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Missionaries, we extract some passages illustrative of the state and habits of the people.
Traits of Native Manners.
We were surprised to see all our Scholars, one morning, with their hair loose, and clothed in their Malagash dress, viz. a piece of cloth, as formerly, turned round their loins. On inquiry, we were informed that his Majesty's Aunt was no more, and that the people were lamenting her loss. During a few days, all ranks, both in town and country, ceased from manual labour, and were, with their hair unplaited, hanging loose over their shoulders, in great lamentations. The whole town was as still as a calm after a great storm-profound silence among all.
His Majesty one day employed an Englishman to cut his hair at his country. seat: when his Majesty returned, he informed us that he had cut his hair in the English fashion. The Natives take much pride in plaiting their long black hair very neatly and curiously: of this they thought so highly, that I am persuaded if a person would have offered any of them a thousand pounds for cutting off his hair, he would not have accepted it. But their attachment to the King and regard for his character are such, that they thought little of their plaited hair any more, and would not rest satisfied till the King was pleased to give them his consent to cut their own also. On the following morning, the children of the school and the principal people in the town would give us no rest till we lent them combs and seissars for that purpose, saying, that they now are become like the Whites. Though this is apparently a trivial affair, we look upon it as no small preparative to the reception of more important instructions, principles, manners, and customs. Ever since, the King dresses himself in a European dress; and many of the people have put on hats and caps, and have paid greater attention to cleanliness and decency of dress.
Mutiny of Women against the Mis-
The following extract discloses a singular scene. It took place on
and also for a public meeting; and to be analogous to the "Talk" of the Indians.
The King was informed of a Mutiny of Women, from a district to the north, who rose against him and the Whites in town. Orders were instantly issued to collect the soldiers; and, in less than two hours, 2000 were gathered together in the Royal Court-yard. A "Kabar" was delivered to them, relative to their fidelity and allegiance: they unanimously protested, that if any of their brothers or sisters, fathers or mothers, should discover the least disaffection to the King, they would be the first, by his Majesty's permission, to put them to death.
The next day, about 4000 Females arrived at a village about a mile to the east of the town, and sent their Kabar to the King, saying, that they were come to inform his Majesty that they were not satisfied with his proceedings. The King sent to them a messenger, to demand what were their grievanceswhether they were vexed because their friends and relations were made soldiers and employed in his service, or because they were too heavily taxed. They answered in the negative: but the leaders came forward, and said that they were come to testify their dissatisfaction with his Majesty's proceedings, and request him to change his conduct, and put an end to or deliver the WHITES in town up to them. His Majesty sent them a second message to this effect:-"Am I not King, and may I not do as I please in these matters, without consulting you?"
The next orders issued were, to select the ringleaders out of the crowd, and inquire who were the first instigators of this insurrection-whether there were any MEN, who had excited them to it, or was it merely their own invention ? They boldly replied, that THEY, and they only, were the instigators of it; and said that every woman of note, even the King's own Mother, should be fined a Spanish Dollar, if she refused to join them.
The next orders delivered were, to set four of the principal women apart from the rest; and, as soon as the gun
the 15th and 16th of April of last fired, the soldiers of the district ran, as they were ordered, with great speed, and put them to death with their bayonets.
year. The word "Kabar" seems to be used for a message or address,
When this unhappy affair was over, his Majesty sent for us, both Missionaries and Artisans, and informed us of the painful duty which he had been obliged to discharge, in consequence of the insurrection of these silly women. "These women," said he, "were disaffected, because they wished to remain for ever in ignorance, and be like beasts; and because I would have them instructed and become wise, and like Europeans—because they were displeased with me for cutting my hair without consulting them, and also adopting European Customs;" adding, that he had put four of the principal to death, and that we need not apprehend any evil on account of that, "for," said he, "I will arrange all things so as to put an end at once to such wicked devices as these." We thanked him for his gracious promises of regard and protection.
Great Kabar, or Public Meeting.
find, among the numerous hills around, such a large and beautiful plain, occupled by the army, and to see such an immense crowd of people surrounding the parade-ground.
