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began to weep. He added, "I often displease my parents, and also our Saviour, by my disobedience; but I am always uneasy in consequence of it, till I have prayed for forgiveness."

October, 1820-The speaking with the baptized and Candidates for the Holy Communion, in which we were about this time engaged, was encouraging. The following particulars are extracted from the report :

Frederick Michels said "Since I have been baptized, I cannot sufficiently thank our Saviour for the grace conferred on me. Not that I account myself better than I was before; but the Lord, by His Spirit, convinces me of whatever is sinful in my heart or conduct, and I am thus driven to Him for help. I feel often disposed to leave the company of others, to pour out my heart before Him. Oh that I might remain throughout my life in such a blessed intercourse with Him!"

Antje David said-" When I think what our Saviour has suffered for me, and that I do not by any means requite Him as I ought, I feel quite ashamed: but I still perceive that He follows me with love and mercy. He is not like a man who sleeps occasionally; for in the night I have often cried to Him, and experienced that He heard my prayer." Nov. 2-A married woman, Valeria Kubido, was translated into eternal rest. She was baptized in 1814, and became a Communicant in 1816. The satisfaction which we so frequently have the favour to enjoy, when attending the death-beds of our Hottentot Converts, was, on this occasion, afforded to us in a particular manner. A deep sense of her own unworthiness, and a firm confidence in the mercy and merits of her Redeemer, were manifested in the clearest manner, by the expressions which fell from her lips. She cleaved in truth to her Saviour, and once said—“Let things go as they will, I will not depart from Him: at His feet will I continue to retain my station."

Nov. 4-Marcus Hess, a man who had been for some time excluded, was suddenly called out of time. A propensity to theft was the means of his not only losing his privileges as a member of the congregation and inhabitant of our place, but even of his becoming amenable to the laws of the country. A short time ago, in consequence of the favourable testimonials given by the landdrost of

Zwellendam, who, from his conduct, had reason to believe that a change had taken place in him, we gave him leave again to live in our place. From the time of his return to us he complained of a constant pain in his abdomen, the cause of which could not be explained. On the abovementioned day it suddenly attacked him with such violence, that he sank to the ground, and in an instant expired. This occurrence made a deep, and we hope an abiding impression upon our Hottentots.

Nov. 8-Fourteen persons were confirmed for the first enjoyment of the Holy Communion, in the usual solemn manner.

Nov. 14-We held an examination of our Girls' School, and found much cause to rejoice at the proficiency which they had made. Eighteen were honourably discharged from further attendance: they were much affected, and shed tears when they took leave of their teacher and fel low-scholars.

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Jan. 1, 1821 Powerfully encouraged by the gracious declaration contained in the Daily Words for the First Day of the New Year-A bruised reed shall he not break, and the smoking flax shall he not quench-a declaration, the truth of which we have abundantly ex. perienced in the time past, we were enabled to cast a believing look into the future. We offered up our united supplications at the Throne of Grace, that the patience, love, and forbearance, with which our Gracious Lord has led this congregation, may still be extended toward us; and that, in the time to come, the smoking flax may become a burning and shining light to all around. Many of the strangers who attended our New. Year's Services expressed, before they left us, their thankfulness for the blessing which they had enjoyed.

Departed, in a very happy manner, an old married man, David Vallentyn. He was baptized in May 1795, by Br. Marsveld; and, in 1798, became a Communicant. We can give him the testimony, that it was his earnest desire to walk worthy of the Gospel; and to shew forth the praises of Him, who had called him out of darkness into His marvellous light. He seemed, at the very commencement of his last illness, to have the conviction that it would prove the means of his departure; and he rejoiced at the thought so much, that he could not join in the satisfaction expressed by his friends, when any symptoms of a

favourable nature appeared. The plea. sure which we experienced in visiting him was, however, chiefly produced by the evidence that he gave of a truly humble and contrite spirit, trusting alone in the merits of a merciful and faithful Redeemer. He often said, with much emotion-" Oh, I am the most unworthy of all to whom mercy has been shewn! The longer I live, the more I am astonished at the matchless patience and love, which our Saviour has displayed toward such a miserable being as I am."

March 19, 1821-After a short examination of the children in the Boys' School, Br. Lemmerz, who has been their teacher for five years, took leave of them: most of the parents and relations of the pupils were present; and the many tears shed by all at parting, proved how much their late teacher was beloved and valued by them. Br. Stein was introduced as his successor.

