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his tomb. The name of the Man of Ross was not bestowed in the first instance by Pope, but was previously the common and popular designation of Mr. Kyrle in the country around Ross. He never married. The poor of the district were his children and his family. From them he was removed at a venerable age, and the whole population followed the remains of the good man to the grave. He died on the 20th Nov., 1724.


(From his address to the Mayor of New York, a few weeks after his arrival in America.)

FROM the moment I caught the first glimpse of American land every incident has awakened renewed pleasure and delight. I have gazed with rapture on the bold outline of your coast, and have admired the beautiful scenery of your noble bay, unrivalled for its maritime capabilities, and designed by nature as the entrepot of trade and of commerce for the Western world. I have seen your majestic rivers dotted with richly freighted vessels, bearing the teeming produce of your luxuriant soil to far distant nations; and, oh, sir, I could not look on these winged messengers of peace and plenty without associating with them the magnanimous bounty of a brave people to our afflicted nation. I have visited your busy warehouses, your thronged streets, and bustling thoroughfares, and have been forcibly struck with those exterior evidences of mercantile greatness and prosperity which shadow forth the high commercial destiny that yet awaits your already glorious republic. I have seen in the comfort and abundance enjoyed by all, in the total absence of squalid poverty, and in the liberal remuneration which awaits honest toil, proofs of prosperity which contrast strikingly with scenes that have often harrowed my soul, in that poor old country which, trodden down and oppressed as she is, is still the land of my birth and my affections. I have visited your God-like institutions, upheld with a munificence worthy of your mighty republic, by which you imitate, at an humble distance, the mercy of the Redeemer, making "the blind to see and the dumb to speak." I have minutely inspected their internal arrangements, and witnessed, with intense satisfaction, the philanthropic system, and the absence of all religious exclusion, on which those asylums, sacred to humanity, are based and conducted. I have also inspected with admiration that stupendous structure, the high bridge; the reservoirs sufficiently capacious to supply an abundance of the purest water to your multitudinous citizens. Magnificent works, far, far surpassing the boasted aqueducts of ancient Rome. Nor, in my intercourse amongst your people, could I overlook that manly

independence of character, that decorum and self-respect, so worthy of freemen, which characterize American citizens; and which may be observed as well in the joyous celebration of their national fetes, as in their commingling with each other in the active duties of social life.

Oh, sir, what a powerful influence must the example of such a people necessarily exercise on the distresses of mankind! After years of toil and anxiety, I am cheered and consoled to find my humble efforts worthy of such high approval; and I feel inspired with a new energy to commence, with the Divine assistance, my exertions in the States under such glorious auspices.

Joining in the aspirations of one of your most distinguished Presidents, I fervently pray that "he who holds in his hands the destinies of nations may make yours worthy of the favours he has bestowed; and with pure hearts, pure hands, and sleepless vigilance, that you may guard and defend to the end of time the great charge he has committed to your keeping."


It may be interesting to our readers to possess, in connexion with the foregoing remarks by the "Apostle of Temperance," the following statement of the beginning and progress of the Temperance reform in the United States.

"The first periodical devoted exclusively to temperance was published at Albany in New York, and was called the Temperance Recorder.' Of this paper twenty thousand copies of the first number were gratuitously distributed at the expense of one of our most wealthy and benevolent citizens (the Honourable Stephen Van Rensselaer, of Albany,) who, in addition, subsequently contributed large sums to advance the cause. In the course of a few years, the circulation of this paper had increased to two hundred and twenty thousand copies monthly. For two years, a Quarterly Temperance Magazine was also published, for which some of the most able men of our country were writers, it being intended chiefly to influence the educated classes. Another very important effort was the getting up of a Temperance Almanac. Of this useful publication one press alone in one year, printed seven hundred and fifty thousand copies, which were sold at about two pounds sterling the thousand. A powerful argumentative paper, entitled "the Ox Discourse," aimed particularly at the traffic, was also printed and circulated to the number of two millions and two hundred thousand-a copy for every family in our nation. While this amount of printing was going on in the state of New York, under the auspices of the Temperance Society, the Religious Tract Society issued millions of pages on the subject. The Seaman's Friend Society, also made great

efforts to benefit seamen, and enlighten them as to the effect of strong drink.

"Gentlemen of wealth, who did not become members of the society, contributed largely to our funds, hoping in that way to be the means of benefiting their country. On one occasion, when a great object was to be attained, fifteen gentlemen of influence and wealth each gave one thousand dollars. The New York State Society alone has expended nearly one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, and circulated nearly fifteen millions of periodicals, tracts, almanacs, &c.

"At a very early period one of our most prominent objects was to organize the whole country into societies-the American society at the head, then the state, county, town, and school-district societies, the smallest being auxiliary to the next above it, and so on, up to the parent society, in order that once in every year the total results of the general efforts might be brought to one point. In the state of New York alone, we had about two thousand societies, numbering from four to five hundred thousand members, and in all the Union, nearly ten thousand societies, and about two millions of members. The opinion at length became very general, that to make, vend, or drink ardent spirits as a beverage, was immoral, and should cease. National and State, county and town, temperance conventions, had declared this to be their opinion; religious bodies had also expressed the same sentiment. Spirits were excluded from the sideboard and table, and few but such as disregarded public opinion were found to continue their use. Such an effect was produced on their manufacture, that out of 1200 distilleries which had existed in the state of New York at the commencement of the temperance reformation in 1826, less than 200 now remain, the consumption of ardent spirits throughout the whole Union being reduced from five-eighths to three-fourths. In consequence of facts collected with great care, and placed before the underwriters of New York, which proved beyond question, that by far the greater part of all the disasters at sea were occasioned by the use of spirit, they unanimously resolved to take off five per cent. on the premium of insurance of all vessels sailing on the temperance principle, and also voted fifteen hundred dollars to place temperance papers on board ships sailing from the various ports of the United States. This was not done as a temperance movement, but from motives of self-interest, on the same principle as they would have voted money to save any property in jeopardy. Our cause was also much benefited by the government of the United States voting to do away with the spirit rations in the army.”—(Delavan.)



THIS celebrated man, who died recently at Alexandria, had risen from an obscure origin to a station of such distinction as few men attain to. The history of his life forms one of the most striking portions of the history of the East for a long series of years.

Mehemet Ali was born at the town of Cavalla, in Roumelia, the ancient Macedonia. In Mahommedan countries, the natives keep no reckoning of their age, and the pasha could not tell precisely what his own age was: but he was easily flattered into the belief that he was born in the same year that gave birth to the two most illustrious heroes of the present era-Napoleon Bonaparte and the Duke of Wellington -1769, thus making him at his death of the age of eighty years, which may be considered correct within a year or two. He commenced life as a tobacconist in his native town, but he afterwards volunteered into the army, to which his taste was more congenial. In his new career, he soon obtained high favour with the Governor of Cavalla, by his efficient assistance in quelling a rebellion and dispersing a band of pirates; and on the death of his commanding officer he was appointed to succeed him, and married his widow.

Mehemet Ali was installed in the pashalic of Egypt in 1806, on condition that he should send to the Sultan 4,000 purses, which represented at that time the sum of about £24,000 sterling. The pashalic of Egypt was then commonly called the pashalic of Cairo, and it extended only to Middle Egypt and the Delta; Upper Egypt being divided into several districts and administered by the Mameluke Beys, and Alexandria with a part of the western province, by a pasha independent of the pasha of Cairo. A few months after the installation of Mehemet Ali in the pashalic of Egypt, the Porte consented to give him also the pashalic of Alexandria, as a reward for the services he had rendered to the Ottoman Empire in 1807, on the occasion of the evacuation of Lower Egypt and the city of Alexandria by the English.

After the destruction of the Mamelukes, he made himself master of Upper Egypt; he obtained from the Sublime Porte the government of that part of the country, and at the same time considerably increased the land tax and the duties of customs on the internal trade.

He received orders from the Porte to attack and disperse the Wahabees, a fanatical sect of the Mahommedan religion, who had pillaged

the holy cities of Mecca and Medina, and in the year 1811 he sent his army in Arabia against the Wahabees. This war lasted six years, cost the viceroy immense sums of money, and a great number of men, and was finally brought to a close by Ibrahim Pasha. In 1813, Mehemet Ali himself went to the Hedjaz for a time, to hasten the result of the expedition. During his absence, the Porte, jealous of his power, secretly appointed Lateef Pasha, viceroy of Egypt, but Mohammed Bey, Mehemet Ali's Minister of war, pretending to enter into the views of Lateef Pasha, engaged him to declare himself publicly viceroy of Egypt, and then decapitated him.

In 1815, Mehemet Ali, convinced of the great advantages of discipline and military tactics in the art of warfare, resolved upon having his army properly drilled; but his soldiers were very averse to this measure, and threatened an insurrection. He therefore sent his mutinous troops into Ethiopia, under his third son, Ismael Pasha, who on that occasion conquered the provinces of Dongola, Berber, Shendy, Sennaar, and Cordofan, whilst he raised a new army, which was drilled by French and Italian officers. He then offered the Sultan to assist in quelling the Greek insurrection against the Porte, and, on the 16th of July, 1824, Mehemet Ali's fleet, consisting of one hundred and sixtythree vessels, sailed for the Morea, under the command of Ibrahim Pasha, who, for three years, kept the country in subjection, but was obliged to retreat after the battle of Navarino on the 26th of October, 1827.

In 1830, the Porte conferred upon him the administration of the island of Candia. He then turned his thoughts to the possession of Syria, and 6,000 Egyptians having emigrated to that country he demanded the restitution of them from Abdallah Pasha, the governor of Acre. The reply he obtained was, that the emigrants were subjects of the Sublime Porte, and that they were in the Sultan's dominions as well in Syria as in Egypt. The viceroy, enraged at this answer, sent him word that he himself would come and take his 6,000 subjects, and "one man more." Accordingly, on the 2d of November, 1831, Mehemet Ali sent into Syria a powerful army, under command of his son, Ibrahim Pasha, who, in a few months, reduced the whole country to submission. On this the Porte declared Mehemet Ali a rebel, and sent a strong army into Syria, but Ibrahim Pasha's troops invariably overcame the Sultan's, and several important battles were fought, which insured to the Egyptians the possession of the country. The European powers interfered, and, under their guarantee, peace was signed on the 14th of May, 1833. Syria and the district Adana were ceded to Mehemet Ali, in conjunction with the pashalic of Egypt, on his acknowledging himself a vassal of the Sultan, and engaging to remit to the Porte the same tribute as the former pashas of Syria. According to this arrangement Mehemet Ali paid for Egypt 12,000 purses; Syria and Adana, 18,000 purses; and Candia, 2,000 purses; making together 32,000 purses, or £160,000 sterling per annum.

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