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seems proud of saying what he supposes the majority of his readers think already.
Religion, Devotion, Piety, Sunctity. Religion is the bond which ties us to the Deity; it is the external contract, the alliance made by others. Devotion is the wish to become obedient to the Deity ; it is the internal subjection of man to his God. Piety is that filial sentiment, which we feel for the Father of all. Sanctity is the habit of interior coercion, which a constant sense of duty to the Godhead inspires.
“ He is religious, who adheres to the ordinances of his country, or bis sect. He is devout, whom this adherence has trained to allegiance. He is pious, who regards the Deity as his father. Sanctity is to piety what devotion is to religion--the state of mind which results from acquiescence in the feeling.
Some men are pious, without being religious; and some are religious without being pious. For a worldly person it is sufficient to be religious. Those are devout whose purposes embrace their interests in other worlds. There is a fear of God observable in these times
among Calvinists, which is no less hostile to piety, than that rude familiarity with the Almighty which is observable among Methodists. Yet all these sentiments grow out of religion.
“ Religion is considered as a duty; piety as a merit: devotion and sanctity as equivocal excesses. This arises from the scepticism of the world, which questions the eventual retribution of the industry spent in devotion, or of the privations incurred from sanctity. One may infer a man's creed from his using the words devotion and sanctity with deference, or with a sneer." (TAYLOR, p. 100—101.)
HOLINESS, SANCTITY. “ HOLINESS, which comes from the northern languages, has altogether acquired a Christian signification; it respects the life and temper of a Christian.
“SANCTITY, which is derived from the Latin sanctus and sancio to sanction, has merely a moral signification, which it derives from the sanction of human authority.
“ Holiness is to the mind of a man what sanctity is to his exterior ; with this difference, that holiness to a certain degree onght to belong to every man professing Christianity; but sanctity, as it lies in the manners, the outward garb, and deportment, is becoming only to certain persons, and at certain times.
“ Holiness is a thing not to be affected; it is that genuine characterestic of Christianity which is altogether spiritual, and cannot be counterfeited; sanctity, on the other hand, is, from its very nature, exposed to falsehood, and the least to be trusted: when it displays itself in individuals, either by the sorrowfulness of their looks, or the singular cut of their garments, or other singularities of action
esture, it is of the most questionable nature; but in one who performs the sacerdotal office it is a useful appendage to the solem
nity of the scene, which excites a reverential regard to the individual in the mind of the beholder, and the most exalted sentiments of that religion wbich he thus adorns by his outward profession.
“ Habitual preparation for the Sacrament consists in a permanent habit or principal of holiness. South.
“ About an age ago it was the fashion in England for every one that would be thought religious, to throw as much sanctity as possible into his face. ADDISON. (CRABB, p. 536.)
As à favourable specimen, we are tempted to transcribe from Mr. Taylor, an interesting example of interweaving with discrimination, historic knowledge with verbal discussion.
“ Lord's Supper. Eucharist. Communion. Sacrament. “ Shortly before his crucifixion, Jesus Christ celebrated with his disciples the anniversary Phasah feast, which consisted in supping on lamb and unleavened bread. After the repast, he took wine, and having returned thanks, drank to them an affectionate farewell; desiring, in like manner, to be remembered by them at their future meetings. This last supper of Christ has been imitated in different ways by different sects of Christiahs. The Corinthians were res proached with so celebrating it, as to make it subservient to intemperate pleasures of the table: they thought a Lord's Supper could not be too frequent, or too hearty, or too jovial.
“ Other sects have supposed, not that the supper, but that the res turning thanks (ovxagosi) constitutes the essence of the rite; and that the psychological effects wbich Christians have derived from the execution and resurrection of Christ, are the fittest objects at that time of human gratitude. Such Christians naturally prefer the term eucharist, as drawing attention to what they consider as the chief part of the ceremony.
“Others have supposed, that brotherly love is in all cases the purest motive for conviviality; and was especially so in the incident related. These place in the common participation of christian feelings the utility of the rite; they would object to a solitary celebration, and insist on the duty of communion.
“ Sacrament means an outh, and, in general, any religious pledge publicly given, The ceremony of marriage is a sacrament. Taking the oath of allegiance is a sacrament. Taking the test is a sacrament. The church of Rome has seven sacraments. Those who call their peculiar imitation of the Lord's Supper emphatically the sacrament, either regard that rite as the most important of the ceremonies enjoined by Christianity, or allude to its local selection by the magistrate, as the test of allegiance.'
