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From Venezuela we have the judgment passed upon the unfortunate Gen. Paez, in these words:
"President Monagas, considering that the war which was begun on the 21st June last has ended, as the principal chiefs and all the soldiers of the Paez faction, who wished to upset the present government of the republic, have surrendered-this glorious triumph over, and the punishment of a great part of the insurgents who have lost their lives on the battle-field, having given the government power to use towards those who have surrendered, the clemency which they have demanded, and which has always been its policy-it is decreed:
"Art. 1. The chief of the faction, Jose Antonio Paez, will be expelled for ever out of the territory of the republic, and will remain in Europe. However, his departure from the country will only take place when the tranquillity and security of Venezuela will allow it.
"Art. 2. Those who have surrendered with the said Paez, will be expelled out of the country, or detained prisoners for a certain time, according to their degree of culpability, as it will be decided by the executive power.
"Art. 3. The executive power retains for some time the power to detain, as security, those it will be thought convenient, to discharge from exile or prison, and either to modify or change one penalty into another."
31st. Late files of the Correo del Isthmo, announce the arrival at his place of destination, of the Hon. E. G. Squier, U. S. Chargé to the republic of Nicaragua. His arrival seems to have been regarded as an event of remarkable importance. It is heralded in all the journals as a new era for Nicaragua, and he entered the city amid discharge of cannon, martial music, and the most tumultuous and enthusiastic rejoicings. On being presented to the President, Mr. Squier made a long address, tendering his thanks for the warmth of his reception, and assuring him that these sentiments are fully reciprocated, and that it is the earnest desire of the government of the United States to cultivate, in every way, the most cordial relations with the republic of Nicaragua. He assures him, further, that it shall be his aim to confirm the present harmony between the two republics-and "to this end, and to secure the permanent welfare of both, it is essential that they should pursue a system of policy exclusively American." He proceeded as follows:
"A cardinal principle in this policy is a total exclusion of foreign influence from the domestic and international affairs of the American republics. And while we would cultivate friendly intercourse, and promote trade and commerce with all the world, and invite to our shores and to the enjoyment of our institutions the people of all nations, we should proclaim in language firm and distinct, that the American Continent belongs to Americans, and is sacred to American freedom.
We should also let it be understood, that if foreign powers encroach upon the territories, or invade the rights of any of the American States, they inflict an injury upon all, which it is the duty and determination of all to see redressed."
The President, in his answer to Mr. Squier, remarked, that " Nicaragua had long felt the necessity of sheltering itself under the bright banner of the North American confederacy."
It is easy to perceive that the position taken by Great Britain in regard to the Mosquito question, and the anticipated action of our government upon it, have excited the deepest interest among the people of Nicaragua. The papers discuss the question at length, and protest in most earnest tones against the course pursued by the English govern
The occupation of the port of San Juan by the English, under the pretext of protecting the Mosquito nation, is denounced as an outrage upon the rights of the State of Nicaragua.
The papers contain a correspondence between the authorities of Nicaragua and the British Consul-General, Frederick Chatfield, in which the former states, that having read in the Correo del Isthmo a copy of the contract between the government and Dr. Brown, of New York, for making a canal through the river San Juan, he deems it prudent to inform the government that his own government will object to any arrangement which does not provide for the discharge of the debts which the State of Nicaragua, in common with the other States of Central America, have assumed. The Nicaraguan Minister, in reply to this, as well as other notes, charges the British government with the most wanton and unprovoked assault upon the sovereignty and independence of the State, and enumerates various acts by which this hostility has been manifested.
Foremost among them, of course, is the declaration that the Queen of Great Britain has decided to sustain the pretensions of the Mosquito King, and that she would consequently visit with severe punishment any act of the State of Nicaragua in violation of them. The threat to chastise any nation for maintaining its sovereignty, is denounced as an unexampled violation of justice and international rights.
The accounts from the Cape of Good Hope, state that the excitement in relation to the reception of convicts of that place was at its height. The anti-convict association had placed beyond the pale of social intercourse all persons who favoured the convict measure. The official members of council had been obliged to resign, and on leaving the council chamber they were jostled and kicked by the mob. Other outrages had been committed, manifesting a determined spirit in the inhabitants to resist the action of the government.
3d. The first legislative assembly of MINESOTA convened at St. Paul. Governor Ramsay, accompanied by the executive and judicial officers of the Territory, met both branches of the legislature in joint meeting, and delivered his message. He recommends the adoption of a code of laws suitable to the position and wants of the territory; the providing a system of taxation whereby a territorial treasury may be established; the adoption of an efficient school system; the organization of the militia, as a safeguard against the lawlessness of the Indians, of whom twenty-five thousand are estimated to be located within the limits of the territory, and the restraining or suppression of the traffic in ardent spirits by Indian traders.
The Governor remarks:
"No portion of the earth's surface, perhaps, combines so many favourable features for the settler as this territory. Watered by the two greatest rivers of our continent--the Missouri sweeping its entire western border; the Mississippi and Lake Superior marking its eastern frontier; and whilst the States of Wisconsin and Iowa limit us on the South, the possessions of the Hudson's Bay Company present the only barrier to our dominion on the extreme north--in all embracing an area of one hundred and fifty thousand square miles; a country sufficiently extensive to admit of the erection of four States of the largest class, each enjoying in abundance most of the elements of future greatness. Its soil is of the most productive character, yet our northern latitude saves us from the malaria and death which in other climes are so often attendant upon a liberal soil."
