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dour of embellishment unsuited to the readers, have been prepared at the foreign presses. There
There is a papa; or instructor, in every village, who would expound this periodical document to the ignorant, and be glad by such means to increase his own influence. It is properly insisted, that the principal deficiency is not of magnificent editions of the classical writers, but those minor works which would be intelligible to every one, and which are the springs of knowledge, however much they may be despised, to ninety-nine out of a hundred of those who largely partake of its benefits.
The late Empress of Russia particularly interested herself in the improvement of the modern Greek, and under her auspices appeared from the press at St. Petersburg a version into that language of Instructions to a Committee for a New Code of Laws. It was at one time the particular object of her policy to reduce the Greeks under the dominion of the Russian power. and the circumstances which obstructed the fulfilment of her purpose are briefly noticed in a preceding Review.* Prince Potemkin was the person whom she is said to have employed in the work of improving the Greek, and on a plan which he himself had found time to digest, notwithstanding the bustle of his military life, and the projects of his inordinate ambition. ',
It is impossible to take our leave of this subject without a painful comparison between the ancient and modern state of Greece, even under the fond endeavour to keep alive the hope of the restoration of her former magnificence and glory. The degradation we see is certain, the improvement we wish is doubtful; and if, after the lapse of two thousand years, she should gradually return to her former rank, she will not reach this elevation until we, and many successive generations, are removed from the possibility of witnessing this glorious issue.
“ Ancient of days! august Athena! where,
Where are thy men of might? thy grand in soul?
6 Catharine II. formed the plan of sending a squadron into the Mediterranean, to occasion a general insurrection of the Greek dependencies; but she was deceived by her own corrupt agents, and the scheme was abor, tive, as they plundered those they were sent to protect." (Crit, Review, Vol. IV. Series Fifth, p. 218.)
A school-boy's tale, the wonder of an hour !
Childe Harold's Pilgrimage:
ART. VI.-Childe Harold's Pilgrimage : Canto the Third.
By Lord BYRON. London, John Murray, 1816. Svo.
The first observation that every body will make upon the third canto of Childe Harold's Pilgrimage is, that the noble author assumes the character of its hero, and plainly, though not indeed directly, admits that it is his own. It begins about himself, his family misfortunes and disappointments, and it concludes in the same strain upon the same themes : the name of his daughter is almost as frequently introduced as that of Harold, who is only two or three times incidentally mentioned, more for the sake of varying the person than the sentiment; while nearly throughout the 118 stanzas of which this canto consists, Lord Byron speaks for himself of the countries he visited, and of the impressions they made.
It was uncharitable in the enemies, and in some of the mistaken friends of Lord Byron, to impute to him all the passions and qualities, the attributes of the hero of his two first cantos; and perhaps, even in the face of the positive testimony now supplied, we should be unwilling to draw such a conclusion, did we not find in the reading of what is before us, that Childe Harold is an altered man. We do not charge the noble author with a want of keeping or inconsistency in the character, because he never professed to régard strictly any rules of the kind; but Harold is no longer so completely an atheist with regard to Heaven, or a misanthrope with regard to earth, as in the first and second parts of his pilgrinage : he has been taught by the rich vallies of the Rhine, and the wild magnificence of Switzerland, a reverence he could not learn in the scenes of his former travels, and has claimed an intellectual relationship with his species, which in other countries he seemed ashamed and unwilling to acknowledge: he is no longer the maliga nant and gloomy hater of mankind, who can see nothing noble or beautiful in the structure of body or mind, but his detestation is qualified down to an impatient dislike of society, not so much because it is odious in itself, as because the author's feelings and dispositions are of such an unaccommodating and unbendingly-severe description, that he is unfit for its intercourse: this is illustrated by three stanzas about the middle of this canto.
“ To Ay from, need not be to hate, mankind;
All are not fit with them to stir aud toil;
In wretched interchange of wrong for wrong
In fatal penitence, and in the blight
But there are wanderers o'er Eternity
And love Earth only for its earthly sake?
Is it not better thus our lives to wear, Than join the crushing crowd, doom'd to inflict or bear?" By this identification of himself with the personage who before was more the vehicle of certain reflections and opinions, Lord Byron however, in some degree, interferes with the exercise of the true province of criticism, which properly has nothing to do with the author further than the work under review: with the structure of his mind, the passions and sympathies by which it is influenced, its advantages or defects, we have in general no concern; but his lordship forces them upon us, and compels a criticism of his temper and his failings as a man, as well as of his talents and acquirements as a poet: it is almost inevitable, too, that the judgment of the last should not be governed, and perhaps even misguided, by our opinion of the first. It is undoubtedly true; that the characters of all men are, more
or less, to be traced in their writings, but these indications are usually unconscious, and not of set purpose as with Lord Byron, who even goes to such an extreme as to make the public a party to the unfortunate disputes between himself and his most amiable wife, by the studious publication of painful particulars that would otherwise bave remained in the seclusion of a domestic circle.
At least, this is unjust, if it be not cruel: Lord Byron avails himself of his popularity to make his own representations of the facts, and of the impressions which those facts have made upon him; while his unhappy lady, both unable and unwilling to retaliate, bears all the odium his statements are calculated to draw down upon her: he is to be regarded as a man driven from his home by the unforgiving hardheartedness of a wife, and she as a woman undeserving of the love of so beautiful a poet, and so noble a gentleman. Before we quit this subject, we will subjoin the passages of the third canto of Childe Harold's Pilgrimage which refer to this unhappy topic. It opens with the following stanzas :
“ Is thy face like thy mother's, my fair child!
Adal sole daughter of my house and heart?
Awaking with a start,
Whither I know not; but the bour's gone by,
And the waves bound beneath me as a steed
Flung from the rock on Ocean's foam, to sail Where'er the surge may sweep, the tempest's breath prevail.” He then adds, that he resuines the tale of “the wandering outlaw of his own dark mind,” to him “a not ungrate, ful theme,” if “ it fling forgetfulness around him;" and thus continues to advert to his own state of mind :
“ He, who grown aged in this world of woe,
In deeds, not years, piercing the depths of life, CRIT. REV. Voi. IV. Nov. 1816.
So that no wonder waits him; nor below
With airy images, and shapes which dwell
A being more intense, that we endow
Mix'd with thy spirit, blended with thy birth,
Yet must I think less wildly: I have thought
In strength to bear what time can not abate, And feed on bitter fruits without accusing Fate.” The next stanza opens with the words, “Something too much of this,''as if bis lordship began to be sensible that he had no right to obtrude upon the world what we are unwilling to call by the harsh name of egotism, and which has hitherto been received with avidity, not so much for the sake of gratifying a malignant curiosity, as from the singularity of the story itself, and the interest felt for the parties concerned in it. At the end of the canto, however, his lordship again turns to the same subject, which he treats in a strain even more pathetic than in his celebrated verses on bidding “ farewell” to his home and country,
“ My daughter! with thy name this song begun
My daughter! with thy name thus much shall end
And reach into thy heart, when mine is cold,