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But, as the Author has favoured us with a synoptical view of his own economical principles, it will be but fair and proper to lay these before our readers in as compressed a form as may consist with their being made intelligible. The propositions--we cannot call them conclusions—are thirty-six in number, and as they occupy fourteen pages of the volume, we cannot of course give them entire.
Having divided the labouring population into three classes, the agricultural, the secondary' (i.e. manufacturing), and the ' disposable,' the Author lays it down as his first axiom, that the ' higher the standard of enjoyment is among the people at large,
the greater will be the secondary, and the less will be the disposable class ; or, corresponding to this, the greater will be the 'wages, and the less will be the rent; while at the same time the ' more limited will be the cultivation. And this is followed up by position the second ; that the great aim of every enlightened 'philanthropist and patriot, is, to raise the standard of enjoy‘ment, even though it should somewhat lessen the rent, and some' what lessen the cultivation. These not very intelligible initial principles rest upon the supposed discovery' made almost simultaneously by Sir Edward West and Mr. Malthus, with respect to the laws that regulate rent. Rent, our Author conceives, is measured, though not originated, “by the difference between the
produce of a given quantity of labour on any soil, and the pro
duce of the same labour on the soil that yields no rent'-whereever that soil may be found. Or, to state the doctrine in fewer words, the rent of good land is calculated on the rent of poor land. That the difference of quality in soils is the efficient cause of rent, Dr. Chalmers denies ; and by rejecting this part of the modern discovery, he reduces it to a very innocent proposition, but one which hardly supports the consequences that have been raised upon it. The Author's own propositions above cited appear to be grounded on some such process of reasoning as this. The higher the standard of enjoyment is among the people at large, the more the labourer will require in the shape of wages as the remuneration for his labour; and the higher the wages of labour, the greater the expense of cultivation, and the less surplus will remain for the landlord in the shape of rent. Now good land only will, under such circumstances, pay for cultivation, and less land therefore will be cultivated. And though this may be an evil in itself, it will be counterbalanced by the good resulting from the higher standard of social enjoyment, and the additional employment thereby furnished to the manufacturing class.
If this be what Dr. Chalmers means, we cordially agree with him in thinking, that the higher the wages of agricultural labour, the better for the country, provided it only lessens rent, and does not raise the price of domestic produce too high above that
me in the day of my distress, and was with me in the way which I went."
· Hezekiah did better upon his recovery. He wrote a song, and had it sung in the temple-service. He might indeed, for this purpose, have availed himself of one of David's songs; and we read that he appointed persons to sing the songs of his illustrious ancestor in the worship of God. But he composed one himself on this occasion, not from vanity, but from sentiments of piety. He wrote it in particular for three purposes.
First, to show the importance of the blessing he had experienced. Read his language, and you will find how much he valued life. This to some may seem strange. To a good man, is it not gain to die? When a voyager is entering the desired haven, is he so glad and grateful for a wind that blows him back again to sea ? The fear of death is as much a natural principle as hunger or thirst. Every good man, though always in a state to die, is not in a frame to die. He may not have the light of God's countenance, or the assurance of hope. He may be also influenced by relative considerations. This was the case with Hezekiah. He might have feared for the succession; for he had no offspring at this time: Manasseh was only twelve years old at his death, and therefore could not have been born till three years after his father's recovery. The enemy was also at the gates of the capital. He had also begun a glorious reformation, and wished to see it carried on. Even Paul, though he knew that to depart and to be with Christ was far better, yet was more than willing to abide in the flesh, for the advantage of the Philippians and others. . Secondly, to excite his gratitude. Hence he so vividly recalls all his painful and gloomy feelings in his late danger, that he might be the more affected with the goodness of his deliverer and benefactorread the whole chapter- Do as he did. Dwell upon every thing that can give a relish, and add an impression to the blessing you have received ; and be ye thankful—and employ your tongues, your pens, your lives, in praise of the God of your mercies. Did the heathen upon their