The governor seems to have had some difficulty with the Winnebago Indians, who had left the possessions set apart for them in the west, with the intention of returning to their old hunting grounds in Wisconsin and Iowa. He sent out a detachment of thirty United States troops to intercept and drive them back, but the Indians secreted themselves in the swamps and tamarac bushes. The soldiers returned much fatigued without having seen any traces of the Winnebagoes.
Intelligence from the plains and the burning of Bent's fort has been received at Independence.
Messrs. Paladay and Riley, who accompanied one of the government trains, under charge of Capt. Keits, as far as the little Arkansas, arrived by way of Bent's fort. Mr. Paladay had been in the employ of Wm. Bent, at the fort. On the 16th August, he was sent over in the direction of Kit Carson's settlement, on the Moro. In returning, he fell in company with the train of Capt. Keits. While they were encamped at the Hole in the Rock, they heard distinctly a loud report resembling that of cannon. They journeyed on-crossed the Arkansas river on the 22d August, and came up to the site of the Fort, and saw that the rubbish of the buildings was all that was left. It had been burnt down by the Indians, and was still smoking and burning on the 24th, when they left it. They now were able to account for the report, as the magazine belonging to Bent had been fired. The guns and traps were consumed, and it is supposed all the goods, books, &c., of Bent's concern, had shared the same fate. The pack saddles and riding apparatus were not destroyed, as they were still in the bastions. What had become of Mr. Bent, or any one connected with the concern, they could not tell; there was no trace of them or their whereabouts.
3d. One of the most remarkable aërial voyages on record took place in France.
M. Arban, a French aëronaut, ascended in his balloon from the Chateau des Fleurs (the Vauxhall of Marseilles) at half-past six in the evening of the 2d inst., and alighted at the village of Pion Forte, near Turin, in Italy, the following morning, at half-past two, having accomplished the distance, about 400 miles, in eight hours.
He passed the Alps by moonlight-he says:
"I was occasionally obliged to ascend, in order to pass over the peaks. I reached the summit of the Alps at eleven o'clock, and as the horizon became clear, and my course regular, I began to think of supping. I was now at an elevation of 4600 metres. It was indispensably necessary for me to pursue my journey, and reach Piedmont. Chaos only was under me, and to alight in these regions was impossible. After supper, I threw my empty bottle into the snow beneath." His course was on a level with the top of Mont Blanc, far above the clouds, and the mountain "resembled an immense block of crystal, sparkling with a thousand fires."
He alighted in a large farm yard near Turin, without any accident having occurred.
The paper money in the south of Europe is producing much embarrassment and distress. During the bloody scenes of the past year, specie has disappeared, and all sorts of devices were adopted to supply its place.
The Austrians and Hungarians have each, for months past, been manufacturing continually vast quantities of bank notes, which are forced into circulation. The report of the bank of Vienna, lately published, gives a specie deposit of twenty-seven millions to a paper circulation of almost two hundred and sixty millions, and this probably is far short of the mark! Kossuth, who had a mania for financiering, was by no means behind-hand with Austria in putting forth paper money; presses were kept at work day and night manufacturing it. The Austrian notes were declared worthless, and vast quantities of the Hungarian came into circulation, and passed readily. One of the first acts of the Austrian government, since the submission of Georgey, is to declare these worthless. The Russians, however, take them freely at par, and it is thought that some arrangement will be made less fatal to the Hungarians on the part of Austria.
11th. At Pittsfield, Mass., the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, held its fortieth annual meeting. Hon. Theodore Frelinghuysen, the President, in the chair.
The corporate members of this great religious association are amongst the most prominent men in the union. Twelve hundred persons were in attendance from a distance, and the concourse of people altogether was very great.
Addresses were to be delivered by Gov. Briggs, Chancellor Frelinghuysen, and others.
Ex-Chancellor Walworth, Chief Justice Hornblower, Drs. De Witt, Cox, Woods, Williams, Williston, Beecher, Dana, Hawes, Cummings, Hon. W. J. Hubbard, Samuel T. Armstrong, and many other distinguished gentlemen were present.
11th. The GREAT AGRICULTURAL FAIR at Syracuse, New York, was opened this day. It was supposed that between fifty and one hundred thousand people assembled on the grounds to witness the exhibition. The President of the United States had appointed to be present, but was prevented by sickness. Mr. Clay, Vice-President Fillmore, Governor Fish, General Wool, and many other distinguished gentlemen were there. The Albany Evening Journal remarks:
"This Fair was more than successful-it was triumphant, and has demonstrated, renewedly, that the spirit of progress is working wonders for the cause of agricultural mechanism, domestic economy, agriculture, horticulture, &c. The great feature of this Fair was its show of horses, cattle and sheep. In these respects the improvement in blood, condition and management, was marked and gratifying. The display of agricultural implements, household industry and general mechanism, was in the highest degree creditable to the industry and genius of the sons, and to the diligence and taste of the daughters of our State.
"The show ground was well chosen and admirably fitted up. The arrangements were such as to give every facility to visiters. Ex