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In NEW YORK the board of health commenced daily reports May 11th, and discontinued them about the 1st of September.
The following table shows the number of deaths by cholera at New York and Philadelphia during the summer of 1849.
In CINCINNATI the deaths from cholera for four months preceding the 30th of August were 4,114.
The mortality was, proportionally, still larger in St. Louis. We have not the official statement, but the deaths within the same period were reported to be as high as 5,000.
At Buffalo, it is stated, that within three months 1,000 died, or one-fourth of the whole population. The disease prevailed in this place mostly among the emigrant and transient population.
In England and France the cases have been very large. In Paris in one day there were 900 cases and 600 deaths-another account says, the deaths in three days exceeded 1,600. As late as the 8th of September the deaths from cholera and diarrhoea in London, were for the week 1,663-and there have been as many as 475 in one day within the London districts.
It is our intention to collect together the facts for an accurate and succinct statement of the amount of mortality during the year 1849, at the places both in the old and new world most severely visited by the cholera-until then what we have given in this number must suffice.
Several theories have recently been started in relation to the origin or cause of the disease. A French physician, Dr. Andraud, in a communication to the Academy of Sciences, at Paris, stated the result of sundry experiments to prove that the absence of electricity in the atmosphere was the cause of cholera. This theory was combated by many, and especially by Professor Olmstead of Yale College, who denied that there was any unusual connexion between the condition of atmospheric electricity and the prevailing epidemic. Another theory makes the origin of the cholera to depend upon the action of an atmospherical element or condition, termed Ozone, the nature of which however seems to be but little understood, and about which scientific men do not seem to be entirely agreed. A later, and at present more favoured theory is founded on a discovery recently made by Dr. Brittan and Mr. Swayne of Bristol, England, of the existence of "certain peculiar bodies or organisms," hitherto undescribed, as constituents of cholera evacuations, and as also found in the atmosphere and water of the districts infected by cholera. It is stated that these organisms are of the
fungous kind; that they are developed in the human intestines and are the cause of the peculiar flux which is the characteristic of malignant cholera. The evidence of these singular discoveries is before the College of Physicians in London, and an elaborate article is expected from Dr. Brittan on the subject. We close with the following extract on the law of epidemics.
"The average visitations of new fatal exotics, have been calculated as recurring at each revolution of 300 years, and there is none on record which has been less fatal than Asiatic cholera. After the first appearance of an exotic epidemic failing of naturalization, it has a tendency to repeat its visits once in each revolution of sixteen years. Thus the sweating sickness, according to Dr. Collier's statement, which was said to have been brought into England along with the army of Richmond, afterwards Henry VII., first appeared at Milford Haven, in the year 1486, when, meeting with no epidemical condition, it soon disappeared. It repeated its visitations under epidemic influence in 1503; and it reappeared altogether five times, with an average interspace of sixteen years; not until its fourth visitation reaching the Court, and proving fatal to many of the courtiers in six hours-Henry VIII. owing his restoration from a severe attack to the well known vigour of his constitution. At its fifth and last return, or sixth visit in 1551, it carried off 120 in a day within the precincts of Westminster alone, where the two sons of Charles Brandon, both Dukes of Suffolk, died of it. From 1486 to 1551 is a space of sixty-six years, which, divided by four, leaves an aggregate of sixteen and a half years, which agrees with the interspace between the two visits of Asiatic cholera. Arguing from these facts, we may expect a return of the present scourge in 1865, and from the curious laws which have governed former epidemics, also in 1882, 1899, and lastly, in 1916, allowing an interspace of a little over sixteen years between each visit. A space of some three centuries may then be expected, during which time the earth will be free from any awful scourge, and then a new and terrible pestilence will start forth on its voyage of death, sweeping millions from existence by its fearful presence."
The estimates of some of the religious denominations in the United States are given as follows:
From one source we have this table,—
The Methodists in the United States, including the church North and South, and those denominated protestant, number in their body 1,178,626 members. The Protestant portion number but 83,600 of this large aggregate. The number of Methodist churches is not reported in the tables from which these statistics are compiled. The number of ministers in the Episcopal portion of this body is 5,080.
The Baptists, including the Regular, Anti-Mission, Free-will, and others, have 11,266 churches, 6,598 ministers, and 813,921 members.
The Presbyterians, Old School and New, have 1,027 churches, and 3,264 ministers, and 335,453 members.
The Congregationalists have 1,866 churches, 1,912 ministers, and 193,093 members.
The Episcopalians have 1,092 churches, 1,404 ministers, and 67,550 members. Here are 212 more ministers than churches.
The Lutherans have 1,425 churches, 299 ministers, and 149,626 members. The Associate, Reformed, Cumberland, and other Presbyterians, together with Reformed Dutch and German Reformed churches, have 2,052 churches, 2,091 ministers, and 241,840 members.
The Roman Catholics have 907 churches, 917 ministers, and 1,199,700 members.
The Unitarians have 244 churches. The number of ministers and members not reported, but the number of ministers is doubtless as large as the number of churches, if not larger. If the churches contain, on an average, as many as the Orthodox Congregational Churches, the aggregate number would be 27,532.
The number of churches of these several denominations, exclusive of Methodists, which are not reported, is 21,981. Allowing the Methodists 10,000 churches, the whole number would be about 33,000.
The whole number of ministers in these denominations is 22,808, and the whole number of members of churches 4,197,141.
The Baptists have the largest number of churches and ministers. The Catholics have the largest number of members. The Methodists have the largest number among the Protestant denominations. The Old School Presbyterians have 725 more churches than the New School, 162 more ministers, and 23,953 more members. The Old and New School Presbyterians together have 2,160 more churches than the Congregationalists, 1,625 more ministers, and 141,360 more members.
According to another estimate
The regular Baptists are put at 667,750, and churches at 8,205; more than 250,000 likewise are embraced in Anti-Mission, Campbellites, Free-will, &c. Methodist Episcopal, 629,660; South, 465,533; Protestant and others, 81,000. Presbyterian, Old School, 192,033; New School, 155,000; Congregational, 127,196; other Presbyterian sects, 140,000. Dutch Reformed, 32,840; German Reformed, 69,750; Protestant Episcopal, 67,550; Lutheran, 163,000; Roman Catholic, 1,231,300; Christian Connexion, 325,000. Romanists include every body belonging to them, men, women and children; and most of the others include only communicants.
THE CHURCH IN CANADA.
The diocess of Toronto (Canada West) covers an extent of country twice as large as all the diocesses of England put together, containing upwards of 100,000 square miles with a population of 700,000 souls.
There are ninety-seven missionaries in the diocess in connexion with the Propagation Society, as well as many others who are maintained outof various resources. The Bishop of Montreal, who administers also the diocess of Quebec, has earnestly urged upon the society the need of a division of his diocess, which comprises 200,000 square miles and a population of 800,000 souls. A census of the Lower Province was taken in 1831, and the following is the general result. Church of Rome, 403,472; Church of England, 34,620; Church of Scotland, 15,099; Methodists, 7,019; Presbyterians, 7,811; Baptists, 2,461; Jews, 107; other denominations, 5,577. The numbers at the last census, in 1847, was 782,677. The total number of the clergy at this period, in the same division of the province, was thirty-six, of whom twenty-two were paid wholly, and six in part, by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. The clergy at the present time amount to eighty-seven, and the proportion of the clergy to the Church of England population, which, eighteen years ago, was rather more than one to a 1000, is now as one to 500.
THE NEXT HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
The gain of a democratic member of Congress in Maryland leaves it entirely uncertain which of the two parties will have a majority in the House of
Representatives. If the eleven members yet to be elected should be of the same politics as those representing the same districts in the last Congress, there would be, in a full House, a whig majority of one. Thus:
+ One vacancy.
The act of Congress admitting Wisconsin into the Union authorizes her to send three members from and after the 4th of March, 1849, until the next apportionment.
§ One vacancy by the death of Mr. Newman, Dem.
Such will be the political complexion of the House, if the remaining eleven members should be politically the same as before.
The elections in Louisiana and Mississippi take place on the 5th of next month. The vacancies in Ohio and Virginia will be filled before the next meeting of Congress. Also the vacancy in Massachusetts, if a choice can be effected, which is very doubtful. Three or four trials have already been
made without success.-N. Y. Jour. Com.
During the past quarter many of the Colleges throughout the country have held their annual commencement. We state the occurrence of such as have come under our notice, with the honorary degrees conferred.
YALE COLLEGE COMMENCEMENT.-The graduating class consisted of 95, of whom 33 had parts in the performances. The degree of A. M. was conferred on 47 persons, of whom two were from other institutions. That of LL. B. was conferred on six graduates of the Law School; and that of LL. D. on his Excellency Joseph Trumbull, governor of the state.
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY.-At the annual commencement of this institution the graduating class numbered seventy-seven. Forty medical students received the degree of M. B., and forty-two law students the degree of laws.
The degree of doctor of laws was conferred upon the Hon. Judge Eustice, of Louisiana, Hon. Richard Fletcher, associate justice of the S. J. court of Massachusetts, Hon. Horace Mann, and Hon. Theophilus Parsons, Dane Professor of Law at Cambridge university.
The degree of doctor of divinity was conferred upon Rev. G. W. Burnap, of Baltimore; Rev. Levi W. Leonard, of Dublin, N. H., and Rev. Charles Kittredge True, of Charlestown.
UNION COLLEGE, Schenectady, N. Y. July 25.-Degree of A. B., in course, conferred on one hundred and eleven members of the senior class. Honorary degree of D. D. on Rev. George W. Blagden, Rev. Alfred E. Campbell, and Rev. David Murdock; LL. D. on Hon. Greene C. Bronson, and Hon. John C. Spencer, both of Albany. Four individuals received the honorary degree of A. B., five of A. M.
MIDDLEBURY COLLEGE, (Congregational,) Middlebury, Vt., July 25.-Graduates seven. Degree of A. M., in course, on five of the alumni. Honorary degree of D. D. on Rev. Samuel C. Jackson, of Andover, Mass., an alumnus of the class of 1821; LL.D. on Hon. Carlos Coolidge, of Woodstock, Vermont, governor of the state.
AMHERST COLLEGE, (Congregational,) Amherst. Mass., August 8.-Graduates 29. Honorary degree of A. M. conferred on Rev. Wm. A Benedict, of the presbytery of Columbia, under appointment as a missionary of the American Board to India.
COLLEGE OF NEW JERSEY.-The 102d anniversary of this venerable institution was held. A large class graduated. The college, it is understood, was never in