When the regiments to the east, west, and south of the parade were formed, his Majesty moved forward from a neighbouring hill, with the 2d brigade guarding him, and two field-pieces, and fifty royal artillery: to the north-east of the parade he was received by a general salute. After riding in his carriage round, and reaching the stage erected in the centre of the plain, he took off his military uniform, and put on that of the Kabar. And having seated himself, he was pleased to send for Mr. Jones and myself to come and sit with him on the stage, that we might have a complete view of the soldiers going through their exercise.
The regularity and dexterity which they exemplified gave the greatest satisfaction to the King; and also to their On the 23d of April, Mr. Grif- General and Instructor, Mr. John fiths writes
To make the necessary preparations for the great Kabar, on the ensuing Thursday, his Majesty left the capital this morning, in great pomp, for Amboomang, the former residence of his Royal Father. The principal officers in the army, riding, preceded the train : his Majesty, walking down the hill, fol. lowed with his body guard and female singers. Having reached the plain, he rode gently on to the opposite hill, where he was saluted and received by two regiments, forming two separate lines from top to bottom; and then ascended the hill, and marched on between the lines to Amboomang. The immense crowds of all ranks following were such, that every road and path was completely covered, so that this populous town was almost deserted by its inhabitants.
On the 25th, this Kabar was held. Mr. Griffiths gives the following view of this remarkable scene :
His Majesty was pleased to send horses for Mr. Jones and myself, and bearers for Mrs. Jones and Mrs. Grif. fiths; but, deeming it rather dangerous to expose them to the heat of the sun, we only accepted of the horses-started off early in the morning, and arrived on the spot, about 15 miles north of the capital, about eight A. M.
On our arrival, we were astonished to
Brady, who was sent hither by his Ex cellency Governor Farquhar some time ago for that purpose.
After going through several rounds, the soldiers were called in, and formed into close columns, as near as convenient to the stage, that they might hear to advantage. The King gave orders to unfix bayonets, while he should pray. His prayer consisted of a few words, offering thanks to God, or the King of Heaven, for past favours, and praying for future blessings.
The soldiers having again fixed bayonets, his Majesty delivered an eloquent speech, which was no less cheered by the military than applauded by the popu lace. Some of the leading ideas were as follows:
Having commended the soldiers for the dexterity which they evinced in the exercises of the day, he stated to them ther-Radama-you see that our the dying expressions of his Royal Fapeople are happier and richer than any others in the island: remember, that it will be as much to your honour to be their king, as their felicity to be your subjects; therefore rest not till you reduce the whole island to your authority.' These words I have deliberately ruminated upon, and kept in mind to this day, and every one present longs to see them fully completed; and, to meet the last wishes of my Father, I have used all
possible means, and have effected much by your arms, your muskets, spears, and sagois: but, thoroughly convinced of the superiority of disciplined troops to answer our purposes, I issued orders in the great Kabar, last November, that a goodly number of Volunteer Youth should be disciplined; and you see, that, through an alliance with one of the most enlightened powers, I have been enabled to raise this mighty army-thirteen thousand disciplined men under arms! My Men-have not we ever been invincible, and did not unexampled courage and intrepidity distinguish our fathers? Are not our towns and villages impregnable? Now, my Men-not to mention my own private feelings and public sentiments, and, the one heart, the one mind, the one feeling, and the one sentiment which you all possess; must we fall short of any of the heroic exploits of our forefathers? And must such a powerful host as this shrink or yield to any power? No; we are invincible! we are irresistible! All powers must submit to us, and all opposition must vanish before us. Had he who is no more"-alluding to his Father-" been present, to witness this powerful force, and to see how far his wishes have been effected, his heart would have been overwhelmed with joy. "Now, my Men-if every one do his duty, there is no evil from internal broils to be apprehended, nor any invasions from a foreign enemy to be dreaded."
These closing compliments to the soldiers were applauded by loud and general acclamations. When they had subsided
His Royal Highness Prince Rataffe, General-in-Chief, Commander of the Northern Army, consisting of the 2d and 4th brigades, rose up, addressed the King, and delivered an eloquent speech, assuring him of the most unfeigned fidelity, and making the most solemn oaths, in the name of his army, of their unshaken allegiance to their King.
The other officers of their respective regiments followed, with eloquent speeches of similar import, till dusksix hours, from one till seven. The import of some of their oaths is as follows: "If we do not discharge our duties, obey the King's orders, and to the utmost of our power meet with his wishes in all things and on all occasions, let the King order us to be burned alive,
poisoned, beheaded, torn in pieces, speared to death, exposed to the beasts of prey, and to the fowls of the air, or buried alive, &c."