In the following days, Br. Lemmerz and his Wife went through the village to take leave of the Hottentots, having received an appointment to Enon. Both on this occasion, and when Br. Lemmerz preached his Farewell Sermon on the 25th, the emotion was general; nor were particularly encouraging proofs wanting, that their services had been blessed to this congregation.

Oct. 27-Was the funeral of the widow Theresa Armoed. She was an old inhabitant of Gnadenthal; but as her husband was engaged in military service, she wandered about for many years, in different parts of the Colony: three years ago, she returned to Gnadenthal, and was again permitted to reside among us. In the beginning of the present year, she was afflicted with a cancer in the face; and in a few months the disorder increased so much, that her very appearance was most distressing. In April, upon her urgent request, she was baptized at her own house; and although, both before and after this transaction, she manifested a degree of reserve upon the subject of her state of mind, we can confidently believe that she knew and loved the Lord Jesus. The favour granted to her, to be baptized on her sick bed, appeared to make a deep impression upon her heart; and á peculiar cheerfulness and serenity of mind was in the sequel perceptible.

Nov. 21-Was the funeral of a married man; Nathan Jass. He received


Holy Baptism in October 1811, and in September 1815 attained to the first enjoyment of the Holy Communion. We can give him the testimony, that he had learnt to know himself as a helpless sinner, saved only by grace, and that amidst all weakness it was his constant desire to live to the honour of his Lord and Saviour. was a satisfaction to visit him. If, at times, the thought of parting with his wife and children, in the prime of his life, caused him sorrow and perplexity, it was not long before his confidence in turned with all their consoling power, God, and resignation to His will, reand enabled him to rejoice again in the love and mercy of his Lord. A few days before his end, he said—“ I have now resigned myself entirely into my Saviour's hands, and am ready to meet Him, whenever He may please to call

In his last sickness, it



Dec. 31-During the course of the in our company. year, several changes have taken place Br. Lemmerz and his family have removed to Enon. Br. Stein and his Wife, and Sister Schwinn, have come to us from Groenekloof. Our number at present consists of seven married couples, two widows, and nine children.

Jan. 1, 1822-Our hymns of praise at the commencement of another year, were mixed with fervent supplications to our merciful Father, that it would please Him to alleviate the distress which at present prevails to such an extent in the whole Colony, and particularly to shew mercy to the members of our own congregation. We were much comforted by the portions of Scripture which are appointed in the Brethren's Church for our consideration on the first day of this new year. The Lord God is my strength: Hab. iii. 10. and, Lo! I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world: Matth. xxviii. 20. And we were encouraged to believe, that, according to the declaration of the Apostle, All things, even the severest temporal necessities, shall work together for good to them that love God.

Jan. 7 and 8-We held the classes of the Communicants. The conver sation was uncommonly lively and unreserved; and we rejoiced to perceive the freedom with which our Hottentots encouraged one another, to confidence in our Saviour, and brotherly love toward each other. We were much edified by

year were always parched, are now lux. uriantly productive.

the many declarations of childlike confidence in God, which proceeded from their lips. He will not put their faith to shame.

Jan. 13, 1822-We held our Annual Meeting with the Chapel and School Servants and Overseers; and took occasion to remind them all of that faithfulness in our respective offices, which we owe to the Lord, our Common Master. It affords us, on such occasions, much joy, to perceive that they have a deep sense of the importance of the several charges committed to them.

Jan. 14-Br. Fritsch and his Wife were engaged in speaking with the New People, Candidates for Baptism, and Baptized Children; and had cause to thank the Lord for the blessing which they themselves enjoyed in discharging this duty. Among the Candidates for Baptism, a particular visitation of grace was manifest; and even the Children and Young People, concerning whom we often feel some anxiety, were more than usually affected.

Feb. 27-Twelve persons were 80lemnly confirmed for the enjoyment of the Lord's Supper, amidst a powerful perception of the Divine presence. We were happy to discover, during the previous period of instruction, an evident work of grace in their hearts; and earnestly pray that they may be enabled to keep the vows which they on this occasion offered to their God and Redeemer.

Distress of the Settlement. This subject was noticed in a Postscript to our last Volume, and at pp. 12 and 13 of the Survey. We add some extracts from Mr. Hallbeck.

