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only the carved stonework now remains. The pillared interior is
approached from the portico by three arched portals. The Turks
have daubed the walls with whitewash streaked with red, yellow,
and green, and the beauty of the architecture is now all that is
... The Gothic towers have been destroyed, and only
their mere bases still stand; with the hewn stone thus obtained two
unusually high Moslem minarets have been erected by the side of
the bell tower. Another beautiful ancient Christian church, that of
St. Nicholas, stands close to the Cathedral, and is now used by the
Turks as a granary. It has three noble entrance gates, and all the
niches are decorated with a fine stone tracery. The Archbishop's
Chapel is an interesting building, the walls of which are covered
with ancient pictures.
There is also a small church used as a place of worship by the
Armenians, who number about 150 in Nicosia.
Nicosia is literally without drainage, and the ground is sodden
with the sewage of centuries. There is no fall of ground, so that
the rains, when they come, wash nothing away. All sewage which
does not remain on the surface stands in cesspools, which are
generally close to wells. , Hence, in the hot months the place is de-
scribed as a fecund fever bed, and until sanitary measures have been
put into execution, Nicosia can scarcely be considered as habitable
by Europeans.
The water supply of the town is abundant, and when it first
comes into the place is cool, clear, and of excellent quality. An
aqueduct which is supplied from the adjacent hills by a communica-
tion supported on arches, encircles the town following the line of
the fortifications; at frequent intervals, subsidiary conduits lead
from it to the fountains in the lower area within; along these con-
duits pure water constantly flows, and it is better to take water
directly from them, than to use the well water. The overflow of
the fountains runs along shallow open ditches in the centre of the
streets, and from these ditches small drains are cut into the gardens
that abound all over the town; thus these are well irrigated and
are very productive, the fruit trees being especially fine. It may
perhaps be found necessary in future to convey the aqueduct water
all over the town in pipes, in order to insure a good supply for
drinking in all parts.
Nicosia was first fortified in the time of Constantine the Great,
and has always been considered a strong place, but in 1570, when
the Turkish invasion was imminent, the old defences were destroyed
by the Venetians, the works were entirely remodelled and the town
was converted into a regular fortress surrounded by walls of three
miles circuit, pierced by three gates called Paphos, Cerinea, and
Famagusta, and flanked at regular intervals by eleven bastions which
were named Podocataro, Costanza, Davila, Tripoli, Roccas, Mula,
Quirino, Barbaro, Loredano, Abra, and Caraffa. The former circuit
of the fortifications was no less than nine miles, and by this great
reduction of the length of parapet to be defended, the strength of
the place was materially, increased, but, in order to effect the altera-
tion, a large area of the suburbs, together with many churches and
a large monastery had to be levelled. The walls were originally

Want of drainage.

Water supply.

Fortifications. Ancient history.

Situation.

Description.

high and massive, and when made must have been very strong; they are now in a dilapidated condition, and by no means as perfect as those of Famagusta. The rampart consists of two retaining walls of stone with earth rammed in between them, in places they are 30 or 40 feet high; the top is level and is used as a walk and ride. The ditch, if ever there was one, is now wholly obliterated, and as the town is commanded by high ground within range on three sides, it could not in its present state be held against the fire of modern artillery. The ramparts are armed with about 50 guns, most of which are of old and curious patterns, and quite obsolete; some are Venetian bronze cannon, and both guns and carriages are quite worn out and unserviceable, with the exception of a few English naval guns made in the reign of George III, from which it is possible to fire salutes. The fortress of Nicosia, defended by the Venetians, withstood for 45 days a vigorous siege on the part of the Turks, it was at last taken by storm on the 9th September, 1570, and from that day commenced the rapid decline and decay of the city, which was so celebrated in the time of the Lusignans.

FAMAGUSTA.

Famagusta (called by the Turks, Maoussa) occupies the site of the ancient Ammochostos, one of the royal cities which paid tribute to Assyria, and it is also said that Ptolemy Philadelphus founded here one of the four cities named by him after his sister Arsinée. After the battle of Actium, Augustus called it Fama Agusti, from which the present name is derived. The town, which had been built 800 years ago by the Christians out of the ruins of Salamis, was destroyed by the Turks in 1571, after the terrible siege during which the Venetian soldiers so long and heroically defended their position.

Famagusta is situated on the east coast of the island, in the bay of the same name, and about 4% miles south of the ancient city and port of Salamis.