recovery hang up tablets of acknowledgements in the house of their gods? Have Papists built churches and altars to their patronsaints? And will you do nothing for the Lord your healer? Yet so it often is ! The physician is cheerfully rewarded; the attendants are paid for their trouble ; friends are thanked for their obliging inquiries ---only one Being is overlooked-He who gave the physician his skill; He who rendered the means effectual; He who inspired the inquiring friends with all their tenderness. .. Thirdly, to insure a sense of his obligation in future. The Jews soon forgot the works of the Lord, and the wonders He had shown them. And we are very liable to the same evil. But we should say, with David, “ Bless the Lord, O my soul, and forget not all his benefits ”; and avail ourselves of every assistance that can enable us to recover and preserve the feelings we had at the time when the Lord appeared for us. Thus the Jews established the feast of Purim upon their deliverance from the plot of Haman. Thus Samuel raised a stone after his victory, and called it Ebenezer. Joseph named his sons Ephraim and Manasseh, to remind him of the contrast between his former and present condition. And thus Hezekiah would compose this writing, that he might compare himself with its sentiments, months and years after; and that it might be a pledge of his dedication to God; and a witness against him if his love should ever wax · cold . And how was it with him? Can I proceed? So far all is well. · He is wise, humble, grateful, resolved. But, alas ! how shall we say
it? “ After this Hezekiah rendered not according to the benefit done him ; for his heart was lifted up; therefore wrath came upon him and upon all Judah.” Lord, what is man! Who is beyond the danger of falling while in this world? On what can we safely rely? He that trusteth in his own heart is a fool. And he is not much better that trusts in his own grace. It is not our grace, but his grace that is sufficient for us. Let us therefore be strong in the Lord, and in the power of his might. Let us not insult over others when they err in doctrine or in practice; but tremble for ourselves, and pray, Lord, hold thou me up, and I shall be safe. Blessed is the man that feareth always.'
Vol. I. pp. 523_-6.
Art. VII.-1. Thesaurus Linguæ Latince Compendarius. Ains
worth's Latin Dictionary, reprinted from the folio Edition of MDCCLII. With numerous Additions, Emendations, and Improvements. By the Rev. B. W. Beatson, A.M., Fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge. Revised and corrected by William Ellis, Esq. A.M. of King's College, Aberdeen. Imperial 8vo,
pp. xx. 1104, 122, 82. London, 1830. 2. A Complete Concordance to the Old and New Testament: or a Dic
tionary and Alphabetical Index to the Bible. In two parts. To which is added, a Concordance to the Apocrypha. With a Compendium of the Bible, and a brief Account of its History and Excellence. By Alexander Cruden, M.A. With a Sketch of the Life and Character of the Author By William Youngman.
Imperial 8vo, pp. xiv. 720. London, 1831. 3. Theology explained and defended, in a Series of Sermons. By
Timothy Dwight, S.T.D. LL.D., late President of Yale College.
1831. IT scarcely falls within our province to notice mere reprints; but these publications have specific claims to our attention. This new edition of the folio Ainsworth in the more convenient form of large octavo, could not fail to be highly acceptable to all Latin students : but the value of the publication is exceedingly enhanced by the nume
which would pay for importing it. But we question whether the raising of the standard of enjoyment will ensure the effect which Dr. Chalmers ascribes to it. Many other things must be presupposed, or taken for granted, which are not here expressed. The next proposition, indeed, partially explains the Author's meaning, and qualifies it. It is this : 'That there is no other method by which wages can be kept permanently high, than by the operation of the moral preventive check among the working classes of society; and that this can only be secured by elevating their
standard of enjoyment, through the means both of common ' and Christian education. After comforting the landlord under the menacing aspect' of this policy, with the assurance, that there is no danger, thanks to the strength of the principle of population, but wages will be kept sufficiently low for his purpose, and cultivation be carried down, by means of improvements in husbandry, among the inferior soils sufficiently far; Dr. Chalmers affirms, in his fifth proposition, that it remains in the col
lective power of labourers to sustain their wages at as high a le'vel in the ultimate, as in the progressive stages of the wealth
of a society ; that the moral preventive check on population can * achieve and perpetuate this result, but that nothing else will do ‘it. In the next two paragraphs, (6. and 7.) the Author vehemently deprecates the scheme of home colonization, as one which, 'if persisted in, must have its final upshot in the most fearful and • desolating anarchy'!
