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Art. X. LITERARY INTELLIGENCE. In the press, A Circumstantial Narrative of the wreck of the Rothsay Castle Steam Packet, comprising interesting personal details of the survivors, biographical notices of a portion of those who perished, &c. &c. By Joseph Adshead.

In the press, Morning Discourses addressed to the congregation of Christ Church, Birmingham. By George Hodson, M. A., Archdeacon of Stafford.

In the press, Conversion, in a series of cases recorded in the New Testament, Defective, Doubtful, and Real. By the Rev. J. K. Craig, Oxon. In 2 Vols. 12mo.

The Rev. John Ely, of Rochdale, has in the press, in 1 Vol. 8vo. “ Winter Lectures,” a series of Discourses illustrative of the Divine Dispensations.

Nearly ready, Steel's Shipmaster's Assistant, and Owner's Manual, 20th edition, newly arranged and corrected to 1833, (including the regulation of the new Customs' act.) By J. Stikeman, custom-house agent.

Dr. Morison's Exposition of the Psalms, Explanatory, Critical, and Devotional, in three volumes octavo, is now completed.

In the press, Dictionary of the Anglo-Saxon Language ; containing the Accentuation-Grammatical Inflexions-Irregular Words referred to their Themes—Derivation_Meaning of the Anglo-Saxon Words in English and Latin-Substance of Somner, Lye, Manning, with additional Anglo-Saxon Words from Manuscripts, and a copious English Index, serving as an ENGLISH and ANGLO-Saxon DICTIONARY. By the Rev. J. Bosworth, L.L.D. F.R.S. F.S.A. Member of the Royal Society of Literature, &c. &c.


Principles of Astronomy. By William
Brett, M.A., Fellow of Corpus Christi
College, Cambridge. 8vo. 10s. boards.
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An Historical Account of the Plague

and other Pestilential Distempers, which have appeared in Europe, more especially in England, from the earliest Period. To which is added, an Account of the Cholera Morbus, from its first appearance in India; including its ravages in Asia, Europe, and America, down to the present time. Ornamented with a neatly engraved Emblematic Title Page. 12mo, Is. 6d.

Mirabeau's Letters during his Residence in England; with Anecdotes, Maxims, &c. now first translated from the Original Manuscripts. To which is prefixed, an Introductory Notice on the Life, Writings, Conduct, and Character of the Author. 2 Vols. 8vo. with a Portrait, 11. ls. boards.



For OCTOBER, 1832.

Art. 1.--. The Ecclesiastical Polity and other Works of Richard

Hooker : with his Life by Izaak Walton, and Strype's Interpolations. To which are now first added, The “ Christian Letter”. to Mr. Hooker ; and Dr. Covel's “ Just and Temperate Defence" in Reply to it: accompanied by an Introduction, a Life of Thomas Cartwright, B.D., and numerous Notes, by Benjamin Hanbury. In three Volumes. 8vo. pp. ccvi, 1431. (Portrait.) Price

ll. lls. 6d. London, 1830. 2. Two Letters, by Fiat Justitia," Author of a Letter to the Hon.

and Rev. Baptist W. Noel; in Reply, the First to a Churchman, who condemns him for going too far; the Second, to a Dissenter, who expostulates with him for not going far enough. With an Appendix, containing a Letter from the Hon. and Rev. B. W. Noel, with Observations upon it; Remarks on the Unity of the Church ; Church Communion; Ecclesiastical Endowments; Theory and Practice of Independency, &c. &c. concluding with Hints on Church Reform, as applicable to Congregationalists. 8vo. pp. 121.

Price 2s. 6d. London, 1832. 3. A Model of non-secular Episcopacy: including Reasons for the

Establishment of Ninety-four Bishopricks in England and Wales. By the Rev. Thomas Sims, M.A. formerly of Queen's College, Cambridge; Author of “ Christian Records," &c. &c. 8vo. pp.

24. Price ls. London, 1832. 4. An Address to the Dissenters of England on the Subject of Tithes.

By a Dissenter. 8vo. pp. 24. Price 1s. London, 1832. 5. The Protestant Dissenter's Catechism. The Twentieth Edition:

with an Appendix and a Preface, by William Newman, D.D. 12mo. London, 1831.

To them that seek (as they term it) the reformation of laws L and orders ecclesiastical in the Church of England, Richard Hooker, the judicious Hooker,' in the preface to his VOL. VIII. N.S.


great work, addresses the following advice and rebuke. “Be it • that there are some reasons inducing you to think hardly of our

laws; are those reasons demonstrative, are they necessary, or • but mere probabilities only? An argument necessary and de'monstrative is such as being proposed to any man, and under• stood, the mind cannot choose but inwardly assent. Any one such reason dischargeth, I grant, the conscience, and setteth it at full liberty. For the public approbation given by the body of this whole church unto those things which are established, • doth make it but probable that they are good ; and therefore unto a necessary proof that they are not good, it must give place. But if the skilfullest amongst you can shew that all the books ye have hitherto written be able to afford any one argu'ment of this nature, let the instance be given. As for pro'babilities, what thing was there ever set down so agreeable with

sound reason, but some probable shew against it might be made ? • Is it meet, that when publicly things are received, and have

taken place, general obedience thereunto should cease to be ' exacted, in case this or that private person, led with some probable

conceit, should make open protestation, I Peter or John dis! allow them, and pronounce them nought? In which case your * answer will be, that concerning the Laws of our Church, they are not only condemned in “ the opinion of a private man, but of thousands,” yea, and even “ of those amongst which divers are in public charge and authority.” As though when public

consent of the whole hath established any thing, every man's * judgement, being thereunto compared, were not private, howso! ever his calling be to some kind of public charge. So that of 'peace and quietness there is not any way possible, unless the ' probable voice of every intire society or body politic overrule all private of like nature in the same body. Which thing effectually

proveth, that God, being author of peace and not of confusion ' in the Church, must needs be author of those men's peace

able resolutions, who, concerning these things, have determined with themselves to think and do as the Church they are of decreeth, till they see necessary cause enforcing them to the ? contrary.'

