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and his party. These tribes retired northward to the Caucasus, (the mountain of Cush,) and thence spread themselves eastward and westward. They paid divine honours to Noah as the incarnate God, the Lord of the universe, under the image and similitude of a contemplative old man in a sitting posture. The golden image of Nebuchadnezzar is an instance, but the more common symbol was a rough stone pillar or a log of wood. Those who went eastward are, to this day in their posterity, known as the sect of the Buddhists : Budd being the name of their god; while he is called Brahma, by the other sect. Juggernaut is a union of both sects, the priests of both combining under one form all the sects and parties. Those who went westward passed into Europe ; and were the fierce warriors who, from behind the Danube, annoyed the Roman empire till in the end they overthrew it. Our Saxon ancestors were of this race. They were always opposed to image worship. They gave in the Christian world the cast of character to the Greek Church, in opposition to the church of Rome with her images and the female deity, the Virgin Mary, or Great Mother. To their blood we owe the Reformation. They were always opposed to castes and slavery. Too proud to work, where unblended, they are a half-starved race of marauding hunters. But where mixed with the Celtic tribes, their offspring are the most enterprising and industrious of the human race; as witness the inhabitants of western Europe.' pp. 126, 7.
Should any of our readers feel a curiosity to see more of this marvellously absurd production, they will of course send for the book.
Art. VII. An Outline of the First Principles of Horticulture. By
John Lindley, F.R.S. &c. &c. Professor of Botany in the Univer.
sity of London. 18mo. Price 2s. London, 1832. The object of Professor Lindley, in this valuable manual of horticul. tural physiology, is, to point out in the briefest manner, what the fundamental principles of that branch of natural philosophy have been ascertained to be. The work consists of 369 axioms or principles, stated with the greatest conciseness, so as to require, in the first instance, an exercise of the reasoning powers ; in fact, constituting a system to be studied as a whole, before it can be clearly understood or appreciated as a guide to practice. When the reasons of familiar operations in horticulture are understood, the mental interest of watching the results must be greatly heightened. Rules of cultivation are not, indeed, Mr. Lindley remarks, to be neglected, because they cannot be physiologically explained; for the reasons of important facts may long remain undiscoverable, or be mistaken; but more success may be expected in acting upon scientific principles,-in other words, understanding and consulting the laws of nature,-than in following empirical prescriptions, the reasons of which are not understood. These
Outlines, we think, will deserve the attentive study of every young horticulturist, amateur or professional. The following may serve as a specimen.
·XI. AIR AND Light. *277. When an embryo plant (242.) is formed within its integuments, it is usually colourless, or nearly so; but, as soon as it begins to grow, that part which approaches the light (the stem) becomes coloured, while the opposite extremity (the root) remains colourless.
· 278. The parts exposed to the air absorb oxygen at night, absorb carbonic acid and part with oxygen again in daylight; and thus in the day-time purify the air, and render it fit for the respiration o. man.
279. The intensity of this latter phænomenon is in proportion to the intensity of solar light to which leaves are directly exposed.
* 280. Its cause is the decomposition of carbonic acid, the extrication of oxygen, and the acquisition by the plant of carbon in a solid state ; from which, modified by the peculiar vital actions of species, colour and secretions are supposed to result.
. 281. For it is found that the intensity of colour and the quantity of secretions are in proportion to the exposure to light and air, as is shown by the deeper colour of the upper side of leaves, &c.
- 282. And by the fact, that if plants be grown in air from which light is excluded, neither colour nor secretions are formed, as is exemplified in blanched vegetables; which, if even naturally poisonous, may, from want of exposure to light, become wholesome, as Celery..
: 283. When any colour appears in parts developed in the dark, it is generally caused by the absorption of such colouring matter as preexisted in the root or other body from which the blanched shoot proceeds, as in some kinds of Rhubarb when forced.
• 284. Or by the deposition of colouring matter formed by parts developed in light, as in the subterranean roots of Beet, Carrots, &c.
