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LARNACA to LIMAsol-continued.

Cesnoln in Chapter X of his work on Cyprus, gives a sketch of the ancient history of this place, and an account of the antiquities which have been discovered there. The road now follows the northern curve of Akrotiri (Limasol) Bay, whero the shore is low and sandy. As Limasol is approached, the land becomes highly cultivated, and yields excellent crops; this locality is considered one of the best agricultural districts in the island.

The town of Limasol has been described in the preceding chapter.

To make the road between Larnaca and Limasol good and passable by carriages, would be a more difficult task than many of the other roads, and some engineering skill would be required, for the numerous torrents must be bridged, and the beds of the streams better defined, as in , wet weather they now overflow, and cause much damage.

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6. LIMASOL TO BAFFO.

On leaving Limasol, this road crosses the River Garili,
and takes a westerly direction through a cultivated
country with high f. on the right. High up on
the mountains are the vineyards for which this district
is celebrated, below these are large groves of olives,
carobs, &c., on the level ground are fields which bear
good crops of grain and cotton, and to the southward
is the large salt lake of Limasol, on the Akrotiri
Peninsula.
Kolossi is a village surrounded by gardens and plenti-
fully supplied with watcr. At this spot is a large
square tower, said to have been built by the Templars,
the summit of which commands a fine view ; there is
also a large aqueduct of the same period which is still
used ; both these constructions are of a limestone
resembling marble. In this neighbourhood the best
Commanderia wine is produced, and large shipments of
it are annually made from Limasol to Trieste and
Venice.
Episcopi is a pleasantly situated village standing on
the Episcopi, or Lycos, River, and very abundantl
supplied with water. The houses are surrounded wit
fruitful gardens, and there are fields of grain and
cotton in the vicinity. The inhabitants have, however,
very small holdings, and are as a rule miserably poor.
In former days Episcopi was a rich city, and contained
in the Venetian times large manufactories; of its
ancient greatness now remain the ruins of an aqueduct,
immense storehouses or vaults, and several ruined
Greek churches. The spurs from Mount Troodos here
extend nearly down to the shore and the road follows
the coast line, traversing a very beautiful country; the

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LIMAsol. To BAFF0–continued.

round in spring is covered with flowers and aromatic

erbs, and the ravines are filled with a luxuriant growth - of cypresses, wild olives, and flowering shrubs. Avdimir ... 9 || 17 |The Turkish village of Avdimu, founded by Ptolemy

Philadelphus in honour of his sister Arsinöe, id: a little

off the road to the right; it is now unimportant. Pysouri ... 5 22 || Pysouri is a small village through which the road passes; it stands on the summit of a lofty hill and commands a fine view over the surrounding country. Thence the road continues through country of the same Ruklia ... 9} || 31|| || character to Kuklia, situated on the site of the ancient Palae Paphos; it is a poor village with no interest beyond its ruins; mention has been made of this place in the last chapter. The road, still following the coast, now turns towards the north-west, and passes through a somewhat hilly country, intersected by numerous ravines and gullics, which in winter contain water running from the slopes of the Olympus range down to the sca. Ileirokipos...| 8 || 393 |Heirokipos is only important on account of its springs, which have been mentioned in Chapter II., but is interesting on account of the tradition that in this place was the favourite garden of Venus, and the basin of water close by it is known as the Bath of Aphrodite. The country is here very picturesque, the ground generally slopes gently towards the sea, but appears in places to have been cut into large plateaux or terraces, which are surrounded by thick groves of olive trees many centuries old ; carob trees also flourish here. Rtima ... 14 || 41 || Baffo, with the adjacent village of Ktima, which has the Baffa ... 1} || 42} | larger population of the two, has been described in the last chapter. Some trouble and labour will be required to make this road suitable for carriages, and several bridges will have to be constructed.

There are but few other roads in Cyprus connecting places of importance besides those already described, but one upon which there is a certain amount of traffic is that from Larnaca, through Dali, to Nicosia; it is rather longer than the main road through Athienou; the distances on it are the following:—

Larnaca to Aradippo ---- ... 3 miles.

Aradippo to Dali .... ---- ... 15 m

Dali to Nicosia .... ---- ... 10 ”
Total 28 or

This road ascends to Lymbia, about four miles south-east of Dali, and then traverses the Southern part of the Messaria plain. Dali is pleasantly situated on the River Idalia, a tributary of the Pedias, and is a good summer resort.

Another road, which is, however, but little used, is that from Nicosia, through Morpho to Poli tou Rhrysokho.

Nicosia to Heirolakko ---- ... 10% miles
Heirolakko to Morpho ---- ... 12%. ,
Morpho to Soli .... ---- ... 14 y
Solito Poli tou Khrysokho.... ... 30 m
Total 67 m.

This road, throughout the distance to Morpho, passes through the Messaria plain in a westerly direction; it then turns southwest to Soli, from which place it follows the curve of the coast to Politou Khrysokho; the portion of the route between the two lastnamed places is but a very rough bridle path, and is much cut up by neglected watercourses.

There is a road between Nicosia and Mount Olympus, passin through Trimithia, Peristerona, Evrikou, Galata, Podromo, an Trooditissa; at the latter place is a monastery where travellers can obtain lodging. From the monastery a difficult bridle path leads down the southern slopes of the mountains to Limasol, passing through Omodos and Potamia.

