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ber of raw materials used is between forty and fifty, and the whole world contributes to the assembling of these raw materials.

The Dixon Graphite Mines are located at Ticonder5 oga, in the northern part of New York State, and the Dixon Cedar Mill is located in South Florida. They are so far apart that one day in the winter of 1904, when the mercury at the graphite mines was 40° below zero, the

temperature at the Cedar mill was at 70° above. These 10 grahite mines produce about 130 tons of rock and graphite

every day, and the machinery for producing this is very large and consists of an elaborate system of crushing stamps and washing mills. The graphite is carefully separated

from the rock before being sent to Jersey City. The first 15 step in Jersey City is to get all the grit out of it. It goes

through the process of washing and sifting, through many machines, until it is passed upon as absolutely perfect. The clay, which is the binding material, is treated in the

same way. The clay is mined in Germany. It is cleaned 20 and made ready for the mixture by an elaborate cleaning

and sifting process. By a combination of the two, the socalled lead is produced, and by the blending of the two the grades are produced. The more graphite and the less clay,

the softer the pencil; the more clay and the less graphite, 25 the harder the pencil. In this way the various grades are

produced, running all the way from very, very soft, until you reach the very, very hard. The soft leads are made larger than the hard ones, to obtain in that way the neces

sary tensile strength. When the mixture is perfected, it 30 is put into a very heavy hydraulic machine, the bottom of

which is full of holes. Heavy pressure is brought to bear and the mixture is forced through these holes and falls into a tub below. This is repeated time after time, until judg

ment assures the worker that it is well kneaded. Then it 35 is put through a similar machine, with a single hole in the bottom. As it is passed through this single hole, it comes out as strong as a shoe-string. The next step is laying these leads out on a board, 21 inches long, and when dry

they are cut into lengths 7 inches long, placed in a crucible, 5 sealed up, and baked in the kiln, where the temperature reaches 2200° or 2300° Fahr. After being taken from the kiln they are ready then to be placed in the wood.

The colored leads go through the same process, with the exception that a China clay is used for the binding 10 material and the pigments are used instead of graphite,

to give the different colors. It is the same way also with the so-called copying leads, where aniline is substituted for the graphite.

The wood, as we have mentioned before, is cut in 15 Florida. The logs grow there. The consumption of

cedar logs suitable for pencils is going on at a greater rate than the growth. One of these days, cedar will be a thing of the past. The pencil people have to be

fore-handed in supplying themselves with a large quantity 20 of cedar, to protect themselves against any contingency.

So you see that for the commonest things, which we use daily without a thought, we may be indebted to the labor of people in many far-away lands.

HELPS FOR STUDY

How are pens made?
What is that part of the pencil which makes the mark made from?
What are some of the other uses of graphite?
What is meant by “raw materials”?
How are the various grades of pencils produced?
What is meant by “tensile strength”?
What is a “hydraulic machine”?

Why do you think the expression, "strong as a shoe-string," is used in connection with the mixture?

What is meant by “2200° or 2300° Fahr."?
What is “aniline”?.

Why is it necessary for the pencil people to supply themselves with a large quantity of cedar?

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MUSIC OF LABOR

5

The banging of the hammer,

The whirring of the plane,
The crashing of the busy saw,

The creaking of the crane,
The ringing of the anvil,

The grating of the drill,
The clattering of the turning lathe,

The whirling of the mill,
The buzzing of the spindle,

The rattling of the loom,
The puffing of the engine,

The fan's continual boom,
The clipping of the tailor's shears,

The driving of the awl —
These sounds of honest industry

I love — I love them all!

10

15

20

The clicking of the magic type,

The earnest talk of men,
The toiling of the giant press,

The scratching of the pen,
The bustling of the market man

As he hies him to the town,
The halloo from the tree-top

As the ripened fruit comes down,
The busy sound of threshers

As they cleave the ripened grain, The husker's joke and catch of glee

’Neath the moonlight on the plain,

25

30

The kind voice of the dairyman,

The shepherd's gentle call -These sounds of honest industry

I love -- I love them all!

35

40

O, there's a good in labor,

If we labor but aright,
That gives vigor to the daytime,

A sweeter sleep at night;
A good that bringeth pleasure

Even to the toiling hours,
For duty cheers the spirit,

As dew revives the flowers.
Then say not that our God

Gave labor as a doom
No! 'tis the richest mercy

From the cradle to the tomb.
Then let us still be doing

Whate'er we find to do,
With cheerful, hopeful spirits,

And free hand, strong and true.

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