.285. What is true of colour is also true of flavour, which equally depends upon light for its existence; because flavour is produced by chemical alterations in the sap caused by exposure to light. (229.)
• 286. The same thing occurs in regard to nutritive matter, which in like manner is formed by the exposure of leaves to light. Thus the Potato when forced in dark houses contains no more amylaceous matter than previously existed in the original tuber; but acquires it in proportion as it is influenced by light and air. Thus, also, if Peaches are grown in wooden houses, at a distance from the light, they will form so little nutritive matter as to be unable to support a crop of fruit, the greater part of which will fall off. And for a similar reason it is only the outside shoots of standard fruit trees that bear fruit. Considerations of this kind form in part the basis of pruning and training. pp. 54-57.
- 229. The flavour of fruit depends upon the existence of certain secretions, especially of acid and sugar; flavour will, consequently, be regulated by the circumstances under which fruit is ripened. VOL. VIII. N.S.
- 230. The ripening of fruit is the conversion of acid and other substances into sugar.
- 231. As the latter substance cannot be obtained at all in the dark, is less abundant in fruit ripened in diffused light, and most abundant in fruit exposed to the direct rays of the sun, the conversion of matter into sugаr occurs under the same circumstances as the decomposition of carbonic acid. (141. and 279.)
* 232. Therefore, if fruit be produced in situations much exposed to the sun, its sweetness will be augmented.
-233. And in proportion as it is deprived of the sun's direct rays that quality will diminish.
- 231. So that a fruit which when exposed to the sun is sweet, when grown where no direct light will reach it will be acid; as Pears, Cherries, &c.
• 235. Hence acidity may be corrected by exposure to light; and excessive sweetness, or insipidity, by removal from light.
. 236. It is the property of succulent fruits which are acid when wild to acquire sweetness when cultivated, losing a part of their acid.
• 237. This probably arises from the augmentation of the cellular tissue, which possibly has a greater power than woody or vascular tissue of assisting in the formation of sugar.
- 238. As a certain quantity of acid is essential to render fruit agreeable to the palate, and as it is the property of cultivated fruits to add to their saccharine matter, but not to form more acid than when wild, it follows that, in selecting wild fruits for domestication, those which are acid should be preferred, and those which are sweet or insipid rejected.
239. Unless recourse is had to hybridism; when a wild insipid fruit may be possibly improved (204.), or may be the means of improving something else.
*240. It is very much upon such considerations as the foregoing that the rules of training must depend.' pp. 46–48.
Art. VIII. Fourteen Reasons why Dissenters should not submit to
have their Marriages celebrated at the Altar of a Consecrated Building, before Clergymen belonging to a Church to which they
cannot conscientiously conform. 6d. per doz. Can there be fourteen reasons for any reasonable thing? This may be doubted. Yet, one good reason may be put in fourteen ways; and those who elude it in one shape, may possibly admit it in another. It is sometimes however impolitic, to give too many reasons for a good thing, because men are apt to deduct the weaker reasons from the strength of the more forcible ones. So obviously reasonable is it that all classes of Dissenters should enjoy the same privilege that the Quakers have long enjoyed in respect to the celebration of marriage, that we should less fear a difference of opinion as to the conclusion here set forth, than as to some of the premises. These fourteen reasons may be summarily stated thus:
1. Because marriage is; properly, a civil transaction.
2. Because to convert it into a religious ceremony, savours of the Romish superstition.
3. Because the imposition of a religious ceremony on Nonconformists, is an infringement on the rights of conscience.
4. Because a compliance with the requisition of human authority, in the outward observance of any religious service, is a mockery of the Object of worship.
5. Because such compliance on the part of Dissenters, tends to nullify their testimony against the corruptions of the Established Church.
6. Because the present state of the marriage law fixes an unmerited stigma on Protestant Dissenting ministers in this country.
