art in galleries : though a work divine

Calls for my spirit's homage, yet it yields
Less than it feels, because the weapon which it wields

Is of another temper, and I roam
By Thrasimene's lake, in the defiles
Fatal to Roman rashness, more at home;
For there the Carthaginian's warlike wiles
Come back before me, as his skill beguiles
The host between the mountains and the shore,
Where Courage falls in her despairing files,

And torrents, swoll'n to rivers with their gore, Reek through the sultryplain, withlegions scattered o'er,

Like to a forest feli'd by mountain winds ;
And such the storm of battle on this day,
And such the frenzy, whose convulsion blinds
To all save carnage, that, beneath the fray,
An earthquake reel'd unheededly away ! 10
None felt stern Nature rocking at his feet,
And yawning forth a grave for those who lay

Upon their bucklers for a winding sheet; (meet ! Such is the absorbing hate when warring nations

That of Alfieri is heavy; and all of them seem to be overloaded. What is necessary but a bust and name ? and perhaps a date ? the last for the unchronological, of whom I am one. But all your allegory and eulogy is infernal, and worse than the long wigs of English numskulls upon Roman bodies, in the statuary of the reigns of Charles the Second, William, and Anne." Byron Letters, 1817.] 5. 6. 7. 8

See Appendix, “ Historical Notes," Nos. Ivu. XIX. XX. and XXI.

9 See Appendix, “ Historical Notes," No. XXII.

10 See Appendix, “llistorical Notes," No. xxi. - An earthquake which shook all Italy occurred during the battle, and was unfelt by any of the combatants.]

LXVIII. Pass not unblest the Genius of the place ! If through the air a zephyr more serene Win to the brow, 't is his; and if ye trace Along his margin a more eloquent green, If on the heart the freshness of the scene Sprinkle its coolness, and from the dry dust Of weary life a moment lave it clean

With Nature's baptism, - 't is to him ye must Pay orisons for this suspension of disgust. 4

(red. 1

The Earth to them was as a rolling bark
Which bore them to Eternity ; they saw
The Ocean round, but had no time to mark
The motions of their vessel ; Nature's law,
In them suspended, reck'd not of the awe (birds
Which reigns when mountains tremble, and the
Plunge in the clouds for refuge and withdraw
From their down-toppling nests; and bellowing

(no words. Stumble o'er heaving plains, and man's dread hath

Far other scene is Thrasimene now;
Her lake a sheet of silver, and her plain
Rent by no ravage save the gentle plough;
Her aged trees rise thick as once the slain
Lay where their roots are; but a brook hath ta'en -
A little rill of scanty stream and bed -
A name of blood from that day's sanguine rain;

And Sanguinetto tells ye where the dead
Made the earth wet, and turn'd the unwilling waters

But thou, Clitumnus ! in thy sweetest wave 2
Of the most living crystal that was e'er
The haunt of river nymph, to gaze and lave
Her limbs where nothing hid them, thou dost rear
Thy grassy banks whereon the milk-white steer
Grazes; the purest god of gentle waters !
And most serene of aspect, and most clear;

Surely that stream was unprofaned by slaughters A mirror and a bath for Beauty's youngest daughters!

And on thy happy shore a Temples still,
Of small and delicate proportion, keeps,
Upon a mild declivity of hill,
Its memory of thee; beneath it sweeps
Thy current's calmness; oft from out it leaps
The finny darter with the glittering scales,
Who dwells and revels in thy glassy deeps;

While, chance, some scatter'd water-lily sails
Down where the shallower wave still tells its bub-

bling tales. (* The lovely peaceful mirror reflected the mountains of Monte Pulciana, and the wild fowl skimming its ample surface, touched the waters with their rapid wings, leaving circles and trains of light to glitter in gray repose. As we moved aloog, one set of interesting features yielded to another, and every change excited new delight. Yet, was it not among these tranquil scenes that Hannibal and Flaminius met? Was not the blush of blood upon the silver lake of Thrasi. Idene ?"_H. W. WILLIAMS.)

