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tributions to the better knowledge of the history of mankind *. Having thus put our readers in possession of the character and general merits of the work, we shall present them with a specimen of its more ornamental qualities. During the latter periods of the Moorish domination, the frontier government of Antequera was held by Ferdinand Narvaëz, a gallant knight, always in the saddle, and harassing the Moors by bold incursions up to the very walls of Granada.

On the eve of one of his expeditions, Narvaez had detached a body of horsemen to scour and explore the country. His cavaliers, not having fallen in with any of the enemy, were returning to Antequera, when, at a sharp angle of the mountain road, a Moorish warrior rode into the midst of their troop, and was made prisoner. He was in the prime of manhood, strikingly handsome, richly clothed, superbly armed, and excellently mounted. His appearance spoke him of high family. He was brought before Narvaez, who asked his name and errand. He replied with faltering voice, that his father was the Alcayde of Ronda ; but when he endeavoured to proceed, his flowing tears choked his utterance. “ You astonish me,” said Narvaez, “ son of a brave soldier, for I know your father well ; you weep with a woman's weakness. You have but met with the common chance of war.” “I weep not for the loss of liberty,” replied the youth ; “I mourn a far heavier calamity.” Urged by Narvaez, the Moor proceeded. “ I have long loved the daughter of a neighbouring castellan; and, softened by my devoted affection, she returns my love. I was on my way to her when surprised by your detachment: she now awaits me, my love, my bride. -Ah! how shall I utter the despair that fills my heart?” “You are a noble cavalier,” rejoined Narvaez, touched by his grief; “ if you will pledge your word of honour for your return, I will permit you to keep your engagement with your mistress.” The young Moor joyfully ac

* «Conde as spoiled by Marlès',—the Frenchified work of Conde', -is the manner in which the work of the learned Frenchman is continually referred to in the notes to the “ History of Spain ” in Lardner's Cyclopædia, Book III. "We may well say spoiled', it is added in one of the notes, “ for he has sadly blundered the Christian affairs

in this reign'. (Abderahman III.) Still, the ample and acknowledged use that has been made of his work, in this part of the History, is an emphatic testimony to its value. To the elaborate researches of Masdeu, the Writer also owns his obligations; but his great work, • destitute alike of taste and method, meagre in facts and arid in

style', is strangely confused in some parts, and only comes down to the re-conquest of Toledo in 1085. It is a work which the critic • and the scholar will be glad to consult, but which will never be read'. We must take this occasion of repeating our warm commendation of the great ability and laborious pains discovered in this anonymous History, the first volume of which was noticed in our Number for May. When it is complete, we shall find an opportunity of more particularly noticing it.

cepted the offer of Narvaez, and immediately quitting Antequera, reached ere morning the castle where dwelt his lady-love. Seeing his deep affliction, and learning its cause, she thus addressed him. “Before this fatal hour, you had well approved your love, and in this very moment you give me new evidence of sincere attachment. You enjoin me to remain, fearing for me the loss of liberty if I follow; but think me not less capable than thyself of generous devotedness. Your lot is mine: bond or free, I shall be always at your side: this casket, filled with precious gems, will buy our liberty, or alleviate our bondage.” The lovers set forth without delay, and reached Antequera at even-tide. Narvaez welcomed them right cordially, and giving just praise to the honour of the knight, and the attachment of the lady, sent them home with rich presents and a powerful escort. The fame of this adventure spread throughout Granada : it was sung by bards, and recited by historians: and Narvaez, celebrated by the enemies of his nation, enjoyed the high reward of his knightly courtesy.

(Conde Histoire.) We shall make one further extract, by way of text to a closing observation on a subject much agitated among writers on history and political economy,—the partial depopulation of Spain by the expulsion of the Moors.