7. Because the marriage fees go to the clergy.
8. Because the marriage service was borrowed from the Romish ritual, and is founded on Romish tenets.
9. Because many persons feel conscientious objections to the formula they are required to repeat: “ With this ring,' &c.
10. Because the repeal of the marriage-law will wipe off a reproach from the body of Dissenters; that of having compromised their rights of conscience.
ll. Because the Society of Friends, so long ago as 1752, procured a recognition of the validity of their marriages.
12. Because the times demand that Dissenters should exhibit proper feeling and becoming energy.'
13. Because the subject has been brought before the Legislature by the Unitarians, and after full discussion in both houses, the principle has been conceded, on which an efficient measure of relief may be founded.
14. Because, the way having been thus prepared by others, Orthodox Dissenters will be inexcusable, if they do not take the necessary steps to obtain a redress of the 'intolerable' grievance.
These reasons, it will be seen, are exclusively addressed to Dissenters. They are reasons why they should not submit', &c.; not reasons why they should be relieved. We should have liked better to see the reasons for an alteration of the law, stated in a form adapted to weigh with the Legislature. The first four might be used for this purpose, as a fair ground of argument. Nos. 8 and 9 are substantially the same as 2 and 3. Nos. 11 and 13 are considerations which might be fairly pleaded ; although not direct arguments. But Nos. 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, and 14, being merely ad homines, are better adapted to excite, than to convince.
Art. IX. The Parents' Cabinet of Amusement and Instruction. No. I.
18mo. 6d. London, 1832. A PLEASING tale of animal biography, a walk in the garden after a • shower', (comprising a dialogue on natural history,) and a fable in verse, form the contents of this first Number of a periodical supply of reading for the juvenile members of the family. Ours report very favourably of the attractive and interesting' quality of this specimen. We shall watch the progress of the work, which, if competently conducted, will deserve success. There are wood-cuts.
Art. X. Useful Geometry, practically exemplified by a Series of
Diagrams, with clear and concise Directions ; showing the construction, division, inscribing, circumscribing, and proportions of Plane Figures; calculated to assist the young beginner, and every one who uses the Rule, the Square, and the Compasses. With a Vocabulary, explaining in familiar words the scientific meaning of Technical Terms. By Charles Taylor, 12mo, pp. 174. Price 5s.
London, 1832. • To the adept,' remarks the author, already conversant with the principles of mathematical investigation, this volume will offer few attractions ;' and at the same time that we subscribe to this modest disclaimer, we feel bound to recommend this little work to that class for which it is intended. Although an A.M. of Cambridge or a professor of the Mathematics scorns all rules but such as he can himself arrive at by regular steps, the practical mechanic, heedless of the ratiocinative parts of Geometry, looks only to working his problems by the simplest rules, of which he is often so far from understanding the rationale, that he is not able to define them. To such men as these, Mr. Taylor's book will be a valuable acquisition, since his rules, at the same time that they can be regularly proved, are adapted to the comprehension of the artificer.
Some of the rules are exceedingly neat ; in particular, the 26th, (the 22d of the first book,) which is one of those towards which lazy school boys entertain no slight aversion. The rules are prin. cipally derived from Euclid, but are interspersed with some from the French mathematicians, and some which are given at Cambridge. The vocabulary is by no means the inferior part of the work. Occasionally, there may be need to turn to two or three different pages in order to make out one explanation ; but this, the only fault, is almost impossible to be avoided, and will be overcome as soon as the student has made himself master of a few of the most essential terms.
For the sake, then, as well of the mechanic as of the author, we hope that this work will meet with extensive circulation, since to those who cannot compass Euclid and Legendre, we cannot recommend a more suitable instructor than · Useful Geometry.'
Art. XI. Landscape Illustrations of the Prose and Poetical Works of
Sir Walter Scott, Bart. With Portraits of the principal Female
1832. We have already noticed with the commendation it deserves, the quarto series of these Landscape Illustrations, containing views of some of the most romantic and interesting scenery in the north country