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do, and after looking in vain around “ We will say friend, then," rethe "cour" and the stable-yard, I sumed she ; "a friend in whose wel. turned into the garden to seek for some fare we are deeply interested, and

whose regard for us is not less powerI had not proceeded many paces along ful, has been for some years back sepaa little alley, flanked by two close rated froin us by the force of those hedges of yew, when I heard voices, unhappy circumstances which have and at the same instant my own name made so many of us exiles! No means uttered.

have existed of communicating with “You told him to use caution, Lau- each other, nor of interchanging those ra, that we know little of this Tiernay hopes or fears for our country's welbevond bis own narrative

fare which are so near to every French * I told him the very reverse, aunt. heart! He in Germany, we in the I said that he was the son of a loyal wild Tyrol, one-half the world apart! Garde du Corps, left an orphan in in- and dare not trust to a correspondence, fancy, and thrown by force of events the utterance of those sympathies into the service of the Republic ; but which have brought so many to the that every sentiment he expressed, scaffold !" every ambition he cherished, and every “ We would ask of you to see him, feeling he displayed was that of a gen- Monsieur de Tiernay, to know him," tleman; nay, farther .” But I did burst out Laura ; « to tell him all not wait for more, for, striking my that you can of France-above all, of sabre heavily on the ground to an- the sentiments of the army; he is a nounce my coming, I walked hurriedly soldier himself, and will hear


with forward towards a small arbour where pleasure." the ladies were seated at breakfast.

You may speak freely and frank. I need not stop to say how com- ly," continued the Marquise; “ the pletely all my resolves were routed by Count is man of the world enough to the few words I had overheard from hear the truth even when it gives pain. Laura, nor how thoroughly I recanted Your own career will interest him all my expressions concerning her. deeply; heroism has always had a So full was I of joy and gratitude,

charm for all his house. This letter that I hastened to salute her before will introduce you ; and, as the Geneever noticing the Marquise, or being ral informs us, you have some days at conscious of her presence.

your own disposal, pray give them to The old lady, usually the most ex. our service in this cause.' acting of all beings, took


omission “Willingly, madame," replied I, in good part, and most politely made "only let me understand a little bet. room for me between herself and Laura ter-" at the breakfast-table.

- There is no need to know more,” “You have come most opportunely, interrupted Laura; “ the Count de Monsieur de Tiernay,” said she, “ for

Marsanne will himself suggest everynot only were we just speaking of you, thing which you will talk. He will but discussing whether or not we might speak of us, perhaps--of the Tyrolask of you a favour."

of Kuffstein; then he will lead the “ Does the question admit of a dis- conversation to France in fact, once cussion, madame ?” said I, bowing. acquainted you will follow the dictates

“ Perhaps not, in ordinary circum- of your own fancy." stances, perhaps not; but —" she • Just so, Monsieur de Tiernay, it hesitated, seemed confused, and looked will be a visit with as little of cereat Laura, who went on

mony as possible “My aunt would say, sir, that we “ Aunt!” interrupted Laura, as if may be possibly asking too much recalling the Marquise to caution, and that we may presume too far." the old lady at once acknowledged the “ Not on my will to serve you,”

hint by a significant look. broke I in, for her looks said much I see it all, thought I, De Marmore than her words.

sanne is Laura's accepted lover, and I - The matter is this, sir," said the am the person to be employed as a goaunt, “ we have a very valued rela- between, This was intolerable, and tive

when the thought first struck me I “Friend,"interposed Laura,“friend, was out of myself with passion. aunt."

“ Are we asking too great a favour,

enter upon.


