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WASHINGTON THE FIRST PRESIDENT

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While a President holds his office we speak of it as his administration; and those events which occur while a certain person is President, are always spoken of as the events of that President's administration.

Although it was, no doubt, a great honor to have been chosen first President of the United States, and although it must have been very pleasant to Washington to know that his people so loved and trusted him, still he knew there

was hard, hard work ahead, and no little worriment; for, 10 although the States had accepted the Constitution, still

there were persons here and there who still clung to the idea of having each State rule itself without any President at all or any Congress; others there were, who had wanted

a king and who would have much preferred to keep the 1-5 government out of the hands of the common people. All

these critics were of course watching every movement of the new President, ready to find fault, and say, “Just what we expected," if the least thing went wrong. Then, too,

there were other difficulties. The treasury was nearly 20 empty, and no other nation was willing to lend money to

this new government; the Indians were rioting, burning and plundering on the frontiers; pirates from the Barbary States were attacking American ships and putting American

seamen into prison; Spain had refused to allow the Ameri25 cans the use of the Mississippi River for their trade; and

England would not make any treaty of commerce with the new country.

Worst of all, was the empty treasury — no money with which to raise armies to fight the Indians; no money with

which to send ships to attack the Barbary States; no money to offer Spain; no money even with which to pay the old debts of the Revolution. A perplexing place it was,

indeed, for Washington and his Cabinet. But they were 5 equal to the occasion. Hamilton, the Secretary of the Treasury, managed the money affairs so successfully that he has ever since been held up as an example of wisdom to all succeeding Treasurers. He established a National

Bank, and levied taxes in order to raise the money 10 which the government so much needed.

I shall not attempt to tell you how all these things were brought about, for you could not understand it, and it would not be very interesting to you even if you could.

All I want you to remember just now is, that Washing15 ton and his Cabinet were very wise in their dealings with

all these troubles — so wise that, when, eight years later, Washington retired from public life, the money troubles were greatly improved, the Indians had been held back.

Spain had been made to allow the Americans the use of 20 the Mississippi, and the Barbary States had given up the

prisoners, and had promised not to interfere further with American vessels.

The country, you see, was in a far better condition than it had been when, eight years before, Washington was 25 made President.

As the President's term is four years, Washington had, you will understand, served two terms. As the time for a third election drew near, Washington resigned his office,

saying that he had tried to serve his country faithfully 30 through its darkest hours, and that now, being sixty-five

years old, he wished to retire to his home at Mt. Vernon and spend the rest of his life in rest and quiet.

There had been on all sides men who said, during Washington's administration, "Washington will be King 35 yet. He means to be King. He will hold his office until

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he is King." But I wonder what these men said when, at the end of the second term, Washington so quietly and modestly retired to his own home, thus proving how little he cared for public life except when his country needed 5 him.

Washington did not live very long after his return to his home. Not many months had passed when there came news of his sudden death.

Every possible honor was paid this brave, good man, the 10 Father of his Country, as he was called. In England and

France even, the highest honors were paid him. The English ships were ordered to wear their flags at half mast, and the French ruler ordered that the banners be draped with crêpe.

Wherever Washington's name was mentioned, it was always with tender reverence and love.

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HELPS FOR STUDY

What is meant by a president's “administration”? What was the “Constitution” accepted by the States? What is meant by the “treasury”? Where are the Barbary States? What is a president's “Cabinet”? Who was Washington's Secretary of the Treasury? What did he do? What is meant by a “National Bank”? What had been accomplished during Washington's two terms of office?

WARREN'S ADDRESS AT THE BATTLE OF

BUNKER HILL

JOHN PIERPONT

John Pierpont was born at Litchfield, Conn., April 6, 1785. After graduating from Yale, he studied law, and also took a course in theology at the Harvard Divinity School, being ordained a Unitarian minister in 1819. His poems were published in a volume entitled Airs of Palestine and Other Poems."

Stand! the ground's your own, my braves!
Will ye give it up to slaves?
Will ye look for greener graves?

Hope ye mercy still?
What's the mercy despots feel?
Hear it in that battle-peal!
Read it on yon bristling steel!

Ask it — ye who will.

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Fear ye foes who kill for hire?
Will ye to your homes retire?
Look behind you! they're afire!

And, before you, see
Who have done it! - From the vale
On they come! — and will ye quail?
Leaden rain and iron hail

Let their welcome be!

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In the God of battles trust!
Die we may

and die we must;
But, 0, where can dust to dust

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Be consigned so well,
As where heaven its dews shall shed,
On the martyred patriot's bed,
And the rocks shall raise their head

Of his deeds to tell?

HELPS FOR STUDY

When did the Battle of Bunker Hill take place?
Where is Bunker Hill?
Who was Warren?
Whom was he supposed to have been addressing?
What does he call his soldiers?
What are “despots”?
Explain “bristling steel."
Explain "foes who kill for hire.”
Explain “Leaden rain and iron hail.”
How does the last stanza apply to Warren?

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