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Mehemet Ali continued in the quiet possession of Syria until 1839, but the Porte disliked very much the occupation of that country by the Viceroy of Egypt, so that after organizing an army and a strong fleet in the beginning of 1839, the Sultan Mahmoud sent his troops into Syria under the command of Hafiz Pasha, to expel the Egyptians, but Ibrahim Pasha proved too powerful for him, and the Turkish army had to retreat. England, Austria, Russia, and Prussia, then, in conjunction with the Porte, signed a treaty on the 15th of July, 1840, and informed Mehemet Ali that he was no longer to remain in Syria; but the viceroy, confiding in the promised assistance of the French, seemed determined to keep the country.
The allied powers, finding that the viceroy would not evacuate Syria, by fair means, determined upon driving him out by force. The first engagement took place on the 10th of October, 1840, near Beyrout, when the Egyptian army was completely routed, and the town taken. Caiffa and Saida were bombarded in the same month, Tripoli and Tarsous soon followed, and on the 3d of November, of the same year, the bombardment and taking of Acre, in the short space of four hours, ought to have convinced Mehemet Ali that any further resistance was uselessThe town of Alexandria was blockaded by an English squadron; still Mehemet Ali was not inclined to submit, as he entertained hopes that France would come to his aid, but in the end he found he could no longer temporize, and acceded to the terms proposed, the hereditary pashalic of Egypt in his own family being secured to him.
The withdrawal of the Egyptian troops from Syria commenced in December, 1840, when 54,000 men and 6,000 women and children took the road of the Desert to Suez; but what with sickness, desertion, privation, and the opposition they encountered on their march, not 25,000 reached Egypt. Ibrahim Pasha proceeded by sea from Gaza, with the sick and wounded, and landed at Damietta, on the 21st of February, 1841, whilst the remainder of the troops marched by El Arish. Before the evacuation of Syria, the Egyptian army consisted of 85,000 men; of these only 33,000 returned to their country.
The firman sent by the Sultan to Mehemet Ali, was dated from Constantinople, the 13th of February, 1841, and, after some modifications, was finally accepted by Mehemet Ali, on the 10th of June, 1841. The following are the conditions on which Mehemet Ali was granted the hereditary pashalic of Egypt:
1. The succession to the government of Egypt within its ancient boundaries to descend in a direct line to Mehemet Ali's male posterity, from the elder to the elder, among the sons and grandsons-the nomination to be made by the Sublime Porte.
2. The pasha of Egypt to rank as a vizier of the Ottoman Empire, without having in his character, with the exception of hereditary right, any other prerogatives than those enjoyed by other viziers.
3. All treaties entered into between the Sublime Porte and the Euro
pean powers are to apply to Egypt as well as to any other part of the Ottoman Empire.
4. The pasha has authority to coin his own money in Egypt, but the coins are to bear the name of the Sultan.
5. The standing army of Egypt is to be composed of 18,000 men, and 400 men are to be sent yearly to Constantinople.
6. The Viceroy of Egypt has the right to appoint officers of the land and sea forces up to the rank of colonel and below that of general of brigade, but a general of brigade being a pasha, the Porte alone can name pashas.
7. The Viceroy of Egypt cannot build vessels of war without authority from the Sublime Porte.
8. The yearly tribute payable by the pasha of Egypt to the Sublime Porte, fixed at $2,000,000, has since been reduced to a million and a third of Spanish pillared dollars, about £270,000 sterling.
9. The hereditary title is liable to revocation, should any of Mehemet Ali's successors infringe any of the aforesaid conditions.
The Sublime Porte also granted to Mehemet Ali, without the hereditary succession, the government of the provinces of Nubia, Darfour, Sennaar, and Cordofan, and all the territories annexed thereto, situate out of Egypt.
The pasha of Egypt differs from the other pashas of the Ottoman Empire, in that the former collects the revenues himself, whilst the law of the empire is that pashas are not to collect the revenues.