· Three millions of Moors ', writes either Señor Conde or his Translator and Editor, M. de Marlès, were, it is said, compelled or induced to quit Spain, carrying with them their property and their skill as artificers, the property and wealth of the state. What have the Spaniards substituted for these ? Answer there is none. A mourning veil rests for ever on those very regions where nature always wore a smiling aspect. A few mutilated monuments still lift their heads amid the ruins which cover the waste; but from the recesses of those mo. numents, from the centre of those ruins, rises the cry of truth“ Honour and glory to the conquered Arab! Decay and wretchedness to the victorious Spaniard !" !

For the expatriation of the Moors in the first instance, strong political reasons might be assigned; and we shall not hastily join in the censures which have, in this matter, been prodigally thrown upon the Spanish Government. We say nothing in defence of the manner in which the decree was carried into execution, nor of the atrocious conditions which avarice and bigotry attached to its promulgation ; but we repeat that, on grounds of policy, the dominant power was justified in removing from a dangerous and almost inexpugnable territory, a people essentially and unalterably hostile, and continually in friendly correspondence with exterior enemies. The Moors were formidable in numbers, warlike, and restless; no means existed of altering their inimical disposition; and extreme as was the measure, we cannot see the alternative. The attribution of the decadence of Spain to this cause, seems to us unfounded. The abrupt removal of so many diligent cultivators, ingenious artificers, and enterprising merchants, would be of course, under any circumstances, long and severely felt; yet, a vigorous and wise administration would have ultimately rectified all this. But a fatality has rested upon Spain: for centuries, it has been the worst governed country in Europe, and to this, far more than to its dealings with its Moorish dependents, it owes its declension. Be it, however, observed, that these remarks apply only to the earlier counsels adopted in this business. Concerning the miserably impolitic and iniquitous banishment of the last unoffending remnant of this people, in the beginning of the seventeenth century, commonly distinguished as the Expulsion of the Moriscoes, there can be but one sentiment: it was a deed of unredeemed cruelty and baseness, vile in motive, tyrannous in act, and in result most injurious, not only to its victims, but to its perpetrators.

Art. II. The Truth of Revelation, demonstrated by an Appeal to ex-,

isting Monuments, Sculptures, Gems, Coins, and Medals. By a

Fellow of several learned Societies. 12mo, pp. 276. London, 1832. THIS interesting book is clearly the production of a mind

pious and cultivated, enriched by science, and enlarged by various information. Adapted especially to guard the young against the too welcome theories of scepticism, it will also afford to the general reader both gratification and improvement. It chiefly consists of striking facts deduced from the labours of modern inquiry, of allusions gleaned from literature, of memorials of past events scattered over the relics of by-gone times, in sculptures, gems, and medals; and its object is, to apply these various materials to the illustration and establishment of the sacred records ;—as well as to impress the conviction, that the foundations of a scriptural hope are not to be shaken by advancing knowledge, nor ultimately injured by the rash assaults of a class of men, who, aspiring to be deemed the votaries of philosophy, give too much reason for the suspicion, that the stimulus by which their industry is excited, is the vain expectation of some discovery adverse to the Christian religion, rather than zeal for the promotion of science.

The truth of the Bible is established upon evidences so various, independent, and forcible, as to have been long since considered by men without superiors either in intellect or in learning, as fully adequate to set the question at rest ;-to justify secession from further strife with cavillers, to brand objectors as unreasonable, and to leave them without relief from the stings of conscience, or appeal from the already recorded judgement of their Maker, that He who believeth not, is condemned already, Little new, indeed, can be advanced ; and, were it not for the ever reiterated attacks of the malignant, and the necessity of varying in some degree the forms of argument, to meet the ever changing methods of presenting stale objections, the advocates of Heavenly Truth might, with all honour, lay down their pens.

There is no line of investigation, in which the Scriptures have not been proved to be invincible. In general, that proof is distributed into the internal and the external; branching, in each kind, into many distinct topics of consideration. Into which of these, it may be asked, has there not been the keenest scrutiny which zeal could prompt? Which of them has not been repeatedly tested by whatever learning, science, or wit could bring to bear in opposition? Yet, in which of these, has not the cause of Revelation triumphed? Were it to be admitted as possible, that a temperature of mind peculiarly addicted to scepticism, might, after due inquiry, be still assailed by honest doubts ; yet, to disbelieve, or to arrive at a conviction that the Christian religion is false, even candour itself must pronounce to be impossible. Ignorance alone can shield the man who avows his belief, his posi-, tive belief, that the Scriptures are a counterfeit, from justly incurring imputations on his character for honour and honesty.

How could falsehood have been so accredited ? How could craft endure such sifting? Is the distinction between truth and cunning so impalpable? Can neither talent, time, subsequent discovery, application, nor sagacity, avail to mark it? Had the Scriptures been false, assailed as they have been, so long, so industriously, and from so many quarters, they must, without question, have been convicted long ago, and their support have been relinquished to human authority and state-craft. Before it can be positively believed that they are fabulous, it must be believed that falsehood is as strong as truth; that laws of evidence and rules of argument, which on every other subject are deemed to be just and safe, have, after all, no foundation, that we are wholly without landmarks for the mind; that history, reason, knowledge, are a blank; a mockery rather, which may delude and bewilder, but can never guide to confidence.

An attentive survey of the New Testament, must force upon every reader the conviction, that those parts of it which are most simple, which come within the compass of direct practical judgement, are indisputably true. The writers of it plainly display an accurate moral taste, a knowledge of what would be perfection in human character, which cannot be impeached, which was no where extant before, and to which nothing has been added since. Whence, then, could the human mind, all at once, attain to this justness of thought, this comprehension of the entire code of morals ? No justice can be done to these writers, except they be compared with those who lived before the light which they themselves were the instruments of introducing, had illuminated the world. It cannot be questioned, that the judgements of men on the most important subjects underwent an immense change after the reputed time when the New Testament was written ; a change manifestly referrible to its authors. From whom then could they derive that light? Was it so easy of acquisition, that it needs excite no wonder? Where was the sage or philosopher who had made the attainment ? By the infidel it has been deemed to be an achievement for the industry of his numerous associates, industry extended through several generations, to discover, not that any thing which the sacred authors have written on the duties of man to man, or of man to his Maker, is ill founded ; not that any thing has been omitted by them which is essential; but that there might be found, scattered through the writings of all countries, a little here, and a little there, those truths, which, when collected, and separated from a thousand errors, would make up the Christian system of morality. Even the precepts, to do good to our enemies, and to do to others, as we would that they should do to us, they, in no measured terms of triumph, assure us, have at length been fished from ancient documents.

Were the facts they state unquestionable, and the prior date of every precept clearly proved, (which, however, cannot be done,) yet, of what avail were it, for practical use, that a body of moral truth, dissevered limb from limb, lay scattered in innumerable fragments, among a mass of writings of various ages, countries, and languages, buried also among pernicious errors, more completely than gold among the sands? Where was the unaided intellect which should be equal to the task of selecting all the good, and at the same time of rejecting all the evil? Where were the individuals, or combination of individuals, who, at that time, could have even taken a survey of the amorphous masses of fable and speculation, for the purpose? How, especially, could those who gave us the New Testament, have performed the enterprise ? How came it that a few plain men living in despised Judea, should accomplish such a task? Can it be possibly accounted for, that they, without doubt or faltering, in clear, pointed directions, not as inquiring philosophers, but as authoritative lawgivers, should, at once and in brief, give to the world the whole of that practical, moral truth which, here a little and there a little, may have sparkled amongst the varied productions of all the powerful minds, the philosophers, poets, lawgivers, who had ever thought to instruct mankind ? Let the unbeliever mark the position of which he incautiously vaunts, the humiliation of his glorying ? Let him recollect besides, that both the beauty and the benefit of a rule of morals, consist, not in detached and widely dissevered precepts, but in their harmonious attemperament, in the exhibition

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