« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »
ART. VIII.---A Voyage round the World from 1806 to 1812,
in which Japan, Kamschatka, the Aleutian Islands, and the Sandwich Islands were visited. Including a Narrative of the Author's Shipwreck on the Island of Sunnack, and his subsequent Wreck' in the Ship’s Long-boat. With an Account of the present State of the Sandwich Islands, and a Vocabulary of their Language. By ARCHIBALD CAMP
Edinburgh, Constable and Co. London, Longman and Co. 1816. 8vo. Pp. 288. No doubt is entertained that the interests of science and commerce among
civilized nations have been advanced by remote discoveries; but it may be questioned if the inhabitants of such countries have been equally benefitted by their visitors. Whatever uncertainty may exist with regard to other situations, in the Sandwich Islands we beliere many advantages have been obtained.
Not forty years have elapsed since the appearance of Captain Cook, and in this short interval' they have been provided with workmen, native or European, of every description, and the King “ pose sesses a navy of nearly sixty sail of decked vessels, built upon the islands, whilst almost every ship which navigates the Pacific, finds shelter, provisions, or trade in his harbours.” In the Preface it is observed,
“In Tamaalımaah these islanders possess one of those remarkable characters, who, like Alfred or Peter the Great, seem destined to hasten the progress
of civilization. He is known in this country from the acçoờnts of Turnbull, Lisainski, and Langsdort';, none of these navigators ever saw that chief, their accounts are consequently very imperfect; the length of time, however, during which our author remained in his family, afforded him opportunities of observation not enjoyed by those of higher qualifications, and in some measure compensate for the unavoidable defects of his eđucation." (p. 12.)
Archibald Campbell, on his return to his native country in April, 1812, had suffered the loss of both his feet, and from the unskilful manner in which the amputation was performed, the wounds have never healed, and he now finds employment by contributing with his violin to the amusement of the passengers on board the steam-boat in the river Clyde. In one of these vessels, his appearance attracted the notice of the Editor of this work, and the answers he gave to, some inquiries excited so much curiosity, that the infirm musician was assisted and protected; the inquiries were
pursued, and a connected narrative was formed, in the bope that " an account of his voyage might be of service to an unfortunate and deserving man, and not unacceptable to those who take pleasure in contemplating the progress of mankind in the arts of civilization.'
Early in May,"1806, Campbell entered as a seaman in the Thames Indiaman, in which he proceeded to Canton. Ile was afterwards induced to go on board an American ship which was bound for the South Seas. This vessel was wrecked upon a reef of rocks on the north-west coast of America; and" after a variety of adventures in the longboat, the author parrates the circumstance of the loss of his feet from the severity of the season and climate. On the 25th February, 1808, he took his passage in a baidarai, or large skin-boat, bound to Alexandria. He afterwards
proceeded in the Russian ship Neva for the Sandwich Islands, where, it seems, his appearance excited the compassion of a consort of King Tamaahmaah, in whose family he remained, and he gives the following interesting account of these dominions :
Upon landing, I was much struck with the beauty and fertility of the country, so different from the barrenness of the Fox Islands. The village of Hanaroora, which consisted of several hundred houses, is well shaded with large cocoa-nut trees. The king's residence, built close upon the shore, and surrounded by a pallisade upon the land side, was distinguished by the British colours and a battery of sixteen carriage guns, belonging to his ship, the Lilly Bird, which at this time lay unrigged in the harbour. This palace consisted merely of a range of huts, viz. the king's eating-house, his sleeping-house, the queens' house, a store, powder-magazine and guard-house, with a few huts for the attendants, all constructed after the fashion of the country.
“ At a short distance were two extensive store-houses, built of stone, which contained the European articles belonging to the king.
“I was conducted to the house occupied by the two consisted of one large apartment, spread with mats, at one end of which the attendants, of both sexes, slept, and at the other the queens occasionally slept when the King was in the morai.
They and their attendants always eat here, and Tamena wished me to join them; but as I had been informed by Crymakoo, that if I did so, I should not be allowed to eat with men, I resolved to decline her offer.
“ The Neva remained in the harbour three months, duriug which time I ate my victuals on board. » At the end of that period, having completed a cargo of provisions, consisting of salted pork and dried
taro-root, she sailed for Kodiak and Kamschatka. I was then in. vited by the king to take my meals in his eating-house, and at the same time he desired a young American, of the name of William, Moxcley, who understood the language, to eat along with me, to act as my interpreter. The king's mode of life was very simple; he break fasted at eight, dined at noon, and supped at sunset.
“ His principal chiefs being always about his person, there were generally twenty or thirty persons present; after being seated upon mats, spread on the floor, at dinner, a dish of poe, or taro pudding, was set before each of them, which they ate with their fingers instead of spoons. This fare, with salt fish and consecrated pork from the morai, formed the whole of the repast, no other food being permitted in the king's house. A plate, knife and furk, with builed potatoes, were however always set down before Moxely and me, by his majesty's orders. He concluded his meal hy drinking half a glass of rum, but the bottle was inmediately sent away, the liquor being tabooed, or interdicted to his guests. The breakfast and supper. consisted of fish and sweet potatoes.
“The respect paid to the king's person, to his house, and even to, his food, formed a remarkable contrast to the simplicity of his mode of living
“Whenever he passed, his subjects were obliged to uncover their heads and shoulders. The same ceremony took place upon their entering, or even passing, his residence; and every house which he entered was ever after honoured with the same marks of respect. Once, when employed in the house of Isaac Davis, making a loom for the king, I observed him passing, and being ignorant of this cusa tom, requested him to enter and observe my progress; but he declined doing so, informing me of the consequence. He therefore seated himself at the door, till I brought out my work for his inspection.
“ When his food was carrying from the cooking-house, every person within hearing of the call Noho, or sit down, given by the bearers, was obliged to uncover himself, and squat down on his hams.*, (p. 133.)
On his return, the author visited Rio Janeiro, where he continued nearly two years. On the 5th of February, 1812, he quitted the Brazils in the brig Hazard, and arrived in the Clyde on the 21st of April, after an absence of nearly
• Scotice,“ on his hunkers." The emphatic word used by the author in describing this particular mode of genuflexion, and which has no Englisb synonim into which it can be translated, is thus defined by Jamieson : « To sit with the hips hanging downwards, and the weight of the body depending on the knees.”-Scot, Dict. verb. Hunkers.
“ Wi' ghastly e'e poor Tweedle-dee,
The Appendix contains a vocabulary of the language of the Sandwich Islands; a statement of the case of the author as to the loss of his feet by a Russian physician; a historical account of the Sandwich Islands, and some brief notes referred to in the body of the work. We have also a map of the track of the long-boat in which the author proceeded from Sannack to Kodiak in the year 1807.
It is not pretended that much additional information is given in this work on nautical subjects, but it is not wholly destitute of this sort of intelligence. Useful cautions are given to the mariner in the account supplied of the reef to the south-west of Halibut Island, upon which the author suffered wreck, and of the numerous rocks - adjacent to the shores of Aliaski, and in the account of the south coast of Wahoo, will be found a description of the only harbours in the Sandwich Islands.
ART. IX.-Correspondence of the Duke of Otranto with
the Duke of Wellington. Letter the first. Dresden,
January 1, 1816. London, Colburn, 1816, 8vo. Pp. 65. It may perhaps be desirable, before we examine this publication, to consider who is the author, in order to compare his past conduct with his present professions.
M. Fouché is a native of France. His father was a contractor for biscuits with the navy, and had establishments for the conduct of his business both at Nantes and Brest. The eldest son was a merchant at the former place; the second, who has made so conspicuous a figure in the world, was educated at an Oratoire, and entered into holy orders. He was subsequently a schoolmaster, and after the revolution, formed a matrimonial connection. Thus situated, he soon engaged in public life, and was elected deputy for the Seine Inferieure to the Convention, in which capacity he voted for the death of Louis Sixteenth. When a member of the Mountain Party, he was employed at Lyons as proconsul with Collot d'Herbois, and took part in the atrocities committed in that neighbourhood. But his friends say, and perhaps truly, that what he did was at the instigation of his colleague, and that thus impelled, he deviated from the course of comparative moderation he had ordinarily pursued. The civic solemnity over the remains of Challier will not be forgotten, and the report to the government of this impious transaction was prepared by M. Fouché. That
Crit. Rev. VOL. IV. August, 1816. 2 A
person had been condemned and executed in June, 1793, and it was under the superintendance of the writer of the letter to the Duke of Wellington that the corpse was borne in state, and an ass, the principal character in the proces- . sion, was surrounded by attendants carrying sacred vases, having at his tail the volume of truth, and being decked with the mitre and other insignia of sacerdotal dignity. At a situation assigned, the body of the defunct with the book of our faith were burnt, and the ashes of the one were given to the multitude, and of the other to the winds. M. Fouché was the regular agent of the Committee of Public Safety at Moulins and Nevers, and was the constant correspondent of that assembly; but we are happy to give a more favourable view of his deportment, when the most profligate demagogue that ever disgraced the cause of liberty came into power. Fouché was then a member of the Jacobin Club, from which he was excluded by the influence of Robespierre, and the lesson of instruction he then received, has never since been erased from his memory.
We now see M. Fouché in a new situation, and being accused, like the rest of his companions, at the close of the democracy of France, he availed himself of the proffered amnesty, and as early as 1799, we find him acting commis. sioner with the army of Naples. In the same year he was nominated ambassador to the Batavian Republic, but had scarcely reached the Hague, when Bonaparte, satisfied that he would be of more utility nearer home, recalled him, and placed him on the consular establishment as minister of general police.
How far M. Fouché was criminal in becoming the instru. ment of usurpation under the imperial government we do not mean to inquire; but it is well known, that on some remarkable occasions he opposed the conduct of his master, and we refer to the murder of the Duke D'Enghien, the affair of Moreau, and the whole of the hostility to Spain, and the treachery towards the family on the throne of that unfortunate country.
However, in such circumstances, we are far from considering that M. Fouché is entitled to implicit belief, and he appears to be fully aware of it, for he does not propose to rest his defence on the allegations in the present letter, but to publish an enlarged memoir, to which documents will be subjoined, and his countrymen will, from such sources, be competent to decide on the credit he deserves. But as private worth ought to meet its reward in public opinion, and