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covered. In one of them was found the remains of the lady of Lord Bellamont, in a leaden coffin.
"After this fort was built by the Dutch, the persons who came over from Holland to settle in America, for the purpose of trading with the natives for furs, &c., and who could not reside in the fort, built houses under the walls of the fort, and formed the first street, which they called Pearl Street. From time to time, as they grew in numbers, and found friendly intercourse with the natives, they increased the extent of the city, which must have contained, in 1686, a number of houses and streets.
"The Dutch, in imitation of what was done in Holland, built dykes in Broad Street, as far up as the city hall, as posts were found standing about ten or twelve feet from the houses, on each side of the way, not long ago, when the street was new paved. The city was first enclosed with a wall or pallisades, from Trinity Church across Wall Street to the East river.
"In 1744, it had pallisades, with block houses, surrounding it from river to river, from near the air furnace to the ship-yard, at the edge of what was called the meadows, on the west side.
"Not long before this, the water out of the fresh water pond or kollock, ran down to both rivers; to the North by a ditch, and to the East by a small rivulet, which became so wide as to require a log to be laid across it to walk on. On the hill, near the river, was a windmill. Some years before this, there was a wind-mill between what was called Crown street and Cortland street. Here it was, that, not forty years ago, the Indians still residing in the lower part of the State, at particular seasons of the year, came to the city and took up their residence, until they had disposed of their poultry, brooms, shovels, trays, baskets, &c.
"In 1746, there was wheat growing where now St. Paul's Church is built, and then there were not twenty houses from Division street to fresh water. In 1744, several Indian canoes, one after another, came down the East and North rivers, landed their cargoes in the basins near the Long bridge, and took up their residence in the yard and store-house of Adolphus Phillips, where they generally made up their baskets and brooms, as they could better bring the rough materials with them than ready-made baskets and brooms. They brought with them, if they came from Long Island, a quantity of dried clams, strung on sea-weed and straw, which they sold or kept for their own provisions, besides the flesh of the animals they killed.
"Clams, oysters and fish-meat, formed the principal food, together with squashes and pumpkins, of the natives of the lower part of the State. Those in the upper part, besides the fish of the rivers, wild water-fowl, and animals of different kinds, Indian corn, squashes and pumpkins, at particular times in the spring were visited with such amazing flights of wild pigeons, that the sun was hid by their flocks
from shining on the earth for a considerable time; then it was that the natives laid in a great store of them against the day of need.
From the proceedings of the Burgomasters and Schepens, as recorded in the Manual of the Common Council, we make some extracts. The first describes a meeting of the Court to nominate officers, at which the celebrated Peter Stuyvesant was present.
CORNELIS STEENWYCK, JACOBUs Backer.
"At the court of the Schout, Burgomasters and Schepens, appeared the Honble. Valiant Heer General Petrus Stuyvesant, to assist at the nomination of the succeeding Burgomasters and Schepens.
"The Heer-officer rising, asks, if any of the magistrates had any objection that he should co-operate with the magistrates in the nomination of succeeding Burgomasters and Schepens. Question being put, it was decided that he could not, inasmuch as it manifestly conflicted with the jurisdiction of the Heer Schout, and the laws and customs of the city Amsterdam, in Europe.
"The Heer Director General decides that the Heer Schout shall have vote and co-nomination, assuring them that it shall be so concluded by the Director General and Council of New Netherland. Burgomasters
and Schepens declare that if the Director General and Council should so decide, so it must be with them.
"Whereupon the Heer Director General proposed that the nomination be postponed until the acte thereof be given to the Burgomasters and Schepens.
"After some further debate over and hither, the meeting adjourned until four o'clock in the afternoon, which being again complete,
"The Heer Schout, Pieter Tonneman, exhibited to the court a certain acte from the Honble. Director General and Council of N. Netherland, which reads as follows:
"The Director General and Council of N. Netherland comparing the previous with the present instruction of the Schout of this city, decide for cause that the Schout must preside in the court of Burgomasters and Schepens, and consequently have opinion and vote in the annual nomination of the subaltern magistrates of this city, and all other matters wherein he is not a party. Thus done at the assembly of the Honble. Lords Director General and Council, holden in Fort Amsterdam in New Netherland, the first of February, Anno 1661.
"By order of the Honble. Lords Director General and Council of New Netherland, was signed,
C. V. RUYVEN, Secty.
"Which being read in court, Burgomasters and Schepens say that it is contrary to the instruction, he not bringing with him his instructions, and that Burgomasters are thereby deprived of their authority.
"The Heer Director General reading the instruction of the Heer Schout says, that by the first rank remaining to the Schout he understands the presidency.
"Whereupon, the Heer president states that the college concludes that the Heer Schout shall co-operate in the nomination for the present time, and desist from any further, unless it be otherwise decided by the Honble. Lords Majores.
"The Honble. Director General and the Heer officer are satisfied therewith; whereupon, the Schout, Burgomasters, and Schepens, proceeded to nominate Burgomasters and Schepens for the ensuing year.'
The following account of a trial held before the court of Burgomasters establishes the fact that the Courts of New Amsterdam used torture to enforce confession.
