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abortive, as they plundered those they were sent to protect. Austria had attempted the same, and neglected no means of influencing the Greeks, who began to consider Joseph as their deliverer. During the first tifteen years of the French Revolution, the principal states of the continent were so deeply engaged with that grand movement, that they had neither time nor inclination to attend to the circumstances of Turkey: it is true, that the fall of the Venetian republic had placed Dalmatia at the disposal of Austria, and the Seren Islands under the control of France; but the laiter was yet too much pressed by interior disorders and external foes, in her own immediate neighbourhood, to allow her to take advantage of such new acquisitions, so that they might become the basis of any rational enterprise on the shores of the Thracian Bosphorus. In this condition were affairs up to the year 1807, when the growing power of Napoleon found room for exercise in every direction, and he was already in collision with the Mahometan states.
“ After the peace of Tilsit, and more especially after that of Altenburg, France found herself in immediate contact with Turkey, from the confines of Croatia to the mouths of the Cattaro, and from Chimera as far as the Morea. This contact seemed adapted to change the nature of the preceding relations of the two empires. It did not, in fact, appear possible that France could have preserved in her vicinity the same interest for the preservation of the Ottoman empire, which she had when situated at a more remote distance. The successive aggrandizement of Napoleon's einpire-the everincreasing pressure
he exercised from west to east, and which even his fatal war in Spain had never suspended—all seemed to announce that a new change in the political system of Europe was about to produce the dismemberment of the Turkish empire. Nevertheless, the conduct of Napoleon towards the Porte was uniformly dubious; whether it was that he had not yet fixed his determination on that point, or that the time had not yet arrived for putting his plans into execution. On the one hand, he appeared to abandon that country to the discretion of Russia; and in not insisting on the performance of an article in the treaty of Tilsit,* he seemed to consent to its depression or its destruction : on the other, he took care to ameliorate the land-communications of Turkey with Dalmatia and Croatia, and to open others. He converted the custom house of Kostainitzat into an
By this article, it was stipulated that the Russian troops should evacuate Moldavia and Valachia.
+ Kostainitza is a small village situated in an island of the river Unpa, to the south of Sissek, and on the confines of Bosnia. It was formerly the entrepôt of the land-commerce between Turkey, ustria, and Germany, and a custom-house was established for the receipt of duties. The caravans from Constantinople, Salonica, Monastir, and Thessaly, came by the way entrepôt of the first rank; he re-established the fairs of Sinigaglia; in a word, he appeared diligent to consolidate the commercial communications, in conformity to the frontiers at that time established, as well as in accord with the prosperity and integrity of the Ottoman empire. Nevertheless, he had not neglected any of the measures capable of giving him an exact knowledge of the country, of its resources, and means of defence. Numerous connexions had been formed in the provinces of Greece; the various consuls had received instructions, tending either to furnish the information wanted, or, in a secret manner, to work upon the public mind. Officers bad been sent into the country under different 'pretexts, and all had brought back with them memoirs more or less important. The frequency of these missions had already begun to create inquietude in the suspicious character of the Turks. Ibrahim, Pacha of Scutari, on this subject observed to the author, Napoleon now sends one Frenchman after another; soon he will send ten, then one hundred, next a thousand, and afterwards a whole army.'” (p. 42–44.)
In 1810, Napoleon had submitted to his attention a project for the invasion of Turkey, founded upon the facilities afforded by his possessions in the east of Europe, and more particularly the Ionian Islands; but, as far as may be collected from circumstances, the conquest of Turkey, although within the more remote purposes of his ambition, was not in the immediate contemplation of his mind. It is fortunate for Turkey that the islands, which might thus have accelerated the grand machine of French domination, in changing patrons, has devolved to the care of Great Britain. The author thus rationally examines the effect, had they been possessed by either of the two great imperial competitors.