Mr. C. has adopted the substance of this article, and, which is unusual, abridged it. His more frequent practice is to amplify and preach upon the text Mr. T. bas furnished
him with. The limits of our Review do not permit us to illustrate by further examples the observations which sug. gest theniselves on a comparison of these books; and indeed, from the very nature of the works, it is not possible to give a character of them which might not apparently be contradicted by selections made under a different impression : As in a heap of dissimilar particles, an analysis of the one gives no information concerning the rest. However, to give the result of such an examination of these books as we have had leisure to make, and in the antithetical way which the writers themselves necessarily adopt and the subject seems to require, we should say, that Mr. T. appears to have written for the recreation of men of intelligence and scholars, Mr. C. for the use of ladies and his own pupils : Mr. T. therefore leaves his reader to supply the most obvious etymologies, while Mr. C. seldom omits copying the con, tents of the common dictionaries. Mr. T. seems to be carried away by his love of novelty, and the unconscious' pleasure of exercising his own ingenuity; Mr. C. prefers familiar and common-place notions, and has recourse to what is far-fetched only when what lies nearer is appropriated by his predecessor. Mr. T.'s style is pithy and quaint; his words are rather oddly selected, but they are combined with effect; his discrimination is subtle, his proofs often unattempted, perhaps not cared about : Mr. C.'s style is very wordy; he delights in well-set phrases, but when strung together, they do not mean much; his distinctions are loose and uncertain, his illustrations manifold, but often not illustrative. Mr. T. has exercised on his little book an understanding and attainments of a higher rank and greater variety ; but he has written carelessly, as if he had no object beyond filling a few columns of a magazine : Mr. C. has honestly and industriously applied such powers of thought and observation as he possesses, sitting down to his task with malice prepense to make a book, and maintaining a demeanor suite ably grave and imposing. In each work we think we observe traces of the habits which the situation of the author has produced. In the Norwich gentleman, we detect the peculiarities of a provincial residence, the liberties which a man is accustomed to take who is the first of his little circle :: In the Oxford scholar, we have that laudable respect for authority, both in thought and diction, which they usually inculcate who are accustomed to assume it themselves. Finally, we recommend Mr, T.'s book to those who make a conscience of reading all they buy, and who wish to stimulate their minds to exertion : Mr. C.'s work is the more useful present for that class of juvenile readers who are glad to be spared the trouble of examination, and look rather to the quantity than the quality of the instruction presented to them.
Art. IV.- Letters written on board His Majesty's Ship the
Northumberland, and at St. Helena; in which the Conduct and Conversations of Buonaparte and his Suite during the Voyage, and the first months of his Residence in that Island, are faithfully described and related. By Wm. WARDEN, Surgeon on board the Northumberland. London, pub
lished for the Author, by R. Ackerman, 1816. pp. 215. Buonaparte having now terminated his political existence, and the whole system of his government (excepting, indeed, so far as it has been adopted by his enemies) having been annihilated, we may consider him rather as a character in the history of times past, than as an agent in present events. The heated passions of men have in a great degree subsided, after a fair comparison of the good (though small) with the preponderance of evil resulting from his administration, and a fair estimate also of the measures, whether wise or otherwise, of those who opposed and of those who succeeded him.
In the course of our review of the small work in hand, we shall probably feel called upon to make but few remarks of our own, and we are the more glad that they will be unnecessary, because we should certainly feel an anxiety to be impartial, that might be mistaken for partiality by some who have not generosity enough to attribute to an enemy a single good quality. That these persons are not numerous in Great Britain we are most willing to admit; but that they have existed, and still exist, is equally clear, by the greediness with which the unfounded calumnies with respect to the temper and demeanour of Buonaparte since his fall, were at first swallowed and enjoyed: Their number has been, however, gradually diminishing as intelligence worthy of credit came to hand; and, if we are not mistaken, this volume by Mr. Warden will reduce them to a most bigotted and contemptible few.
Most of those who looked upon Buonaparte with detesta
tion and horror as an emperor, have learnt, if not perhaps to admire him, at least to do him something like justice as a man: the firm resignation, the undaunted dignity, with which it now appears be submitted to his endless captivity on a rock, which the sea-fowls themselves make only a resting, and not a dwelling-place, has commanded the respect of some of his most rancorous opponents : his philosophical equanimity has struck duinb even the .hired scribblers of party, and has compelled them to an unwilling and silent acknowledgement of bis superiority. The mere circumstance, that individuals of the highest rank, who might have resided in their own country, surrounded by all the luxuries of wealth, and all the pomp of state, had consented to a voluntary banishment with him, convinced not a few, that Buonaparte possessed qualities not only to attract for the moment, but to attach for ever the devoted love of those who were best acquainted with his character.
When Buonaparte was sentenced to St. Helena, it was the remark of all the thinking part of the cominunity, that he had still one great task to perform, and we are happy to learn that it is already in progress. Mr. Warden states, on the authority of the amanuensis of the ExEmperor, the Count de las Casea, that his master is writing his life. This we consider the great fact communicated in the volume before us, and had it contained no other intelligence, we should have been well satisfied : a work more valuable or extraordinary cannot be imagined than the auto-biography of such a man, and memoirs of such times as those in which he was concerned : it seems, indeed, as if Napoleon bimself could be the only fit historian of the stupendous subject; as if a part of the great design of Providence in thus placing him in seclusion, was, that he might himself complete its purposes, and exemplify and point the great moral of his own story.
Upon this subject, indeed, we have little more than the fact; for unluckily, at the very moment when Mr. Warden was about to be allowed to inspect the part of this most extraordinary production which was then completed, he was called off to attend Napoleon : this circumstance is much to be regretted, but the less because, in various conversations with the hero of the story, Buonaparte touched upon some of the most momentous events, and vivá voce. gave them the colours in which he thought they ought to be contemplated. To extracts upon these topics we shall CRIT. Rev. VOL. IV. Dec. 1816.