This once considerable and important city is now described as consisting simply of a mass of ruins, and the streets are said to be at present only lanes almost choked up by the fallen ruins of the adjacent buildings. Under the Lusignans and the Venetians, Famagusta was a populous city, counting its beautiful churches by hundreds, and its palatial mansions by thousands. Now the place is almost uninhabited, except by a company of Turkish soldiers, and the native population is not above 500, all of whom are Mussulmans. Of the 300 churches which are said to have existed, two only now remain; the beautiful Latin Cathedral of St. Nicolas is now used as the Turkish mosque of Famagusta; it is a very large and fine structure in the Gothic style, and although it is much ruined, the rose windows bricked up, the frescoes covered with plaster, and the altar-piece dismantled, its splendid proportions still remain in their original grandeur. The other church is used as a granary and stable by the Turks. On the still existing walls of many of the fine mediaeval churches, frescoes remain plainly visible in the interiors. The hewn stones with which the houses are built

are lying about in all directions; the few inhabited houses are of
stone, small, rectangular, and flat-roofed. There is a barrack in
which the garrison is quartered, also a hospital, and on the north
side of the town are bomb-proof magazines and cannon-foundries.
It is considered that the town might be rebuilt with the stone
which it contains, and from the ruins of Salamis.
The place is now very unhealthy, owing to the marshes in the
neighbourhood and the defective drainage, and fevers are very pre-
valent. Consul Lang says that when he was in Cyprus, estimates
were made for cleansing the town, and draining the marshes and
stagnant pools in the covered pits which were made by the Turks
in 1571; also for introducing good fresh water into the town through
iron pipes: but, owing to the impecuniosity of the Government, and
the instability of the Governors, the plans were never put into
execution. It has been stated by competent authorities that with
a moderate expenditure, Famagusta might again become what it
was in the time of the Venetians—an agreeable, healthy town,
capable of containing 30,000 inhabitants.
The vicinity of Famagusta is fertile and in part cultivated;
fruit, vegetables, grain, cotton, and madders, are grown in the
neighbourhood; but the present population is not nearly sufficient
to make the most of the advantages afforded by nature.
Close outside the city, and to the southward, is the small town
of Varoschia, divided into Upper and Lower Varoschia, the popula-
tion of which is over 2,000; the inhabitants are chiefly Christians,
who are not permitted to reside within the walls of Famagusta,
of which place Varoschia may be considered a suburb. This little
town was founded by the Christian population expelled from
Famagusta at the time of its capture by the Ottoman army; it
is very thriving, and as neither accommodation or provisions can
be obtained in Famagusta itself, travellers always come to
Varoschia for lodging. Some of the houses are built of stone,
and are as good as any in Larnaca or Nicosia; the town has also a
fine Greek church, with a new belfry, which is a fair specimen of
the local modern architecture; there is a good bazaar, and several
manufactures of pottery. Fruitful groves of orange and lemon
trees abound; there are also extensive gardens generally studded
with mulberry trees, which are planted for the cultivation of the
silk-worm, and the general appearance of Varoschia presents a
marked contrast to the gloomy quarters of Famagusta occupied by
the Turks.
Famagusta is strongly fortified; the walls which surround the
city are nearly in the form of a parallelogram, and measure about
4,000 yards in perimeter. They are built of stone with great
solidity and strength, their thickness is 17 feet, and they are pro-
vided with extensive bomb-proof magazines, storehouses, and
foundries. Although now dismantled, the ramparts are still in
a very fair state of preservation, and it is believed that they could
easily be adapted to modern requirements, pending the construc-
tion of such other works of a more important character as might be
deemed necessary at any future date, should Famagusta become the
port of Cyprus, Beneath the ramparts on the land side is a ditch

Present unhealthiness of the town.

Suburb of
Waroschia.

Fortifications of Famagusta.

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cut into the rock; it measures about 80 feet in width and 25 feet in depth; at one time the sea was admitted into it, but it is now dry. The only gate on this side is at the south-west corner, the road leading to Varoschia passes through it, and it is provided with a drawbridge and portcullis. The only other gate is on the side of the port, and is called the water-gate; a deep and winding archway with a portcullis, here leads under the rampart of a circular bastion to a rude pier of loose stones. There is a citadel on the sea-side, which is isolated from the remainder of the works by a ditch of stagnant water. The armament of the fortifications is in a very neglected state; on the open space above the water-gate are four bronze Turkish guns of very old patterns, and mounted on rotten carriages; these are just in a sufficient state of preservation to fire salutes, but could scarcely be used for anything else. Several of the large Venetian bronze guns, bearing the date 1569, lie dismounted close inside the ramparts. Some of the worst criminals of the Turkish Empire have until now been confined in the fortress of Famagusta.