After dismissing the people, his Ma jesty left the stage, entered his tent rejoicing, and sent for Mr. Jones and myself to come and dine with him, before we should leave for Tananarivoo. He was highly delighted with the transac tions of this day; and observed, at dinner, that such assemblies as these were his Gazettes or Newspapers.
Though preparation for war is repugnant to our feelings and principles, we cannot but admire his Majesty's proceedings in raising up such a mighty host since last November. We speak thus, because we are fully persuaded that it is the only means to put an end to petty wars and plundering, and to abolish the Slave Trade, and is a preliminary step to the civilization of these people.
But sentiments of a higher stamp and feelings of a purer nature were excited in our bosoms: they were not the attainment of a little more land, riches, and honour, nor even the protection of ourselves and property; but the libera tion of immortal spirits from the bondage of guilt and misery-the translation of soul and body from a state of sin and corruption to that of holiness and grace-the attainment of celestial and eternal treasures and honours—and the possession of an everlasting kingdom and glory.
The sight of an assembly exceeding EIGHTY THOUSAND, and the hearing of one speaker after another addressing with fluency an audience exceeding thirty thousand, made us look forward with ardent longings to the time when we shall address a similar audience on subjects infinitely more important, and, when understood, infinitely more attrac tive.
SCOTTISH MISSIONARY SOCIETY.
UNDER this head in the Survey, a general view was given of the labours of the Missionaries among the Tartars of the vicinity. Some extracts of their Journals, in the early part of 1821, will shew with what assiduity and patience Christians
must carry on their benevolent designs among these people.
Visits to Tartar Villages. Selonca-In the northern division of this large village, we held a long conversation with several persons. A man, passing by on horseback, inquired about our religion. We explained to him the fundamental doctrines of the Gospel, and contrasted them with the tenets of the False Prophet. He remarked, "One of Mahomed's precepts is to kill Christians:" we replied, "A religion which commands murder must be a bad one; but our's teaches to love our enemies, and to do good to all men :"-unable to bear this, he rode off. Our number had now increased to about 40, to whom we read the 5th and 6th of Matthew, and 3d of John, and a few pages of the Catechism: they heard with attention; and we charged them to reflect on what they had heard.
We proceeded to the middle division of the village. A number of men were sitting: we saluted them. Soon after, the person, who had disputed with us on horseback in the north district, made his appearance: as he drew near, he said, in a vaunting tone, "You wander about from morning till night, and you have not made one of us a Christian !" He was answered, "You sow your fields in spring, and expect harvest some months after: so we expect, by the blessing of heaven, that good will result from our labours, though not perhaps till many days hence." A Tartar standing by, hearing us express this confidence in God, immediately took the alarm, or dered us to be gone, and threatened to petition Government to punish us for disturbing their peace. We departed.
After we had left the village, we were followed by two interesting lads, who requested books. We gave them a Testament and a copy of Genesis.
Maleogol-We wandered through the place, without meeting one person. When about to depart, we found a few, to whom we read a portion of Scripture; but little attention was paid to us.
Jiminelle We met with a few men, and conversed with them. "Can you read ?" "No."-" Shall we read to you?" "If you please ;" and they very politely rose, to give us their seats. They asked many questions, and confessed that all which we said was true.
The assemblies of British Christians
are considered as dignified by the pre. sence of females; but it is not so among the inhabitants or Jiminelle. A female, perhaps the most honourable in the place, who heard us, occupied only the place of a slave; and was disregarded by all, except her despotic husband or master.
After spending upwards of an hour in reading and conversing with these people, we left them; thankful to God for the opportunity afforded us for declaring the Gospel to perishing souls.
Cazeaul-On approaching this place, we introduced ourselves to some men who had been at the burial of one of their Hajies. The business which they had been engaged in opened for us the subjects of the shortness of life, the certainty of death, the immortality of the soul, the connection between time and eternity, and the means of attaining eternal life.
They listened with attention, asked us many questions, and begged us to read. In the village, we collected a considerable number, most of whom were young: some opposed; yet still we had an opportunity of declaring to them the Gospel.