TUESDAY, 25th April, 1662. Į
PAULUS SUNDERTZEN VANDER GRIST,
"The prisoner, Reyer Cornelissen, heard on interrogatories, hath answered thereon, as appears by said interrogatories; declaring besides, that he bought from a negro, by the new bridge, the sack of grain which he had thrown into the water by the cripple bush; but says, he does not know the negro; and gave for the corn five and a half guilders, and that he had the same corn at Andries Joghemsen's house, where he lodged; declaring that he purchased a mackerel and took a white loaf from the house with him, and then to have carried the sack along, intending to bring the grain to the mill.
"Seletje, the wife of Andries Joghemsen, sent for to court, appears; who was asked, if Reyer Cornelissen, the prisoner, lodged at her house? -Answers, Yes.
"Further asked, how he behaved himself there?-Answers, Has no complaint against him, except that he owes her nine guilders.
"Asked if he had a sack of corn at her house?-Answers, Saw no sack of corn at her house.
"Whereupon, Reyer Cornelissen says he had the same under his bed. "Again asked, if she also saw him take a sack of corn with him?— Answers, Hath not seen.
And, whereas, Reyer Cornelissen denies what has been laid to his charge by declaration, the Heer officer demands that he shall be further heard after having been subjected to torture!
"The worshipful court grant the request.
FRIDAY, the 28th April, 1661. )
The same Court.
"The prisoner, Reyer Cornelissen, was again questioned anew on the four interrogatories respecting his theft, and if such were true?—Answers, Yes.
"After which, the demand and conclusion on and against Reyer Cornelissen was delivered to the worshipful court by the Heer officer.
The worshipful court of the city having considered the demand and conclusion of the Heer officer, and heard the confession of the prisoner, Reyer Cornelissen, condemn the aforesaid Reyer Cornelissen Van Soestberger, to be taken to the place where criminal justice is usually executed, and there to be tied to a stake, severely scourged, and banished out of the city's jurisdiction for the term of ten years; and further mulcted in the costs and charges of justice."
EARLY MEDICAL SCIENCE IN NEW YORK..
We copy from the eloquent and elaborate discourse of the late President of the New York Academy, Professor John W. Francis, the following account of the early state of medical science in that city. The details are interesting, and no less novel than instructive and curious. The discourse abounds in facts of singular value to the medical and philosophical historian.
"New York has been signally blessed in her physicians. Imperfect as are the records concerning our early Dutch doctors, I find many prominent individuals among them, who, to medical erudition and scientific knowledge, added experience in political councils, and rendered services of no small consideration to the public weal. Several came direct from Holland, the land of their birth and the place of their education. Their public trusts were for the most part assigned to them by the authorities of the Dutch West India Company. Johannes Megaolensis and his son Samuel, were recognised as the most conspicuous of these public worthies; they were men of learning and character; the son Samuel was a physician, and received his earlier education at Harvard University, and graduated M. D. at Leyden. He prac
tised medicine at New Amsterdam for some time; but was subsequently elected by the people as one of the commissioners to negotiate with the British the articles for the capitulation of the Province. About the same time Johannes La Montagne, who was also one of the council, was pronounced a skilful doctor of medicine. A post mortem examination is recorded in 1691, and Johannes Kerfbyl and five others of the faculty, testified to the accuracy of the statement set forth. The subject was the body of Governor Slaughter, who died suddenly, under suspicious circumstances. The details are sufficiently minute, and evince an acquaintance with autopsic investigations creditable to the pathological knowledge of the times. There was a sufficient variety in the nativities of these doctors. Kerfbyl appears to have been the most eminent among them; he was a graduate of the University of Leyden, a member of the Colonial Legislature under the Earl of Bellamont, and a friend of Leisler, he came from Holland, and died about 1699. John Lockhart was a Scotchman; Thomas Thornhill and Robert Brett were Englishmen. Lucal Van Efflinchoane seems to have been from Germany. Gilles Gandineau, who signs himself Chirurgo-Physician, was a Frenchman. He was a liberal contributor of money to church affairs. The prevailing language of the place was the low Dutch; some, however, used the German, some the English, and others the French, while the Portuguese was used by the Jews. The population of New York, at that period, was 4,202, including 575 slaves. Among the records on the subject of the pathological examinations, we find that the council ordered that, eight pounds, eight shillings, be paid by Mr. Collector, to the Chirurgeons for opening and inspecting said body. This, I believe, may be pronounced the first or earliest example of a post mortem examination in the annals of our science in this country. John Bard and Peter Middleton, sixty years after, 1750, dissected, in this city, the human body, for the purpose of imparting medical instruction.
"At the commencement of 1700, there arrived in this city an individual, whose name has, in his descendants, become familiar in our ears, and historical in the political annals of the Union. John Van Beuren, of Van Beuren, near Amsterdam, in Holland, a pupil of Boerhaave, and a graduate of Leyden, at the age of twenty-two years, was, upon the recommendation of his great teacher, appointed surgeon of a Dutch fleet, which sailed for New York, after touching at the coast of Africa. Soon after his arrival in this city, he, at the instigation of the Governor, was chosen physician and surgeon to the then Alms House; he enjoyed a large practice. At the age of twenty-five he was married, and had five sons and three daughters, and from him issued the whole family of the Van Beurens.
The distinguished Cadwallader Colden, eminent as a philosopher, naturalist and writer, gave us the first particular account of our climate in 1720. He also wrote on the Sore Throat Distemper in 1735, and