Although this description shows that Famagusta is at present in the last state of ruin and decay, still the natural advantages of the place, particularly as regards facilities for the construction of a harbour, are so great that in all probability the town will occupy an important place in the future history of Cyprus. The existing remains of the ancient port are fully described in the chapter upon the Coast at page 65.

LARNACA.

Larnaca, at present the chief commercial town of Cyprus, is situated on the south-east coast of the island in a bay of the same name, contained between Capes Pila and Kiti.

According to General, di Cesnola, the town takes its name from the ancient tombs over which it is partly built; it has been supposed by some that the word Larnaca, signifying in Greek a box or chest, and sometimes a funeral urn or tomb, contained an allusion to unhealthiness in the place, but this hardly appears to be the case. The ancient Citium once occupied the site on which Larnaca now stands, and traces of Byzantine architecture are also to be found in the neighbourhood.

Larnaca is comparatively a modern town, having sprung into existence since the conquest af the island by the Turks, but, like some of the ancient cities of Cyprus, it consists of two separate districts a short distance apart. The portion which borders the sea-shore is called the Marina (travellers at the beginning of this century always called it Salines), while Larnaca proper is to the north, and about three-quarters of a mile inland. Some 40 or 50 years ago the Marina consisted only of a few scattered houses and stores, and all the Foreign Consuls and chief residents lived at the inland part of the town; but, since the pirates of the Greek Archipelago who used to infest these shores, have, thanks especially to the efforts of England, been exterminated, the Marina has become the more important district of the two, and is a comparatively thriving and busy place. At present a line of dwelling-houses, bazaars, and cafés extends for about a mile along the shore, and the strand is a thoroughfare from end to end of the sea front, which is chiefly shingle; the existing stone jetties are almost entirely ruined and useless, so that new ones constructed of wood had to be provided for the disembarkation of our troops; the massive stone work of the Lusignans is nearly everywhere crumbling down into the water. The Foreign Consuls now, with only one or two exceptions, live on the Marina, in a row of buildings close to the sea; several mosques and churches are close by ; the Konak, or government building, is a large irregular house on the western edge of the Marina, close to the little fort, and there is a telegraph office communicating with Beyrout; it is said that of late years the Marina has increased in the same ratio as Larnaca proper has become depopulated. The external appearance of the houses is rather humble, they are generally built of mud bricks dried in the sun, and, as a rule, have only one story above the ground floor: this is said to be a precaution against the earthquakes which are severely felt here; still there are some houses of several stories, and the interiors of many are both spacious and comfortable, many of the apartments are paved with a kind of marble, and have long corridors, roomy staircases, and high ceilings, all of which are very necessary in such a climate. All the better class of houses stand within a courtyard and garden, and are provided with large verandahs standing upon light pillars. The roofs, which are supported by short beams of red pine, generally consist of bamboo matting plastered over with a thick layer of mud; the cementing is essected by the use of talc. Between the Marina and the upper town, is a large establishment belonging to the Sisters of Charity, containing a chapel, school, and dispensary. In Larnaca, there is a fine old Latin church, called St. Lazarus, which is surrounded by rows of pillars with pointed arches between them. The main part of the church is built in the form of a cross, with a dome in the centre, and is evidently of great antiquity; it comprises three long and large vaults surrounded by cupolas. A Greek bishop resides at Larnaca and the population is now more Greek than Turkish; in 1863 the inhabitants were reported to be 10,000 in number, the present population is probably greater. The country surrounding Larnaca, is arid, uninteresting, and generally without verdure, the soil is white and calcareous. It has been generally reported that the climate of Larnaca is unhealthy in the summer months, and that intermittent fevers are very prevalent at that season; this insalubrity may however be easily accounted for by the existence of large marshes and salt lagoons in the immediate vicinity, as well as by the dirty and unwholesome state in which the town has been kept, and there is little doubt that the causes of disease are local, and can be easily removed. Consul Lang says that during his residence in Larnaca, he was able, by means of public subscriptions, to bring under cultivation the worst of the two marshes near the town, and to introduce by iron pipes a good supply of water into the houses: the effect upon the general health of the place was most beneficial, and it is considered that more extensive works of a similar kind, combined with due attention to the cleansing of the town, will remove all existing causes of unhealthiness.

Local

climate.

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