“ In the first place, the Greeks, divided among their new masters, and united to the ancient provinces of their dominions, would lose all hopes of ever forming a consistent nation, and would see their name entirely effaced from the catalogue of the states of Europe; for it must not be believed that either of the two intend to abandon the Greeks to themselves, or to give them their independence, after expelling the Mahometans. With regard to the rest of Europe, such a revolution could not fail to be disadvantageous, by concentrating the commerce of Turkey, at present scattered among all the maritime states, in the hands of two powers, who, through their own interests, would convert it into a species of monopoly. Russia, by acquiring the exclusive possession of the ports of the of Scupi and Bosna-Serajo to this point, whence the commodities were conveyed to Fiume, Trieste, Laybach, and Vjenna. Napoleon, in 1810, also made Kostainitza an entrepôt for the commerce carried on between Upper Italy and Turkey, and this trade soon became extremely flourishing,
Black Sea, and a free passage into the Mediterranean; Austria, by establishing herself in Albania and the Morea; would both become maritime powers, equally dangerous and injurious to the commerce of the other nations in these interior seas. The trade of the Levant would exclusively fall into their hands; and more especially Russia, by entering into direct communication with Syria and Egypt, might easily produce a sensible deviation in the commerce of the East Indies.
• It has always been the interest of France, and at present it is more particularly so of England, that the commerce of the Levant should not fall into other hands than those of subjects of the Ottoman empire; and the integrity of this empire is one of the inseparable conditions. In the actual state of things, the aggrandisements of Russia and Austria render a protecting power intinitely more necessary to the Ottoman Porte. France, enfeebled, can no longer serve as a counterpoise in her favour on the Continent, where her government has lost all its influence. There is no one, then, but England who, by the preponderance of her naval forces in the Mediterranean, can preserve and guarantee Turkey from harm; and the occupation of the Ionian Islands gives her a still stronger means of attaining this object. In the first place, their geographical situation-embracing the southern parts of Greece, and placing them in contact with all the provinces which, properly speaking, may be called Greek-gives to the power under whose protection these islands may remain, an influence in these same provinces sufficient to stop the effects of all the intrigues and plans which the other continental powers might attempt there. Again, the permanent presence of the British forces on a point so nearly approached ta ;che Ottoman empire, by rendering the bonds which already unite these two powers still stronger and more direct, gives a much greater degree of weight to the mediation of the first, and materially adds to the security of the second.” (p. 46–48.)
The lonian Islands were among the last of the dependencies wrested from the tyranny of the Venetian republic, and during the whole time of this oppressive authority, their commercial relations with the adjacent continent were extremely limited, and from two causes. The most powerful was the monopoly sought of the trade of the Levant by the Venetians; the other was the enmity of the neighbouring continent to these Venetians, and which rendered the whole coast of Albania extremely dangerous for the caravans proceeding from the interior to Kerachia, Bucintro, and Gonsinitza, which places are directly opposite to Corfu. Albania, with Épirus, Thessaly, Livadia, the Morea, and part of Macedonia, are under the authority of Ali Pacha, who is at present the most powerful dependent of the Ottoman empire. The provinces wbich compose his states are equal to one-third of that vast autocracy; and he is besides the titular chief of all the Sandgiaks, Pachalics, and Vizirships, of the highest distinction.
It is not before he commences the eleventh chapter, or until he has proceeded through a proportion of four-fifths of his work, that the author comes to the more direct consideration of the principal subject; and it is full time that he should, in some orderly way, have enabled us to introduce his account of the insular commonwealth which is to be established under British protection.
“The islands constituting the Jonian republic, and holding a right to concur in the formation of the senate, are seven, viz. Corfu, the principal one, as well owing to its situation and strength, as because of its being the seat of government; Paxó, St. Maura, Thiaki, Ce. phalonia, Zante, and Cerigo.". “ The town of Parga, situated on the main land, also belongs to the Ionian republic, as well as several other islands and rocks in great measure uninhabited, which will be briefly described in the course of the present chapter.