He writes in February 1822The distress throughout this Colony is very great indeed. Under this calamity, it is to us here some consolation, and a subject of thankfulness to our Heavenly Father, that our orchards and gardens, and those of our Hottentots, have been more than usually productive. The wellknown old pear-tree, planted by Br. Geo. Schmidt, has this year produced 15 sacks of pears; which exceeds anything known, even in the most fruitful seasons. essential improvement has been made in the distribution of the water in the millcourse; by which a great number of Hot. tentots' gardens, which at this time of the


In April, he states —

One particular feature in the Diary, which I send you herewith, will strike you; I mean, the few deaths recorded. Excepting the departure of an unbaptized person in the month of February, the last funeral of an adult was on the 30th of November last year, now five months ago and on Easter-Sunday Morning, when, in the Litany, we called to mind those Members of the Congrega tion who had departed since Easter 1821, only four men and six women were named; whereas, on an average, we have had between 20 and 30 deaths of adults in one year. This is a consoling circumeffect of the great scarcity, by which stance; inasmuch as it shews, that the poor Hottentots are compelled to eat but seldom, and little at a time, and hardly any thing but the produce of their gardens, is not injurious to health.

In July, Mr. Hallbeck thus pleads the cause of the suffering Hottentots:

My former Letters have made you acquainted with the distress into which we have been plunged, in consequence also mentioned the noble gift made by of the failure of two successive crops. I Government to our poor Hottentots at Gnadenthal, of 4000lb. weight of rice and 15 sacks of wheat. About a month ago we received this most seasonable relief, for which we cannot sufficiently thank our worthy Governor; and, above all, our Heavenly Father, who inclined his heart to feel for our wants.

We have at Gnadenthal a great many poor, aged persons, besides helpless children. So general is the want of provisions, that it would have been impossible to go through the labour of sowing the 15 sacks of wheat, had we not stepped forward and provided the labourers with food. By this and other unavoidable expenses of the poors' box, that account is already involved in a debt of upward of 100 dollars (about 81. sterling); and before the end of this distressing year, I fear there will be a still greater deficiency. But what is to be done? We make every individual exert himself to the utmost to provide for his own and his family's subsistence; and many are compelled to leave the place and seek work in distant parts of the

Colony; but the aged, sick, and helpless felled for the building of that Settlemust be cared for here. I am confident, that, were you here to see the distress existing, you would not blame me for rather incurring debts, than leaving these poor creatures to perish for want. -If their sufferings were owing to their own indolence or thoughtlessness, I should feel very differently toward them; but, since it is by God's providence, I trust He will not forsake us in this extremity, but provide means for our relief. As they have of late years been improving in industry, and particularly last year done their best to guard against the calamity, I will do what I can'to make their case known to such who have the power, and to whom I trust the Lord will grant the will, to help them; knowing that what they do to these poor despised Hottentots, who believe on Him, He will graciously consider as done unto Himself.

Celebration of the Brethren's Centenary


Mr. Hallbeck gives the following description of this Celebration :The 17th of June, 1822, being the Centenary Jubilee of the renewed Church of the Brethren, was celebrated at Gnadenthal as a day of rejoicing in the Lord. We had an extraordinary Service at the Church, when eight adults were baptized; and two youths, baptized as children, received into the congregation.

In various ways, we likewise contrived externally to distinguish this Day of Jubilee before the usual yearly festival-days. The Church was decently adorned; and upon the front of the desk an inscription fixed, in Dutch


This Jubilee-Year shall be holy unto you." In the afternoon, the whole Congregation assembled in the grove before the Church; and walked in order round the grove and gardens, singing hymns of praise and thanksgiving for the mercies of God bestowed on the Church of the Brethren, and, by its service, on their nation also. When the procession arrived at the old pear-tree, Br. Marsveld and the other Missionaries seated themselves on the bench which surrounds its stem, the Congregation forming a circle around it. When the singing ceased, I rose and observed to the Hottentots, that, probably about the same time, our Brethren at Herrnhut were standing round the spot where the first tree was April, 1823.

ment: I reminded them, that this pear-tree was probably the oldest existing monument of the labours of the renewed Brethren's Church among the Heathen, and the fittest emblem that could be produced of what we and the whole Brethren's Unity ought to be; for, though now at an age of upward of eighty years, this tree has become more fruitful than ever: thus we wish and pray, that our old age might be as our youth, and that the Lord would renew our days as of old. The whole scene, and the various ideas to which it gave rise, caused among our people great emotion, and our old venerable Father Marsveld was quite overpowered by his feelings. In the evening, we made a little illumination in two of the principal windows, at which the following inscriptions, in Dutch, were exhibited

Building of Herrnhut, xvii January, MDCCXXII;" and, in the other, "Christ the Corner-stone, upon which


likewise are built."