Until last year Mehemet Ali enjoyed a very strong constitution; his stature was short, and his features formed an agreeable and animated physiognomy, with a searching look, expressive of cunning, nobleness, and amiability. He always stood very upright, and it was remarkable, from its being unusual among Turks, that he was in the habit of walking up and down in his apartments. He was most simple in his dress, and cleanly in his person. He received strong impressions easily, and was very frank and open, and could not easily conceal his mind. He loved his children with great tenderness, and lived in the interior of his family with great simplicity and freedom from restraint. He was very fond of playing at billiards, chess, draughts, and cards. In his latter years he became very merciful and humane, and generally forgave the greatest faults. The European papers were translated to him, and he was sensibly affected by any attacks directed against him. His activity was very great. He slept little in the night, and invariably rose before sunrise. He received daily the reports of his ministers, dictated answers, and frequently visited any improvements or changes going on in the public works. He learned to read only at the age of forty-five. He principally studied history, and was particularly interested with the lives of Napoleon and Alexander the Great.
The only language he spoke was Turkish; he understood Arabic, but did not like to speak it. The late Viceroy did not observe the
tenets of the Mohammedan religion with any rigour, and never cared about fasting in the month of Ramazan. He was the first Mohammedan ruler who granted real protection to Christians, raised them to the highest ranks, and made some of them his most intimate friends. His freedom from superstition was as remarkable as his toleration in religion, and in many instances he shook off the yoke of those absurd prejudices to which all those of his faith humbly bow their heads.
He was buried at Cairo, in a new alabaster mosque built by himself in the citadel. The procession from the palace was composed of a vast concourse of the people; of the European consuls in uniform, with many of the European residents, and a great number of troops with arms reversed. On emerging from the palace the coffin was laid at the foot of the grand marble staircase, the attendants gathered round, and the chief mufti, a venerable old man, advanced, raised his hands, and, amidst profound silence, repeated three times, with a pause for mental reflection between each, "Allah hoo akbar," (God is great;) after which, he twice repeated, "Salam aleykoun," (Peace be with you;) and then the procession started, the principal officers and grandees emulating each other for the honour of carrying the coffin on their shoulders. On passing the harem, a separate building a little to the north of the palace, the shrieks and lamentations of the women were most piercing. Twenty-six buffaloes were killed and distributed among the poor, with twenty-six camel loads of bread and dates, and a considerable sum of money.
Mehemet Ali's first severe illness occurred in January, 1848, when he proceeded to Malta and Naples, where, having rallied a little, he returned to Egypt in April, improved in bodily health, but with his constitution shattered, and his mental faculties totally prostrated. His appearance had undergone a complete change; his eyes had lost that searching and intelligent look for which his highness was so remarkable; his cheeks were shrunk and his voice was quite feeble. His medical men having then declared his total unfitness to attend to the affairs of the country, the late Ibrahim Pasha assumed the reins of government, and at his death was succeeded by Abbas Pasha. From that time until within a few weeks of his death, Mehemet Ali took his daily drive in his carriage, and lived in his palace in the same style he was wont to do, but none except his immediate attendants were permitted to approach him.
He had many children, but only five sons and three daughters are now living, viz., Said Pasha, Admiral of the Egyptian fleet, born in 1818; Haleem Bey, born in 1826; Mehemet Ali Bey, born in 1833; Nazleh Hanum, born in 1837, widow of the Defterdar Mohammed Bey; Zeinab Hanum, born in 1824, and married in 1845 to Kamil Pasha. Haleem Bey was four years in Paris, where he received a liberal education. Mehemet Ali's second son, after the late Ibrahim Pasha, was Toussoon Pasha, born at Cavalla, who left an only son, Abbas Pasha,
born in 1813, at present Viceroy of Egypt. Toussoon Pasha died of the plague at the camp of Damanhour in 1816. Mehemet Ali had also at Cavalla, by the same wife, a third son, Ismael Pasha, who died in the war in Sennaar. Another son of Mehemet Ali, Houssein Bey, born in 1825, died in 1847 at Paris, where he had been sent for his education. Mehemet Ali had twelve brothers and two sisters, all of whom are dead.