The means of direct communication between Cyprus and Western Europe have hitherto been but few, and these somewhat slow and inconvenient. Of possible routes from London to Larnaca, those most used have been, as far as Port Said or Alexandria, identical with the routes leading to India. Thus, if it was desired to perform the whole journey by sea, the Peninsular and Oriental Steamers from Southampton, as well as the Liverpool and London Steamers bound for Bombay, were available as far as Port Said or Alexandria; or again, the journey could be made overland to one of the Mediterranean ports, such as Genoa, Marseilles, Venice, Trieste, or Brindisi, and thence by sea to Port Said or Alexandria. Between Port Said and Beyrout, the steamers of the French Messageries Maritimes, and the Austrian Lloyd's Line ply on fixed dates, but lately the only steamers touching regularly at Cyprus have been those of the latter Company. These leave Rhodes and Beyrout fortnightly on Sunday and reach Larnaca on Tuesday. There has also been a boat every other Wednesday, which leaves Larnaca for Messina, Scanderoon, Latakieh, and Beyrout, and returns from Beyrout by the same route on the following Thursday. There will now doubtless be additional means of communication ; the Postmaster-General has made arrangements with Bell's Asia Minor Company, for the conveyance of a mail to and from Cyprus weekly, in connection, at Alexandria, with the overland India mails vić Brindisi, the mail being made up in London every Friday evening. By the same route, mails will be brought to London weekly with the overland India mails vić Brindisi. The Messageries Maritimes de France announce a steamer to Larnaca from Marseilles, vić Alexandria, leaving every alternate Thursday at noon, commencing August 1st, and before long we shall probably hear that some of the other companies whose steamers ply among the Turkish islands, such as the Russian Compagnie de Commerce ct de Navigation, the Italian Trinacria, and Rubattino, Companies, the Turkish Mahsussi, and the Egyptian

Maritime communications.

Telegraphic communications.

Rhedive Company, will, as the traffic and commerce develope, make arrangements for their vessels to call at the Cyprus ports on fixed days, but as yet there has scarcely been time for any such arrangements to be made. It is, however, reported that the Italian Minister of Public Works is already arranging with the Rubattino Company, the preliminaries of a convention for prolonging the course of the steamers bound for Alexandria as far as Larnaca, touching at Port Said, Jaffa, and Beyrout. The voyages will probably be undertaken gratuitously by the company until December. In Liverpool, the establishment of a direct line of steamers between that port and Cyprus has already been proposed, and this is a fair proof of the energy with which the steam trade of England, and especially of Liverpool, is carried on in the Mediterranean. The cost of the journey from London, overland to Trieste, and thence by Port Said and Beyrout to Larnaca, is stated to be £29. 7s. 0d. first class, and £20. 13s.5d, second class.

In 1871, a submarine cable was laid down from Latakieh, in Syria, to Cape St. Andrea, the north-eastern extremity of Cyprus, and from there the telegraph wires were carried overland to Nicosia. Strong representations were then made by the commercial community of Larnaca, showing, and urging, the great commercial need of the extension of the telegraph from Nicosia to Larnaca; a work of but trifling cost, and which would soon be repaid by the more frequent use of the wires. For some time, however, nothing but promises could be extracted from Turkish authorities, but by 1873 the poles were set up, and in the next year the communication was completed, and is of great advantage to the town of Larnaca. Possibly a direct cable will now be laid between Cyprus and Alexandria, as a means of promoting commercial enterprise, and also to place the island in closer comnection with Great Britain.

CHAPTER V.

DESCRIPTION OF THE CoAST,” ANCHORAGES, RoADSTEADS, Ports,
AND HARBOURS OF CYPRUS.

The Bay of Famagusta is about 25 miles wide from Cape Elaea at Famagusta. the north extremity, to Cape Greco at the south; it enters the land about nine miles. The bay is very deep, the Admiralty Chart shows soundings of 200 fathoms over the whole of the outer part. The holding ground is described as bad,f and the anchorage is open to east and south-east winds. Large vessels anchor about 1,700 yards off the town of Famagusta in about 17 fathoms, stiff mud; inside 12 fathoms the bottom is rock and sand. Small vessels can obtain good anchorage, in three or four fathoms, close to the town, inside of a reef that runs parallel to the shore. This inner harbour was once deep and spacious, but is now choked with sand and mud, and the entrance is narrowed by stones fallen from a ruined lighthouse. About four and a-half miles to the northward of Famagusta is the ancient port of Salamis, now only a shallow basin; in the roadstead abreast of it is good anchorage in 10 to 16 fathoms with mud bottom. Although this account of Famagusta Harbour shows it to be certainly at present in a bad condition, and quite unfit for use by war vessels, it is equally apparent, according to all reports, that should it be cleared out, its safety as a port would be beyond all doubt, for it is encircled by a tongue of land, with a series of rocks in continuation of it; and at a distance of 500 yards from the ramparts, and, parallel to the coast, runs a line of rock ledges, which gradually dip into the sea towards the north, commencing at a height of 13 feet above the water line, and falling to 18 feet below it. These rocks are of schist, the same formation as are the three small islands which close in the port to the east. These islands, if joined by a causeway, the construction of which would not be a difficult matter, would form the southern boundary of the harbour. The northern side is protected by a jetty which runs out to a length of 170 yards at right angles to the shore, leaving an entrance to the harbour, about 35 yards in width. It is stated that this jetty requires but little repair, except at a breach made by

* The Coast is described commencing at Famagusta on the eastern shore, then along the south coast in a westerly direction, up the western side, along the north coast from west to east, and so round the island.

+ Laurie's “Mediterranean Directory," page 162.

(774) E.

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