Teek-We had the satisfaction of being listened to with some degree of attention, by a considerable number who collected round us, as we addressed them at the corner of a street. Aware that the appearance of a new labourer (Dr. Ross) would have some effect in awakening their curiosity, we ordered our address and our reasonings in such a manner, as to give them an opportunity of hearing the wonders of redeeming love from the mouth of a stranger; and though nothing occurred materially different from the incidents reported by your Missionaries on former occasions, there was certainly a degree of candour in some of the hearers and of respectful behaviour in others, which we could not but regard as a token for good, in a quarter of the village where a very dif. ferent spirit had sometimes been manifested.
Beshtaba-Our attempt to secure the attention of the Natives here was far from being equally successful. A few incidental remarks, indeed, were of fered: but, instead of listening to them, the company to which they were addressed broke up; apparently with a view to avoid the contagion, which seemed to be anticipated as the probable result of coming into contact with Infidels. After traversing the village, and failing in
our endeavours to secure a hearing, we ordered our sledge and withdrew, under the influence of impressions and feel. ings of a much more gloomy complexion than those which had the ascendency as we approached their humble dwellings, hopeful, as we were, that their attention might equal that of their countrymen, to whom we had spoken in the Name of the Lord at the village of Teek.
On another visit, we addressed sveral persons. Asked one who was more talkative than the rest, whether he believed in the statement contained in the First Chapter of the Korân, viz. that "God is the King of the Day of Judgment." He was not very explicit in his answer; but, taking advantage of the quotation which we had given them from their Korân, we endeavoured to shew, that, as they believed in a Day of Judgment, it was indispensably necessary to prepare for that day-that if God will be the Judge, he must be JUST, and that, except His justice is satisfied, we must perish. But, before we had got this length, the greater part of our audience had removed to the opposite side of the street, in order to avoid hearing these unwelcome tidings. Unwilling, however, to leave them, we crossed toward them; but as soon as we had reached them, they again removed to their old station, maintaining all the while an obstinate silence. We then desired James (the interpreter) to elevate his voice, so that they might hear; when we declared to them the only way of escape from hell, and of access to heaven; beseeching them, upon leaving them, to remember what had been said, and to reflect upon the solemnities of death and judgment.
Jumella-We had a long and interesting conversation, with a still greater number of the Natives than was contained in our audience at Teek. Availing ourselves of a wish expressed by one of them, to hear some particulars respecting the death of Christ, we requested John Abercrombie to read the account given of this important event by the Evangelist Matthew; and of fered such remarks in explanation as it occurred to us might enable them to form just views of a transaction, of the nature and design of which it so much concerned them to have distant and authentic information. The behaviour of the audience was respectful; and, from the looks of some of them, it was manifest that the language of their feel
ings was, What strange things are these, which you bring to our ears!" That considerable attention had been paid by, at least, one of them, is evident from a circumstance since reported by our brother Mr. Carruthers: on visiting the village a week or two after, he was accosted by one of the Natives, who informed him that two of his brethren had been there preaching to the people; and, to the no small surprise of our friend, repeated the substance of our discourse, with a degree of readiness and perspi-' cuity, which shewed that, so far from being forgotten as a matter of indifference, it had found a place among the treasures of the memory.
Kullakow-We could get no people to speak to. We called upon the Mollah of the village, with whom we have been acquainted for some time: we expected that he would have been on the eve of setting out for Mecca; but found him stretched on his mattress, and labouring under an attack of rheumatism, which rendered the time of his departure uncertain: ill as he was, however, he rose soon after we entered; and, having taken his Korân, began to discourse to us about the Virgin Mary. The attempt to interrupt him was vain, and we soon after bade him farewell. Poor man! we shall probably not see him again on this side the grave.
Conversations with Persians, The attention of the Missionaries to the Persians in and near Astrachan was also mentioned in the Survey; with the advantages afforded by their disposition and character. Mr. Glen and Mr. M'Pherson write on this subject, in reference to February of last year
We continued our visits among the Persians, in the manner formerly reported: the reception given us by the natives of that country, and others who speak their language, encourages us to perseverance. For particular reasons, we find it advisable, in the mean time, to visit them in company; and, in order that such of them as are in the habit of calling on us may come to know when to find us in the Mission House and free from other engagements, we have adopted the plan of being in waiting for them at home, and visiting them in their lodg ings, alternately. For the latter service, we have fixed on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday.