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Early the next morning, I was conveyed by some charitable people, on an ass, to the nearest garden, to profit by the shade of the trees. I did not remain long, before Mr. Derehé, the French Dragoman, joined me; and gave me the agreeable news, that all the European Christians, excepting a little boy, had been saved: but many, like myself, were greatly bruised.

Of the European Jews, the Austrian Consul, Mr. Esdra de Picciateo, and a few others, were crushed to death; and - many thousands of Native Christians, Jews, and Turks, perished with them. I have now the satisfaction to know that my brother and family had escaped from a similar danger at Antioch.

When I joined the rest of the Europeans in the garden of Ibrahim Aga, I was most kindly received by the French Consul, Mr. Lesseps, who afforded me every possible assistance. I cannot too greatly admire the conduct of this worthy gentleman, in the critical and afflicting position that he is in. A father could not shew more affection to his children, than Mr. Lesseps manifests to his countrymen, as well as to all those -whoare in want of his advice or assistance.

The next day, my friend Mr.Maseyk came to live among us; in the bosom of whose family I begin again to enjoy life, although deprived of all its comforts.

My heart bleeds for the poor Europeans; who, without the least prospect of having, for a time, a roof to preserve them from the scorching rays of the sun, must soon, from the heavy rains of the autumn and winter, be deprived of every resource; for the few effects which they have been able to save, must be sold for their sustenance.

Caspian Sea.


Favourable Characteristics of the


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the soundness of the Mahomédan Faith, which exists in Persia than in Turkey and the far greater degree of toleration in matters of religion, have likewise been noticed. In the middle of the seventeenth century, that intelligent traveller Sir John Chardin bore ample testimony to these peculiarities; and, in our day, the reception which Henry Martyn met with at Shiraz, and the veneration in which his memory is now held at the seat of his previous disputations (which may certainly be considered as the strong-hold of Persian Bigotry), shew that no change has taken place, in these respects, in the Persian Character.


The same peculiarities distinguish the Persians who reside in Astrachan. proposition which was, some time since, made to Mr. Mitchell (one of the Society's Missionaries), by the Persian Consul in that city, to print for him the first ten chapters of the Gospel of Matthew, as an elementary School-book, was certainly of a singular and pleasing nature; and the following description, extracted from one of the last Letters from this Station, of the manner and spirit in which they engage in religious discussion with the Missionaries of this Society, forms a grateful contrast to the rude intemperance with which the Tartar-Mahomedans frequently repel all attempts to enter upon the subject:

With a very few exceptions, the Persians in As. trachan, who are chiefly in the mercantile line, accept of our books without hesitation, and receive your Missionaries with respect; and, so far are they from spurning a conversation on the subject of religion, that, when opportunity offers, they are admit the authority of our Version of the Scripforward to court it. Not that they are disposed to tures, or the soundness of the doctrines which they clearly perceive are contained in them: on the contrary, they are as much inclined to controvert them as other Mahomedans, and much better qualified for doing so than many of them: but, with all these concessions, it affords us mighty facilities in our work, when we have to do with men, who recognise the principle that it is their duty and privilege to think for themselves; who read our books with as little hesitation as they receive them, and propose their difficulties and hear our explanations with temper; and who, as sometimes happens, go so far as to allow us to take fundamental doctrines for granted, 'when requested to do so, in order that they may get a view of the superstructure which we

poses to which we apply them.

THE last Report of the Society propose to rear upon them, or the practical purcontains the following remarks on this subject:

Ancient History unites with Modern, in representing mildness and gentleness as being, in general, prominent characteristics of the dispositions and manners of the Persians. Their willingness to enter into controversy with regard to

In another Letter, the Missionaries write

For the most part, they receive our books without scruple; and so far are they from avoiding discussion, or pleading incompetency to manage it, (as the Tartars daily do,) that they seem to court it: and, although none of them acknowledge themselves to be convinced, by our arguments, that there is no other way of salvation except that which is published in the

Gospel, they are gradually becoming acquainted.

with the Truth.

That a considerable interest has been excited among them with reference to the truth of the Christian Faith, may be inferred from the following very singular fact, which the Missionaries have communicated to the Committee:

A few Persians had associated together, to read -the New Testament, and to decide upon its pretensions. In order to do justice to the question, one of them personated Mr. M'Pherson, and, for the sake of argument, defended the Gospel. Being

single handed, however, and, perhaps, not very ambitious of victory, he at last confessed himself unable to solve the difficulties that were crowding in upon him, and begged his friends to desist till Mr. M'Pherson himself should come to his assistance. 'Mr. M'Pherson has since had an interview with the combatants, during which he endeavoured to satisfy .them on the points at issue; and, although he has no reason to suppose that his remarks were followed by conviction on their part, ample encouragement is afforded him to go forward.

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degrees of transmigration, at last have raised themselves to the dignity of godhead, by great deeds and extreme sufferings.

In most of these kibitjes were seated three or four Mandshi, or scholars, who had been instructed in the Thibetan Language. The method is this:-A Gallong first reads aloud, and the Mandshis read after him, without knowing what, till they have learnt the sound by heart: the reading is performed with a certain measure, like singing, in a very sleepy manner: there is no question about spelling or translating.

A great feast among the Calmucs, called the Feast of "Burchan Bakshi" or "God the Teacher," a title given to their principal idol Dshagdshamuni, is thus described by Mr. Rahmn :—

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The Gallongs erected a wooden frame, about 7 or 8 yards in height and 3 in breadth, covered with coloured woollen carpets. Before this an altar was placed, covered also with a brocaded carpet, at the foot of which stood a tabouret of Chinese workmanship. Round about, in the front of this stage, felts and carpets were spread on the ground.

In the afternoon, about half-past-four o'clock, a procession commenced, consisting of 150 or 200 Gallongs, followed by a great multitude of the common people The Gallongs, dressed in their red fans, and musical instruments, marched and yellow coats, bearing "Chadaks," up from the Churull to the above-mentioned frame: and, at the head of their body, three grave-looking men walked, or rather danced, holding each of them an image of brass, about a quarter of a yard in height, and gilt, representing three of their Burchans; and a fourth Gallong carried a large scroll about two yards long: the "Chadak" is a kind of fan, consisting of small but long pieces of silk, like a tail: they are held in high repute, for being great and powerful amulets, as well as ornaments in the temples. A whole apparatus belonging to a heathen altar, according to the cus tom of the Lamaites, was also carried by other Gallongs.

Arriving at the frame, the Gallongs surrounded it. A noisy kind of music began; and a yellow silk cover was slowly drawn up, by small strings, till a large picture was unveiled. This picture represented Dshagdshamuni, neatly painted

on blue taffety, with light yellow, red and blue. At that moment, the whole multitude, Gallongs and people, prostrated thrice before the picture: after which ceremony, the Gallongs and their disciples seated themselves in rows, and began to sing, from their Thibetan Shastres, to the honour of their idol. During their singing, tea, tshigan (or sour mare's milk), and white bread were distributed among them. In the meanwhile, the Prince, his family, and all the people, walked round the place, praying their usual form of prayer, Om-ma-ni-bad-me-chom-ti ;" and continued so till sun-set, when, in an inverted order, all was brought back to the Churull again.

With what emotions I witnessed this spectacle may easily be conceived. How fervently I prayed, that, for many of the people present, this might be the last time that they should perform such an unreasonable service! To a man who asked me how I liked it, I answered, "I dislike it very much. This people are committing a heinous sin, worshipping the work of their own hands, although we have but one God, and one Mediator between God and man, viz. Jesus Christ." At this answer he made a


An old Gallong sat at a distance from the others. He was almost blind, and seemed to be deranged. He, like the others, worshipped, and uttered with a loud voice a kind of prayer or thanksgiving; but nobody took notice of him. In younger days he may have acted his part as well as any, but now he was quite overlooked, because infirm ;-a fresh proof that Heathenism tends to hardness and cruelty!

Endia within the Ganges.

CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY. Progress and Effect of Education. THIS subject was noticed generally at p. 36 of the Survey. From the Fifth Report of the Diocesan Committee, we shall extract some particulars :

The Native Schools under the patronage of the Committee continue to flourish, and the attendance of the children is generally numerous and regular. It is pleasing to observe the proficiency Feb. 1823.

made, in some instances; and the increased value, which now appears to be set upon the instruction afforded: for though, at first, the Schools were soon filled, yet there appeared among the children too eager a desire of reward, with a wish to render every thing subservient to arithmetic, their favourite, and formerly almost only, employment. This feeling, however, seems gradually to be wearing away, as the mind becomes open to the reception of new ideas: pecuniary rewards were, in a great measure, discontinued; and pains were taken to induce a more worthy tone of feeling, and to teach the children more justly to appreciate what was done for their benefit. These endeavours have not been without success; and it is hoped that the sordid spirit so lamentably pre ponderant among the Natives of this country, may in a reasonable time give way to more enlarged and amiable sentiments.

With respect to the proficiency made by the children, it is enough to observe, that, in addition to the initiatory spell. ing and reading lessons with which they are made thoroughly acquainted, some of them have repeatedly read through the three parts of the Niticotha (Bengalee Moral Fables), five parts of the Bhoogol Britanto (Geography), in all of which they are well versed, and are able to answer questions. Besides which, they have gained a considerable know. ledge of Arithmetic, and some of English. In addition to the regular class-books, some of them have made themselves acquainted with Tarachund Dueet's

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Pleasing Tales," the "History of Joseph" in Bengalee and English, with other books of the same description.

The increased esteem, in which information and amusement thus derived is held by them, is evinced by their frequent requests for books, for the purpose of taking home to read in their families, which is now becoming a common practice among them: and, among the pleasing omens of the general im provement of moral feeling, it may be mentioned, that a little Boy (whose attention and good behaviour had been always remarkable, and who had invariably refused any pecuniary reward,) on quitting Calcutta for a period, came to return thanks for his schooling; and asked,as the only desired mark of favour, for books to carry home to his friends: "They have none," said he, " in our village; and I Q

shall read these to them." Several equally pleasing instances might be mentioned: and the Committee offer no apologies for occasionally noticing objects which may appear to some so trifling, because the benevolent will see in such traits a prospect of future good; and will feel assured, from such dawnings of improvement, that their kind countenance and liberal support will reap their fruit in due season.

for 1819. This island, which lies
south of the Line, and south-east-
ward of the Georgian and Society
Islands, has engaged much atten-
tion, from the origin and character
of its inhabitants; and has of late
We sub-
been frequently visited.
join a brief account of the state in
which it was found, in March 1819,
by Captain Arthur, of the American
Whaler the "Russell :".

Captain Arthur found about fifty inhabitants, descended from the mutineers who seized Captain Bligh's ship, the Bounty. When at the distance of three or four miles from the shore, they were boarded by the crew of a boat from the island, who were remarkably interesting Young Men. Bread and butter were set before them; but they refused to eat, alleging that it was their fast-day but being much importuned to eat, they partook, though slightly, but not till after they had implored a blessing; and, after their repast was finished, a hymn and prayer followed, with great devotional propriety. Their boat, needing repair, was taken on deck and completed, before the next morning, to their great satisfaction.

In the Cossipore District, a Third School has been opened at Oottur Parrah on the Barrackpore Road, which was occupied, within a few days after its completion, by upward of 100 children. A Fourth School is commenced upon, at Chitpore, near the Nawaub's garden, where a large number of children are waiting for admission. It is satisfactory to observe the increasing desire manifested by the Natives to instruct their children; a petition having, in this instance, as well as others, been made for a School, and the ground readily obtain, éd, where, two or three years ago, several attempts were made on the part of the Committee, but in vain. Recently, however, several applications have been offered for Schools in the outskirts of Calcutta: but detached Schools have not hitherto fallen within the CommitAfter landing on the island, Captain tee's plan, principally on account of the Arthur and others ascended a high hill, difficulty and expense of superintend-assisted by a young man, named Robert

ence. The wishes of the Committee

have turned much to that subject; and the Lord Bishop of Calcutta has addressed a communication to the Society, from which a most satisfactory arrange. ment is expected.

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In reference to the late Bishop's views on this subject, it is stated, in the last Report of the Parent Society

A communication has been received from the Bishop, in which he expresses an earnest wish that the Schools in Bengal may be placed under the care of Missionaries, as far better qualified for the task of instruction than ordinary Schoolmasters. In the northern and southern suburbs of Caleutta, are Schools which particularly require such superintendence.


Some Account of its present State.
A BRIEF notice of Pitcairn's Island
was given at p. 44 of our Volume


Young. They then met with the venerable Governor, John Adams, who was attended by most of the women and chil

dren of the island; and were welcomed to their shores, in the most artless yet vited to the village; and a dinner was dignified manner. They were then in prepared for them, consisting of pigs, fowls, yams, and plantains. A blessing was asked, and thanks returned, in an impressive manner.

At night, they were provided with beds; and, in the morning, at seven, a plentiful breakfast was prepared for them. At dinner, also, they were equally well provided for. In the afternoon, about three, they took an affectionate leave of their friends, and returned to the ship. John Adams and six Otaheitean Women are all that are left of the Bounty. Forty-nine have been born on the island, two of whom are dead; which leaves fifty-three persons on the island, now all in good health, without a single exception. There are about eleven active Young Men, who are ready and willing, at all times, to assist a ship's crew in

procuring wood and water, or any thing else which the island affords.

The different names of the islanders are-Adams, Christian sen., Christian jun., Young, Quintrail, and M‘Kay.

The Directors of the London Missionary Society sent out some Bibles, Prayer-Books, and SchoolBooks, for the use of this singular community: they were thankfully received, and an acknowledgment given, signed by John Adams. It may be hoped that these people will ultimately take a share in communicating the Gospel to other


North-American Stairs.


ample: and the Managers state, with gratitude, that a citizen of New York, after a life which had been marked with many acts of charity and benevolence, in his last Will bequeathed large sums to various religious uses; and the name of Mr. John Withington is recorded as one of the most-distinguished benefactors he has left a legacy of ten thousand of the American Bible Society, to which dollars.

Extracts of Correspondence has The plan of issuing Monthly been adopted with great advantage.

in behalf of Seamen, it is said, in Of the exertions of the Society the Sixth Report—

The Marine Bible Societies have continued their operations. The expectations as to their usefulness have not been disappointed. Many Seamen have ex

Progress of the Society, in its Fifth and hibited much interest in the design of

Sixth Years.

FROM the Fifth and Sixth Reports of the Society, we collect the following particulars:

In its Fifth Year, there were printed 29,000 Bibles and 30,000 Testaments; and, in its Sixth, 15,625 Bibles, 17,500 Testaments, and 3250 Spanish Testaments : making a total of 268,177 Bibles, Testaments, or parts of the Testament, printed or otherwise obtained for circulation during six Years.

Of these copies, 193,818 had been issued; besides a large number obtained, by several Auxiliaries, from other quarters. Of these issues, 15,242 had been gratuitously circulated in the Fifth Year, and 13,706 in the Sixth.

The income of the Fifth Year was 29,611 dollars; and that of the Sixth, 36,363.

In the Fifth year, 32 Auxiliaries were formed; and, in the Sixth, 62: carrying the whole number, at the close of the Sixth Year, to 301. Referring to the bequest of 4589 acres of land, by the late President, to the Society, the Board state

The liberality of Dr. Boudinot has not been without its influence, as an ex

the Societies, and derived benefit from them. On one occasion, at a Meeting appointed by a Marine Bible Society, all the Seamen in port were requested to attend, and the request was very generally complied with an Address was delivered to them; and the immediate consequences were, that, in the two following days, 150 Seamen applied to be furnished with the Scriptures, and 80 became Members of the Society.

From the Report of the NewYork Auxiliary, we extract a passage in reference both to Soldiers and Sailors

Previous to the institution of Bible Societies, perhaps no class of people were but, since the circulation of the Bible so ignorant of the Bible as the Soldiers; among them, many instances of conver sion have occurred; the lion has been converted into the lamb, and the warlike soldier into the peaceful subject of the Cross.

A change equally remarkable has also been produced among our Seamen. Their and dissipation, are fast yielding to a characteristic profanity, intemperance, settled character for sobriety, frugality, and industry; and, in many instances, they have become sincere Christians. They are now generally adopting the Bible as their inseparable companion

at sea.

In the course of six months, more

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