Monsieur de Tiernay?" said the Mar- supportably offensive! and I was only quise, whose eyes were fixed upon me able to mutter, “You are right, Madeduring this conflict.

moiselle ;" and then, addressing myself “Of course not, Madam," said I, in to the Marquise, I made some blunder. an accent of almosts arcastic tone. “If ing apologies about haste and soforth ; I am not wrong in my impressions the while I promised to fulfil her comcause might claim a deeper devotion ; mission faithfully and promptly. but this is a theme I would not wish to “ Shall we not hear from you ?"

said the old lady, as she gave me her “ We are aware of that,” said Laura, hand. I was about to say, “under the quickly, “we are quite prepared for circumstances," better not, but I hesi. your reserve, which is perfectly proper tated, and Laura, seeing my confusion, and becoming.".

said, “It might be unfair, aunt, to “ Your position being one of un- expect it; remember how he is placed.” usual delicacy," chimed in the Mar- * Mademoiselle is a miracle of fore

thought and candour too,” said I. I bowed haughtily and coldly, while " Adieu! adieu for ever!" The last the Marquise uttered a thousand ex- word I uttered in a low whisper. pressions of gratitude and regard to “ Adieu, Maurice," said she, equally

low, and then turned away towards the “ We had hoped to have seen you window. here a few days longer, Monsieur,” said From that moment until the instant she, “but perhaps, under the circum- when, out of breath and exhausted, I stances, it is better as it is."

halted for a few seconds on the crag Under the circumstances, Madam," below the fortress, I knew nothing; repeated I, “I am bound to agree my brain was in a whirl of mad, conwith you;" and I turned to say fare- flicting thought. Every passion was well.

working within me, and rage, jealousy, “ Rather au revoir, Monsieur de love, and revenge were alternately Tiernay," said the Marquise, “friend- swaying and controlling me. Then, ship, such as ours, should at least be however, as I looked down for the last hopeful; say then au revoir.'

time on the village and the cottage ** Perhaps Monsieur de Tiernay's beside the river, my heart softened, hopes run not in the same channel as and I burst into a torrent of tears. our own, aunt,” said Laura, "and There, said I, as I arose to resume my perhaps the days of happiness that we way, there! is one illusion dissipated; look forward to would bring far diffe- let me take care that life never sball rent feelings to his heart."

renew the affliction ! Henceforth I This was too pointed—this was in. will be a soldier, and only a soldier.



-"O quid agis? fortiter occupa
Portum. Nonne vides ut
Nudum remigio latus ?"-HORACE.

IRELAND is now in a state of transition. great industrial resources of our counThe whole frame of society has been try than by unwarranted prejudices. shaken to its very centre. A storm In examining a country with the inhas burst over the island; it has now tention of forming a just estimate of subsided, and has left all the constitu its wealth and prosperity, it is necesent elements necessary to the formation sary, in the first place, to consider the of a great and happy country chaotic laws by which it is governed, the seand confused. Out of these disjointed curity that exists for life and property, materials we have to construct a new and the agency through which justice nation; and whether it will contain the is administered. Should two states germ of happiness and prosperity, or resemble one another very nearly in hold at sufferance a sickly existence, de these respects, and should no great dispends, in a great measure, upon the parity exist between them in climate, part we act. There is a tide in the in situation, in the intelligence of the affairs of nations as of men, and upon people, and generally in civilisation, our own conduct now depends our fu that one will receive from us a deture fortune or misery. It is not cided preference in which industry has enough to pull down, we must also re made the greatest progress; in which construct. Ireland has often been the fields have been enclosed, drained, subjected to changes as violent as the and reclaimed ; in which the mines are present, and yet its evils were only profitably worked, factories erected, perpetuated.

- The whole of your and the greatest amount of capital alisland,” said Lord Clare, in his cele- ready created and invested. Proceedbrated speech at the Union, has been ing upon these facts, we are enabled confiscated, with the exception of the to arrive, with a great degree of cerestates of five or six ancient families tainty, at a fair conclusion as to its of English blood; and no inconsider social condition at the time, and the able portion of the island has been industrial activity already developed. confiscated twice, perhaps thrice.” Sa But if, in making this comparison, tisfied, then, that Ireland, particu we are anxious to form an opinion, not larly her soil, offers incalculable ad upon their then existing states, but vantages to the capitalist, and that his