THE name of this eminent statesman and scholar has been honoured in this country and Europe for more than half a century. Born in a foreign land, he came early in life to America, bore arms as a volunteer during our struggle for independence, and subsequently became one of the foremost of our citizens, whether we regard his talents, his services, or his devotion to the great interests of the republic. The following sketch presents the most prominent incidents of his life, but we regret that we have not room for a more extended notice; for we believe it highly advantageous to trace the steps and to mark the progress by which great men have arrived at eminence. Great talents and splendid achievements, it is true, are necessarily confined to a few; but it is the duty of every individual to aim at excellence in his own sphere, however humble. Many of the same qualities are requisite to make a good tradesman or skilful mechanic, which are needed to form a great statesman or general. We shall find that such a man was early distinguished from the frivolous or dissolute around him by devotedness to his object; that he made it his study, his pleasure. We shall find that he was not discouraged by difficulties, but rather stimulated by them to more vigorous efforts; that he never consulted his own ease or gratification, when they stood in the way of his grand design; that he was characterized by a disregard to trifles of all sorts, and by a steady aim at the most important ends. Now as these, among other good qualities, insured to him success and distinction, so we may be assured that the same causes will produce the same effects, in whatever situations they may be applied. We select from the New York Evening Post:
"Albert Gallatin was born at Geneva, in Switzerland, on the 29th day of January, 1761. He was left an orphan in his infancy, and was educated under the maternal care of a distant relation and very dear friend of his mother. He pursued his studies in Geneva, and graduated at the University of that city in 1779. Among his teachers at that period was Müller, the celebrated historian, and among his classmates was Dumont, the friend of Mirabeau and the interpreter of Bentham.
Contrary to the wishes, but without the opposition of his relatives, Mr. Gallatin emigrated to the United States in the nineteenth year of his age. He arrived at Boston on the 14th July, 1780. A letter followed him to this country from La Rochefoucauld to Dr. Franklin, requesting him to take a little interest in Gallatin and his companion who embarked with him. Soon after his arrival in this country, the young adventurer proceeded to Maine, and resided at Machias and Passamaquoddy, where he served as a volunteer under Col. John Allen, commander of the fort of Machias; and also made some advances to support the garrison.
"In the spring of 1782, through the interest of Dr. Cooper, he was chosen instructor of the French language in Harvard University, which place, however, he soon left for the South. In the winter of 1783-4, he was engaged at Richmond, in prosecuting the claim of a foreign house, for advances made to the State of Virginia, which brought him into contact with the public men of that State, and procured for him the acquaintance and personal friendship of Patrick Henry. In 1784-5, he acquired some large tracts of land in Western Virginia, on which, with the moderate patrimony which he had then received, he determined to take up his permanent residence. Disturbances among the Indians, and other circumstances, compelled him to abandon the project, and in 1786 he purchased a place and settled in Fayette county, Pennsylvania. He was elected in the fall of 1789 a member of the Convention to amend the Constitution of Pennsylvania, in which Convention he united himself with the Democratic party. He there opposed the system of immediate electors for President, and favoured universal suffrage without distinction of colour.
"In 1790 he was elected a member of the House of Representatives of the State, to which post he continued to be re-elected till he took a seat in Congress, about two years after. He was chosen United States Senator in 1793, but was declared not entitled to a seat, because not a citizen under the Constitution. He was in the Senate, therefore, but two months, during which period the deliberations of that body were for the first time open to the public. Mr. Gallatin returned to Fayette county in 1794, after an absence of eighteen months, during which period, or immediately after, he married a daughter of Commodore Nicholson, a distinguished officer of the revolutionary war.
"Shortly after his return, broke forth the famous 'whiskey insurrection,' which originated in Allegheny county, about fifty miles from his residence, out of the forcible resistance to the serving of writs against distillers who had not paid the excise. Forty such writs had been issued, of which thirty-four were against distillers in Fayette county, and had been served without opposition. The distillers then met and determined to resist. In the rebellion which followed, Mr. Gallatin was active in resisting the adoption of warlike and treasonable resolutions, and gradually procuring for the United States commissioners a favourable reception.