Now all this seems to us as loose and unsatisfactory as any statements pretending to scientific accuracy can be. What is meant by a high standard of enjoyment ? Does it imply a high state of morals, or only a state in which the artificial wants are augmented by the progress of civilization, so that the labourer requires more things for his comfort than formerly? If the latter be intended, it is obvious that the standard of enjoyment among the lower classes of this country has been raised, not by means of education, but by means of those improvements in manufacturing industry which have brought the comforts of life within their reach. If our peasants now require shoes and stockings, and our servant maids flaunt in silk gowns, it is not that education has raised the standard of enjoyment in these respects, but that silks are cheaper, and that shoes and stockings have ceased to be regarded as luxuries, and have come to be necessaries, in consequence of the low price at which they can be supplied. The standard of education is generally supposed to be higher among the barefooted peasantry of Scotland, than among the English poor : but is the standard of enjoyment higher among the former? Just the reverse. The Scotchman would contrive to live, where the Englishman would starve. To raise the standard of enjoyment among a people, nothing more is requisite than to
rency. Note that wages in commodit
cheapen the means of enjoyment, either by a rise of wages, or by a cheapened production of the articles of comfort. But how far the raising of that standard shall turn to the happiness of the community, must depend upon the security which the labourer has, that he shall be able to maintain the same permanent command over the comforts of life.
Again, what is meant by high wages ? Three very different things may be intended by the expression: high money wages; high in proportion to profits and rent; and high in relation to the means of subsistence or the commodities which the labour of the workman will command. In which of these three respects is it within the collective power of labourers to sustain their wages at
a high level ’? They have certainly no control over the currency. Now, during the latter half of the last century, it has been calculated that wages, estimated in money, rose a hundred per cent., while, estimated in commodities, they fell thirty-three per cent. In the year 1751, husbandry wages were 6s. per week, which was equal at that time to ninety-six pints of wheat. In 1803, they were 11s. 6d. per week, but this sum was equal to only sixty-three pints of wheat. So that wages underwent a real depreciation of thirty-three per cent., during the very time that they seemed to be constantly rising. Dr. Chalmers maintains, that 'there are only two ways in which to augment the price of • labour; either by a diminution of the supply, or by an increase
of the effective demand for it;' which demand, he moreover imagines, cannot be carried beyond a certain limit, and that limit is, the amount of agricultural produce by which labour is maintained. (p. 441.) Now facts are opposed to every part of this statement. If he means the money price of labour, this was raised by causes altogether different from the relation of demand to supply. If he means the real price, it is certain that, during the period above referred to, no such evil as a redundant population was either felt or dreamed of; the demand for labour being steady and effective, and increasing quite as fast as the supply; and yet, as we have seen, it was not in the collective power of the labourers to sustain their wages at the same level.
A rise of wages may be produced by a fall of commodities; and again, the real price of labour may be diminished by a fall in the value of money. So far as the rate of wages is regulated by the principle of demand and supply, (which is only one of the principles by which the rate is really governed,) the demand is created by the prospect of a profitable employment of that specific description of labour on the part of the capitalist. When agricultural profits are high, a greater portion of capital is drawn to the cultivation of the soil, which creates a new demand for agricultural labour, and enhances its value. When labour is in excess, it is not that there are too many hands to be employed, but because
VOL VIII. N.S.