In the Dedication to Archbishop Whitgift, this loyal Churchman takes a loftier flight. “As“ by the sword of God and • Gideon ” was sometime the cry of the people Israel, so it might • deservedly be at this day the joyful song of innumerable ' multitudes, yea, the emblem of some estates and dominions in

the world, and (which must be eternally confest even with tears • of thankfulness) the true inscription, style, or title of all • Churches as yet standing within this realm, “ By the goodness of Almighty God, and his servant Elizabeth, we are. The most expressive comment that can be offered upon the

general argument in the preceding extract, is supplied by Mr. Hallam. It is well known,' he remarks, that the Preface to

the Ecclesiastical Polity was one of the two books to which 'James II. ascribed his return into the fold of Rome; and it is ‘not difficult to perceive by what course of reasoning on the

positions it contains, this was effected.'* When the first four books appeared, Cardinal Allen and Dr. Stapleton were so much delighted with them as to invite the attention of the Pope (Clement VIII.) to this masterly production of a poor obscure 'English priest.' Nor was his Holiness less pleased with the perusal. “This man indeed deserves the name of an author,' was the papal encomium. Hooker was in fact, a true Guelf, an advocate at once of civil liberty and ecclesiastical despotism. It is true, he contends for the royal supremacy in place of the papal; that is, he maintains the national point of honour, a domestic pope, instead of a foreign one; but he stipulates with equal explicitness for the independent authority and inalienable rights of the Church. "To live by one man's law,' he remarks, ' is the cause of all men's misery ;' and utterly without our * consent we are at the command of no man living.' 'Every ‘nation or collective multitude has naturally no superior under 'God. And again : Laws they are not, which public ap' probation has not made so.' Mr. Locke's Essay on Government is avowedly built upon the constitutional principles of civil liberty laid down in the Ecclesiastical Polity, to which work he continually refers. Yet, when Hooker comes to speak of the authority of the Church, forgetting all his better principles t, he becomes the advocate of as pure a despotism as that of either Rome or Turkey. To the more than maternal power of the • Church,' he attributes prerogatives far more absolute than, in civil matters, he was willing to concede to the majesty of the Crown itself. “That which the Church, by her ecclesiastical • authority, shall publicly think and define to be true and good, ' must in congruity of reason overrule all inferior judgements whatsoever.'

The radical fallacy of Hooker's reasonings was not perceived at the time, even if it be generally understood now. The right of private judgement in matters of religion, was nearly as little respected by the Puritans, his antagonists, as by the champion

* Hallam’s Const. Hist. p. 234, n. · + · The ground of all civil laws is this; no man ought to be hurt or

injured by another. Take away this persuasion, and ye take away all the laws. Such is the golden remark of our Author in his Discourse on Justification (Vol. III. p. 398). Is this the ground of all ecclesiastical laws ?

of prelacy. His Dissenting Editor, Mr. Hanbury, has very fairly and explicitly noticed this fact.

Cartwright himself says: “ Those who would withdraw themselves should be by ecclesiastical discipline at all times, and now also under a Godly Prince, by Civil Punishment brought to communicate with their brethren." And again: “ The Magistrate ought to compel them to hear the word of God; and if they profit not, nor with sufficient teaching correct not themselves, then they should be punished." Thus, they would equally have claimed and exercised jurisdiction over the persons of other Christians who could not accord with their own views and observances. Persecution, therefore, was a principle with both sides.' Vol. I. p. xx.

Hooker's fundamental positions, the main pillars of his whole fabric, may be stated in the form of a syllogism, thus : “ All • public laws must overrule private judgements : The Church,

like other Societies, is invested with power to make laws: . * Therefore, whatever laws the Church enacts, are binding upon • all who are born within its confines.'

It is obvious, however, at the first view, that this compact argument, stated absolutely, labours under the inconvenient disadvantage of proving too much; for it is felt that it would serve the purpose of the Church of Rome, precisely as well as that of the Church of England. A proviso, therefore, is appended to the minor premis, qualifying the power attributed to the Church,– provided those laws do not interfere with or contradict

the Laws and Commandments of Holy Scripture. But will this saving clause answer its purpose ? A little examination will shew that it is in reality fatal to the whole proposition. The power to make laws, in no way depends upon the moral rectitude of the enactments. When a writer has proved that the Church has a discretionary power to appoint what ceremonies, and

establish what order she thinks fit, he may then,' Daniel Neal justly remarks, ' vindicate not only the Ceremonies of the Church

of England, but all those of Rome; for no doubt that Church ' alleges all their ceremonies conducive to her well-being, and not 'inconsistent with the laws of Christ. Bishop Warburton thus endeavours to parry the sturdy Nonconformist's thrust.

How so? Does it follow that, because I have a right to the 'use of a power, I have a right to the abuse of it? The Church

of Rome, that of England, and every other Christian Church of one denomination, may, as a Society, make laws of order and discipline. The Church of Rome abuses this right: therefore the Church of England shall not use it.'* Strange that so

* Mr. Hanbury, from whose notes we take this citation, (vol. i. p. xl.) remarks, that here Warburton assumes the very matter in debaté. This is true ; but it is not, we think, the greatest fallacy.

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