“ Corfu, the chief of the Seven Islands--anciently called Cor. cyra, and which in all ages has been celebrated for its maritime strength-is situated between 39 deg. 50 min. and 39 deg. 20 min. of north latitude, and 17 deg. 30 min. and 17 deg. 18 min. east longitude, from the meridian of Paris. It nearly stretches from northwest to south-east, to a length of about thirty-five miles, opposite to the coast of Southern Albania, from which it is separated by a channel only no miles wide at Cape Karagol, and six miles at its issue, between Gomenitza and Point Lefchimo. The city of Corfu, whose population amounts to about 15,000 souls, and which in former times was also called Corcyra, is situated on a promontory projecting into the sea, and descends, in the form of an amphitheatre, on the northern slope of the same promontory, and at the foot the port opens.”- -" To the north of Corfų, and at the bottom of the
great road formed by the promontory on which the town is situated and Cape Karagol, is a tolerably deep bay, with a narrow entrance, called Port Guvine. This road, which in 1799 contained the Russian and Turkish squadrons, and is capable of receiving and sheltering a considerable number of large ships, is also now fortified and defended in its internal extent, as well as at the entrance, by wellwimed forts and batteries. No place in the Seven Islands is to be found so suitable as this for the establishment of a naval buildingyard; indeed, for this purpose it seems peculiarly well adapted. The greatest part of the necessary materials can be easily brought there, and at a small expense.”
“ Paxó, formerly Paxus, situated seven or eight miles to the south-east of Cape Bianco, is an island of about eighteen or twenty miles in circumference. Opposite to Parga is a tolerably deep bay, which serves as a port to the small town of Paxó, containing about 4,000 inhabitants, and the only remarkable place in the whole island which only produces wine and oil, reputed to be the best of all Ionia.”
“ St. Maura, anciently called Leucadia, and in more remote times Nerytus, is an island of about fitty miles in circumference, situated opposite to the point of Acarmania, from which it is separated by a narrow and shallow channel, and to the south of the mouth of the gulf of Arla. St. Maura on one side, and Paxó on the other, form the gulf of Prevesa."" The fortress of St. Maura, formerly called Leucas, is to the north of the island, at the extremity of a very narrow slip of land, embracing the port, and separating it from the town, to which it is, nevertheless, again joined by an aqueduct in the form of a bridge. This fortress constitutes a good defence. The population of the town of St. Maura is estimated at 6,000 per. sons. The island on the land side can only be attacked through Playa, where the channel is only 300 toises wide, about 80 of which only are not fordable.”. The island of St. Maura is no other than a single mountain, extremely bigh, and not very fertile: the sides of this mountain, however, facing the sea, produce wine and olives, the only articles of growth the island affords.”
Thiaki, formerly called Ithaca, is an island of about twenty miles in length, stretching fronı north-west to south-east, and situated at the distance of about six miles to the south-east of Cape Dukatis." -“ The southern part, which is about five miles wide, finishes, at another Cape St. John, opposite to the mouth of the Achelous. In this southern part is the village of Oxoi, situated on a mountain. In the northern part, on another mountain, is the village of Anoi, formerly Neius. These two portions of the island are separated by a bay five miles deep and two wide, and in the eastern part of the same bay are two ports. The one, called Skinon, is placed near the entrance; and the other, which is that of Vathy, has a narrow mouth, but is afterwards almost two miles deep. the bottom of this port is the small town of Vathy, containing about 3,000 inhabitants, and occupying the ground of the ancient Ithaca, the capital as well as the residence of the wise Ulysses, Penelope, and Telemachus.”
“ Cephalonia, auciently Cephalenia, the second in rank of the Seven Islands, is the first in point of size. It is 100 miles in cir. cumference from cape to cape, and nearly 150 in following the direction of the coast. This island is situated four or five miles to the south of Cape Dukato, belonging to St. Maura, ten from Cape Papas, eight from Cape Tornese, and six from Zante.”—_" The church of Madonna di Malle, built on the Black Mountain (Mavrovouno), and formerly called Enus, stands in the place of the temple of Jupiter Enius. On the eastern and southern declivity of this mountain is a forest fifteen or sixteen miles in circumference; a few thickets are also found in the island near Dulinata, Kuvalata,