2 No book of travels has omitted to expatiate on the temple of the Cliturnus, between Foligno and Spoleto ; and no site, or scenery, even in Italy, is more worthy'a description. For an account of the dilapidation of this temple, the reader is referred to ". Historical Illustrations of the Fourth Canto of Childe Harold," p. 35.

*** This pretty little gem stands on the acclivity of a bank overlooking its crystal waters, which have their source at the distance of some hundred yards towards Spoleto. The temple, fronting the river, is of an oblong form, in the Corinthian order. Four columns support the pediment, the shafts of which are covered in spiral lines, and in forms to represent the scales of fishes : the bases, too, are richly sculptured. Within the building is a chapel, the walls of which are covered with many hundred names ; but we saw none which we could recognise as British. Can it be that this classical temple is seldorn visited by our countrymen, though celebrated by Dryden and Addison Ty future travellers from Britain it will surely be rendered interesting by the beautiful lines of Lord Byron, powing as sweetly as the lovely stream which they describe." - H. W. Williaus.)

(Perhaps there are no verses in our language of happier descriptive power than the two stanzas which characterise the Clitumnus. In general poets find it so difficult to leave an

LXIX. The roar of waters !—from the headlong height Velino cleaves the wave-worn precipice; The fall of waters ! rapid as the light The flashing mass foams shaking the abyss ; The hell of waters ! where they howl and hiss, And boil in endless torture; while the sweat Of their great agony, wrung out from this

Their Phlegethon, curls round the rocks of jet That gird the gulf around, in pitiless horror set,

LXX. And mounts in spray the skies, and thence again Returns in an unceasing shower, which round, With its unemptied cloud of gentle rain, Is an eternal April to the ground, Making it all one emerald :- how profound The gulf! and how the giant element From rock to rock leaps with delirious bound, Crushing the cliffs, which, downward worn and rent

(vent With his fierce footsteps, yield in chasms a fearful

LXXI. To the broad column which rolls on, and shows More like the fountain of an infant sea Torn from the womb of mountains by the throes Of a new world, than only thus to be Parent of rivers, which flow gushingly,

[back! With many windings, through the vale: - Look Lo! where it comes like an eternity,

As if to sweep down all things in its track, Charming the eye with dread,- a matchless cataract, 5

interesting subject, that they injure the distinctness of the description hy loading it so as to embarrass, rather than excite, the fancy of the reader; or else, to avoid that fault, they confine themselves to cold and abstract generalities. Byron has, in these stanzas, admirably steered his course betwixt these extremes: while they present the outlines of a picture as pure and as brilliant as those of Claude Lorraine, the task of filling up the more minute particulars is judiciously left to the imagination of the reader ; and it must be dull indeed if it does not supply what the poet has lett unsaid, or but generally and brietly intimated. While the eye glances over the lines, we seem to feel the refreshing coolness of the scene — we hear the bubbling tale of the more rapid streams, and see the slender proportions of the rural temple retlected in the crystal depth of the calm pool. — Sir Walter Scott.]

5 I saw the Cascata del Marmore of Terni twice, at different periods ; once from the summit of the precipice, and again from the valley below. The lower view is far to be preferred, if the traveller has time for one only; but in any point of view, either from above or below, it is worth all the cascades and torrents of Switzerland put together : the Staubach, Reichenbach, Pisse Vache, fail of Arpenaz, &c. are rills in comparative appearance.

Of the fall of Schaffhausen I cannot speak, not yet having seen it. - [“ The stunning sound, the mist, uncertainty, and tremendous depth, bewildered the senses for a time, and the eye had little rest from the impe. tuous and hurrying waters, to search into the mysterious and whitened gull, which presented, through a cloud of spray, the apparitions, as it were, of rocks and overhanging wood. The wind, however, would sometimes remore for an instant this misty veil, and display such a scene of havoc as appalled the soul." - H. W. Williams.]


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