their future conditions and ulti. presence among us is necessary to re mate destinies, we must proceed upon vive drooping hopes, and to palliate a different facts and different data. We vast amount of human suffering that must take into consideration not the must otherwise ensue, we propose, in past but the future, not what has the course of the present article, to been done, but what may be done. examine some of the principles of vi Those circumstances which induce us, tality we still possess, and the result in the first case, to give our award, to which the course of modern events will, in the second case, make us withappears to tend, principally with this hold our preference. In England, object in view. To do this, with even where unbroken peace has prevailed a moderate chance of success, it will be for years, and the highest degree necessary to turn occasionally out of of civilisation has existed, and where the direct course, in order to expose it is almost impossible to find a some of the vulgar errors, or to combat single acre of land upon which large some of the national prejudices enter sums of capital have not been extained of the Irish at the other side of pended, everything, it is true, “doth the channel. And this is the more make a gleeful boast ;" whilst, in necessary, as we feel well assured that Ireland, whole tracts of land exist the absence of the English capitalist is upon which a shilling has never been produced, less by an ignorance of the expended--unfenced, undrained, wild,


and uncultivated - and still in the same state of nature in which it has remained for centuries past.

In England money has done much. Each new application of capital to the soil has brought in a smaller return, until at last the profit has become so small as to offer few temptations for its investment; but in Ireland we possess all the elements of progress. Our's is a country abounding in all the raw materials of wealth, and labour itself is almost a drug. Under the watery wastes that cover a great portion of the soil lie rich lands; valuable mines, never yet worked, exist almost upon the surface of the ground, their rich ore in many cases laid naked by the mountain-torrent; and water power, sufficient to turn the machinery of the world, still rolls on in its ceaseless course, unemployed, unappropriated. These are the elements of progress we possess; these are the things that, notwithstanding the gloom of the past and the present, inspire, in the heart of the nationalist, confidence and hope for the future, and teach us that Ireland is yet destined to be prosperous and happy, if her people will only have it so, under the blessing of Him who “ hath caused the wilderness and soli. tary place to be glad, and the desert to rejoice and blossom as the rose.”

It would have been no easy thing, a few years ago, to have pointed out any two countries upon the face of the earth, placed in the same juxtaposition as England and Ireland, and yet so totally dissimilar in the habits and feelings of the people ; and it would be equally difficult, at the present time, to discover any two nations in which the process of assimilation has advanced with more rapidity or steadi. ness. To investigate the causes of the social and political antagonism of Ireland to England, of her disaffection and habitual distrust in the laws, and consequently of her physical and intellectual backwardness, it would be necessary to trace down from an early period of history the selfish policy and misrule of England. This task has been frequently undertaken by others, and often executed with ability ; although it must be a constant source of regret that the motive for such an investigation was rather to perpetuate discord and dissension, than to learn from the experience of the

past, apt remedies for present misfor

These matters, however, are now mere speculative questions. The electric telegraph, the extension of railways, and the wonderful improvements that have been made in steam navigation, have done more to further the amalgamation of England and Ireland, than all the legislative enactments of the last half century.

Where two states are situated in close proximity to one another, everything in their social and commercial condition tends to an equality. A difference in language or religion, or even a dif. ferent code of laws and government, may for a long time mar this consummation. It may be delayed by natural obstacles, such as a dangerous channel, till man, by his ingenuity, shall have triumphed over such impediments; or it may be postponed by vexatious custom-house regulations, or quarantine laws; but all these things can only oppose, they can never annihilate the natural tendency of events. But where, as with England and Ireland, a narrow piece of water alone separates the two islands, once, indeed, a serious impediment to intercourse, but now the most important means of communication and traffic; and where the same government, laws, and language exist, and where, above all, the efforts of both countries appear to be directed to the removal, and not to the creation of the obstacles that hinder, in the least degree, free and unshackled international communication, this complete amalgamation and merger into each other of political individualities, must be rapidly effected.