During the following days the Hottentots expressed themselves most feelingly on the subject; and said, that it had not only been a day of ceremonies, but of real grace.、

Origin and Languages of the Hottentots. Mr. Hallbeck writes on this subject:

I am endeavouring to obtain some knowledge of the Hottentot Language, and to 'collect their traditions respecting their origin and early history. Our Missionaries here always thought that they knew nothing about it: but the fact is, that they were ashamed and afraid to tell their tales; as, on their conversion to Christianity, they were led to despise their old sayings and customs.

When I mentioned to an old man, that I wished to save the Hottentot Language from total extirpation, he was delighted with the idea; and brought two other old men with him, to give me lessons, by which I have made a beginning to form a kind of Hottentot Vocabulary. As the questions which I put to them convince them that I feel interested in their history, and that they need not fear rebuke if they reveal to me their former national customs whatever they may have been, they are quite unreserved. I have thus elicited many curious facts.

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The Hottentots call themselves “Gkhui gkhui,” pronounced with a click of the tongue or throat; and say that they did not come from the interior of Africa, but over the sea.

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Their tradition runs thus:-There arrived at the Cape, somewhere about the site of Cape Town, a House of Pas sage"- this is a literal translation of the Hottentot word, meaning evidently a ship or boat-containing a man and his wife, with two boys and a girl, a bull and cow with three calves, two more bulls and a heifer, a ram and sheep with three lambs, and two other rams and a sheep; and these were the progenitors of all the Hottentots and their cattle. Where they came from, my reporters did not know; but I think some conjecture may be formed from the language. The sun and moon have the same appellation in the Hottentot and Hindoostan Lan

guages. I possess the Lord's Prayer in the language of Madagascar, and find that "sica" is the word for "our" in both that and the Hottentot. Hence I presume, that we must look to the East Indies or the Eastern Archipelago for the home of the ancestors of the Hottentots.



Besides the colony that came to the Cape, another seems to have arrived somewhere about Plettenberg's Mossel-Bay. Houtniquas" signifies men that wear sail-cloth; and it is remarkable, that the Koopman and Hessequa Tribes, the former of which possessed the land from Cape Town to Vieren-twentig Revier and Breede Revier, and the latter from Breede Revier to Groenland on this side of George, speak one language or dialect, and the Houtniquas and Go aquas another. Hence Sparrman and Vaillant differ in their names for the same thing. The fact is, one has noted down the Hessequa and the other the Gonaqua word.

The Bosjesmans are run-away Hottentots. Their origin is said to be this: that, on account of the very great se verity with which the Hottentots punished their children for any fault, but particularly for losing their cattle, the children were in the latter instance afraid to return home; and thus a tribe of run-aways was formed, whose smaller stature and meaner appearance origi nated in their hard manner of living, and the difference of their language in their separation from and enmity to

other Hottentot Tribes.


We were formerly told, that the Hottentots knew nothing of an Evil Spirit; but they both knew him, and dreaded his influence. Their T'Geikas," or sorcerers and doctors, were in his service; and it is to be noticed, that these T'Geikas performed the same kind of juggling tricks, which are described in. Br. Haensel's account of the Nicobar Islands-an additional circumstance, by which their origin may be guessed at.

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Br.Stein set out to purchase some cattle. On his journey, he spent the night with a Farmer, who soon shewed his contempt of religion and religious persons; and, among the rest, of all Missionaries and Ministers of the Church: he concluded his remarks upon them, by saying-that he lived and acted as he pleased-that there was a time for all things; a time to go to church, a time to dance, and to teach his children to dance; nor need any one be strictly virtuous. Br. Stein replied-" And would you dance under the gallows, on which your Father had suffered the merited punishment of death ?""God forbid !" exclaimed the Farmer: how could I dance there!" The Missionary answered-" Then consider, that the Son of God, who is our Creator and our Lord, suffered innocently for us; bearing all our sins, and likewise those in which you seem to delight, in His body, on the cross; becoming a curse for us, and dying a death of pain and torment, far greater than what a man suffers on the gallows. If you reflect on this, you will no longer wish to live the slave of sin." The Farmer

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replied-" O Sir, such words I have never heard before: and I beg as a favour, that whenever you, or any of your Brethren, come this way, you would always make my house your home."

African Islands.



FROM the Journal of the Rev. David Griffiths, one of the Society's

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