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we cannot further enlarge upon forgiven you! Yes, in the gospel this topic.

there is a balm assuredly healing, One or two reflections must close a physician whose mighty skill our article. We have been writing and love, if once sought, shall never about the physicians of ancient be found wanting. But we have Egypt, prefessional men who are been dwelling also on the peculiar immeasurably excelled by those of custom of embalming. With the modern times. But 0, how many view of the Egyptian, how vain are the diseases which afflict our and fruitless was all this anxiety race, how rapidly blighting are and care. Turning from the dying many of them, and in how many heathen to the dying Christian, instances are we affectingly taught how glorious and charining to be that the most transcendent skill able to say to the latter in the and untiring attention are alto- prospect of death, “This corrupgether inefficacious! The malady tible must put on incorruption, and heightens, strength wastes away, this mortal must put on immor. the patient dies, and the dearest tality;" to remind him of the Refriends, in speechless agony, bang deemer, “ Who shall change our sighing and weeping over the for- vile bodies, and fashion them like saken tenement of clay. How to his glorious body;" to address freshing and delightful to turn from him in the language of a beautiful the failing aid of man, to the ma- living poet, jestic and triumphant career of “Go to the grave, which faithful to its Jesus, who could not only cure the trust, sicknesses of the body, but, what The germ of immortality shall keep, was vastly more important, could While safe, as watch'd by cherubim, thy minister to minds diseased; to whom

dust,

Shall to the judgment day in Jesus it was all one to say to the afflicted sleep." and the impotent, arise, take up your bed and walk, and your sins be

re

.יוֹסֶף

THE SPIRITUAL ROCK. The Jewish was a type of the gushing stream, prefigured him who Christian Church; its priests and was the “bread of life," the founits services were types of the tain of salvation, and whose spiri“ royal priesthood," and of the tual communications would purify “ better sacrifices” of the new dis- and satiate the souls of the redeempensation. Its temporal mercies ed. The typical character of the and judgments were emblems of smitten rock is unquestionable. The those which are spiritual. The en- inspired commentator, in 1 Cor. x. tire history of the chosen nation is 4, denominates it a “ spiritual instructive, and a considerable por- rock,” and expressly states, that tion of it is designedly symboli. “rock” to have been, or representcal and typical. The events re- ed “Christ” himself. As a figure corded happened to them for ex- of speech, a rock is often employed amples,” or befel them as types, in Scripture to illustrate the power, and are designed for “our admo- immutability, and eternity of Jehonition” or improvement, on whom vah, and the permanent safety of “ the ends of the world are come.” his people: but as a type, the rock The manna, the smitten rock, the is employed only to exhibit Christ

case.

ence.

as the mediator, who; smitten for Father, that such should be the the sins of men, becomes the source When in the flaming bush, and fountaio of all spiritual bless. the angel of Jehovah said, “ I am ings. This mystical rock is personi- come down to deliver them out of tied by the apostle, and described the hand of the Egyptians, and to as accompanying the chosen tribes bring them up out of that land into during their pilgrimage, and that by a goodly land and large;" and enhim all their temporal and spiritual couraged bis servant Moses by dewants were supplied. They claring, “ Certainly I will be with drank of that spiritual rock that thee;" “ My presence," explained followed them, and that rock was by Isa. Ixiii. 9, as the “ Angel of Cbrist."

his presence," "shall go with thee, Jesus was the leader and the and I will give thee rest;" “ He guide of his ancient people. Under shall bless thy bread and thy water, the various appellations of " an An- and I will take away all sickness gel," "the Angel of Jehovah, of the from thee," Ex. xxiii. 20-33. Divine Presence, and of the Cove- This “ Angel of the Lord,” the nant,” he conducted them during " Jehovab” himself,

was in the their long, perilous, and mysterious cloudy pillar by day, and in the journey. Moses was their visible pillar of fire by night.” “The guide; but Christ was really the Lord thy God walketh in the midst “Shepherd of Israel,” who “ led of the camp to deliver thee,” said Joseph like a flock" througb the venerable Moses, when exhorting wilderness. The cautionary lan- his people to holiness and obedi. guage of the apostle, 1 Cor. x. 9,

When about to ascend the furnishes a key to this sublime mys- hill from which he should view the tery. “ Neither let us tempt “goodly land afar off,” and on Christ, as some of them also tempt. which he should breathe out his soul ed, and were destroyed by serpents.” into the hands of his Maker, the The allusion is to the fiery serpents “man of God” reviewed the history sent as a punishment for their of his public life, and of the Divine “speaking against God, and against goodness, and bore bis testimony Moses ;” and is thus glanced at by to the important and delightful and Moses in his retrospective view of typical fact, that Christ as their their history, “ Ye shall not tempt Lord had guided and defended, Jehovah your God, as ye tempted and supported the “ redeemed of bim in Massah.” Christ, to whom the Lord" in the wilderness. “ The Moses applies the terms, “God” Lord thy God bare thee as a man and “ Jehovah," was present with doth bear his son, in all the way the rebellious people. Hewitnessed that ye went, until ye came to this their conduct, and provoked by place.” He" went in the way betheir baseness, inflicted the dreadful fore you, to search you out a place scourge ; but at the same time pro- to pitch your tents in.” He vided a remedy, alike as a proof of “ brought thee forth water out of his mercy and as a type of his own the rock of flint,” and “ fed thee painful and attractive lifting up” in the wilderoess with manna." on the cross of Calvary.

“ He found him in a desert land, Nor was the Saviour present at and in the waste howling wilderthat particular juncture only. He ness; be led him about; he inwas their constant guide and pro- structed him; he kept him as the tector. Many a promise was given apple of his eye. As an eagle lo them by himself and the Eternal stirreth up her nest, fluttereth over her young, spreadeth abroad her and “ they shall never perish, neiwings, taketh them, beareth them ther shall any pluck them out of his on her wings, so the Lord alone did hand.” He is their captain of sallead him." It is worthy of obser- vation, and though difficulties, and vation, that in his dying song, from snares, and dangers, and enemies, which source some of these quota- lie in their path, or attack them in tions are made, Moses repeatedly their course, be is at band to prospeaks of this ever-present, tender, tect, defend, and save them. ' In compassionate, and merciful Guide all places he is with them. “I will as the “ Rock" of his people; “the never leave thee," are his own graRock that begat tbem ;” “ the cious words : “ I am with you alRock that had sold them;" “ the ways to the end of the world.” Rock that was not like the rock of To what extent the Israelites their enemies, they being themselves were instructed in the typical chajudges.” The rock of their salva- racter of their history and worship tion was Christ, and from him they is unknown. Probably they saw and obtained an instant, bountiful, and knew more of the nature of true and constant supply of all needful evangelical religion than is imagined good. Isaiah exclaims with grate- by many. Abraham, Isaac, and ful emotion, as he reflected on the Jacob, and others of the patriarchs, history of his nation, and the gra- lived and died in the faith of that cious superintendence exercised "gospel" which was proclaimed in over it by him who was “ mighty the covenant. They had some to save;" “ He was their Saviour. glimpses of the spiritual glory of the In all their afflictious he was afe latter days; they saw the day of flicted, and the angel of his pre- Christ," and rejoiced ; they saw sence saved them. In his love, and and invoked the angel of the Lord, in his pity, he redeemed them, and “ the angel that redeemed the he bare them, and carried them all lands;" they foresaw the advent of the days of old."

the “Shiloh unto whom the gatherThese memorials of thesympathy ing of the people should be." and love and power of the Saviour Moses rejoiced in “ faith;" he towards the ancient church are not voluntarily preferred “ the rerecorded merely as examples and proaches of Christ" to the riches of specimens, but as emblems and Egypt; and endured the loss of all types of those instances of his care, things, as “ seeing Him who is inand kindness, and providence, which visible.” Of Aaron's faith and he now atfords to his disciples and spiritual views little is known. But friends.

as the first and greatest of the JewJesus is still with his church in ish priests, whose "lips were to keep this desert world. No supplies can knowledge,” and “to instruct the be obtained but from him. He people in the law of Jehovah," and feeds them with the “ bread of life," who was an illustrious type of the with the “ hidden wanna,” and with “Great High Priest and A postle the river of the water of life. “If of our profession," it is more than any thirst, let him come to me and probable that he, as far as "the drink.” “ Ask of me, and I will spirit of Christ,” which was, doubtgive thee living water.” He is still less, in him, as in the prophets, “ the Shepherd of Israel, and lead- enabled bim, explained the myseth Joseph like a flock.” He is the teries connected with the passover, “ good Shepherd; he goeth before the lambs for daily sacrifice, the the sheep, and leadeth them out," annual expiation, and the typical

character of many of the wants and lest he fall.” “We stand by faith.” circumstances connected with their Dependance on Christ must be simbistory and travels. They all ate the ple, constant, exclusive.

“ Hold the same “spiritual meat," and all thou me up" should be the prayer drank the same “spiritual drink ;” of every saint; and then he may and as Moses declares that their exclaim, “ I shall be safe.” The compassionate Lord "instructed sins and punishments of the Jews are them," and as Nehemiah asserts recorded for our " admonition.” that God sent “his good spirit to May we profit by the record! instruct them,” we may safely con- Their guilt was great; but ours will jecture that they were taught in be greater, if we forget the divine some degree the spiritual reference mercies, and rebel against our God. and design of these important bless- Our light is clearer, our privileges ings and events. The more pious are greater, our hopes are brighter; and devout of the pilgrims would our spirituality and decision, and doubtless converse together, as they steadfastness and holiness, should were collecting their daily por- therefore be in proportion. “To tion of manna, and drawing their whom much is given, of him much water, on the importance of spiri- will be required." tual blessings for the nourishment The church is in the wilderness ; of their souls, and of the coming of but no want can be felt which her that day when the “ bread of life” Lord cannot supply, no danger should descend from heaven. The arise from which he cannot deliver, obscurity, however, which rested no difficulty occur which he cannot on that dispensation has been re- enable her to overcome. The way is moved; the light of truth is now circuitous and rough and long ; but poured on these mystic services. it is “the right way to a city of The antity pe has been revealed. habitation.” Leaning on the arm of Christ in his person, and offices, and her beloved, the church shall be glories, is now disclosed ; and we upheld and cheered by his gracious can rejoice in his mercy and love, presence, shall proceed on her way in his divine protection and endless rejoicing. Ere long the Jordan salvation.

will be reached ; and then shall Melancholy is the fact that the her glorious Lord, while “ passing seed of Jacob “rebelled against through the waters,” “ be with her," their Lord, and vexed his Holy and conduct her in safety to the Spirit;" they often forsook their heavenly shore. Her pilgrimage God, and despised his mercies. over, her trials ended, her hopes With many of them he was not well more than realized, pleased, and he overthrew them in the wilderness. Instructive lesson ! “ Shouts of victory Man is weak and sinful. “Let him Then shall fill the promised land." that thinketh he standeth, take heed

ON THE CHARACTER, ORIGIN, AND DESIGN OF THE FOUR

GOSPELS.

(Continued from Vol. XVIII. page 739.) IN consequence of the frequent the notice of the inquisitive and deficiency of information respect- laborious writers of the preceding ing times and circumstances in period, and still remained in a the early history of the church, it correct and authentic state to be is difficult to trace with precision produced by their successors. lo the chronological limit which se- its transit through a series of reparates the primitive fathers from porters oral tradition is liable to their immediate successors. Whe- continual deterioration, both from ther all who have been here ranked the infirmity, and the depravity of in the former class are justly en- mankind ; but written records titled to the distinction may pos- widely diffused are in this respect sibly be questioned, but there can unchangeable, and retain their be little doubt that no others have original authority as long as their any claim to it.

Were an ex- existence. Unless supported by ception admissible, it would be in the strongest evidence, no such favour of the celebrated Tertullian, reports can, therefore, be admitted a man of remarkable talent and after the end of the second cenerudition, who has given a large tury, except as mere conjectures ;' and valuable testimony respecting nor can former reports be negathe four gospels. Yet, as he was tived by later authors, except on probably born of pagan parents, the most substantial grounds of after the middle of the second inconsistency with themselves, or century, and in the somewhat discordance with better testimony. remote district of Carthage, he Quintus Septimius Florens Tercould scarcely have had an op- tullianus, the most ancient Latin portunity of conversing with apos. father whose writings now remain, tolical Christians. In order, how- was a man of great learning and ever, that no useful information genius, conjoined, however, with may be omitted, the statements of much warmth and acerbity of temTertullian concerning the evan- per, which occasionally betrayed gelists, together with those of the him into extravagant principles, three great luminaries of the an- and austere practices. The exact cient church, Origen, Eusebius, times of his birth and death are and Jerome, will be briefly an- unknown, but his life may with nexed. To collect further mate- much probability be referred to a rials of this kind would be a fruit- period between the years 160 and less task, since, after a certaiu 240. The most active part of it date, they add nothing to those seems to have transpired between previously published, and merely the years 193 and 216, and many show the opinions entertained on of his works were written in the the subject by that portion of the third century. Jerome's account Christian community wbich their of bim is as follows:-" Tertullian, authors may be supposed to have a presbyter, is now reckoned, after represented. It can scarcely, in- Victor and Apollonius, the first of deed, be imagined that any im- the Latins. He was born in the portant facts of this class escaped province of Africa, in the city of

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