But a few years since, party feeling ran high, and political influence was of no mean value to the holder; and in the violent contests for power that ensued, the welfare and happiness of thousands was often postponed to the selfish ends of the ambitious statesman; and, as in modern warfare, Belgium has generally been selected as the battlefield of nations ; so, unfortunately for Ireland, it has happened that she has almost always been chosen as the battleground of contending parties. Laws were supported, or measures opposed, by the different rulers of the country, not according to the benefits or evils Ireland was likely to derive from their enactment, but in proportion as such measures were calculated to support or embarrass a friendly or hostile ad

ministration. We have seen salutary ceased, yet it is certainly true that laws for the protection of life and pro the motive for bad government, a deperty thrown out by a powerful oppo- sire to gain temporary popularity with sition, on the plea that such laws were the anti-landlord party, has greatly opposed to the liberty of the subject ; decreased ; and that where it does and we have seen the very same party, exist, its effects have been considerawhen in power, a few weeks afterwards, bly weakened and counteracted by the propose the same measure, with many superior force of the education and additionally stringent regulations. We intelligence of the people. Apart from have seen the government and patron political or agrarian outrages there is age of Ireland handed over, in consi scarcely any country in the world so deration of the mere promise of his sup free from crime as Ireland. The report, to a man a short time previously volting and awful murders that have denounced by the same government, so often taken place have all been, and made the object of a criminal pro- more or less, connected with the possecution. In short, we have seen crimes session of the soil: for “ hunger will tolerated, bad laws (rendered worse by cut through stone walls, though the bad administration) suffered to exist, gallows stood in the gate." This great the Established Church assailed, and incentive to crime has now ceased. agitation, we had almost said, rebellion, The intense desire of obtaining land permitted to spread its desolating in upon any terms has altogether disapfluence over the country, blighting peared as one of our characteristic Ireland's fairest hopes and prospects, features ; and at the same time the however loved and cherished in their power of obtaining it, by those posday.

sessed of capital, has been greatly faThese things, however, have greatly cilitated. This fact is placed beyond changed. Party feelings of the same doubt by the last Report of the Incumintensity and virulence no longer ex bered Estates Commissioners, by which ist; nor do the same means of pander- it appears that out of 587 estates sold ing to the prejudices of the vulgar in that court, nearly one-half of them remain. The failure of the potato have been purchased by parties for sums bas loosened the tie that seemed to of £1000, and under. Thus a number of bind the Irish peasant like a Helot small landed proprietors are becoming to the soil. Already he lifts his eyes scattered through the country, posfrom the ground, and, whilst thousands, sessed of sufficient education and forunfortunately despairing of receiving tune to command the respect of the in their own country the fruits of in. poorer classes, but not placed so far dustry, seek in the far West the land above them as to excite their envy. of promise ; thousands more, deter These estates, like forts scattered over mined to raise themselves by their own an unsubdued country, form the ad. exertions (abandoning all connexion vance posts of civilization, and the with land), have already given an im rallying-points of industry and self-repetus to our manufactures unexampled

liance. in the history of this country. The Society is in a very unsound state spread of education, as well as the where possession of freehold estates by persons who not long since despaired of

One flaunts in rage, one flutters in brocade." ever becoming “landed proprietors,” has already created an independence The poorer classes then look upon of feeling, and a habit of thinking those above them as placed, by some for themselves, instead of blindly fol. unjust laws, in a position which they lowing a leader, to which the Muns can never expect to attain ; but a ter and Connaught men have hither middle class connects the rich and to been strangers. All these things poor, as it were, with a ladder, each must conduce to good government; step of which the humblest member and bad government has hitherto of the community feels he can climb been the only cause of all the crimes by good conduct and a little selfand outrages that have hindered the denial. The position of the rich man advent of capital, and the only impe then ceases to be one of envy; and diment to the prosperity of Ireland. the pomp, pride, and circumstance of

Although it would be ridiculous to wealth is regarded as a splendid prize, assert that bad government bad wholly open to all; a constant stimulus to

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