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become settled, still it may be useful to quote some of the prices
which were paid at Larnaca about the middle of August, 1878.
Good beef about 4d. per lb. or 9d per kilogramme (24 lbs.). A
dressed sheep, of from 35 lbs. to 40 lbs. in weight sells for about 8s.
and a sheep weighing nearly 90 lbs. was bought for 14s.
Vegetables sufficient to supply a ship's company of 80 men can
be had for 2s.; these vegetables are French beans, tomatoes, vegetable
marrows, celery (for soup) and onions. Cucumbers sell at a half-
penny each. Potatoes, not quite so good as the English or Maltese,
but better than those got in India, average about 5s. per cwt.
Large fowls fetch 14s per dozen; geese and turkeys vary from
2s, to 3s. each; chickens average 6d each, and the standing price
for eggs is 6d. per dozen.
read is cheap, but bad, being both gritty from the mode of
thrashing, and badly baked. There are, however, some steam
flour mills in the island, as at Limasol.
Fruit is very abundant, and can be purchased at very cheap
rates; melons and water-melons are plentiful, and grapes can be
procured to any extent at 2d. per oke (24 lbs. English).
Fish is scarce; a species of mullet, about the size of a small her-
ring, is the fish generally offered for sale, and varies from 3s. to 4s.
per lb. The red wine, called brusco, or sweet, is sold at from one and
a-half to two piastres per oke, and the white, or new Commanderia
at two or two and a half piastres per oke.
The old Cyprus wines command much higher prices, such as
twenty piastres per oke, and are not always to be procured.
House accommodation is not invariably good; but in each town
there are a few spacious and airy buildings. Both rents and land
values have increased enormously since the cession, several
quotations showing an increase up to ten times what was formerly
p Both fuel and forage are at present somewhat scarce, and
consequently sell at comparatively high prices.
Fairs are very frequently held in Cyprus and are attended by the
peasantry in very great numbers both for pleasure, and for the
sale of the local produce.
The most important fairs are:—

Ktima (near Basso), 29th June.

Famagusta , 11th June.

St. Barnabas.


Cape Carrubiere.
Omodos (for wine, tobacco, and oxen), 14th September.
Larnaca (the anniversary of the birth of Venus).

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Knollas, RICHARD. The General History of the Turks. Third Edition. London, 1638. (Useful for the history of the Turkish Invasion of Cyprus in 1570–71.) Pococks, Dr. R. A. Description of the East and some other Countries. 2 Vols. London, 1743–45. (A fair account of Cyprus at that time.) MARITI, G. F. Travels in the Island of Cyprus, &c., in 1760–68. English Edition. 3 Vols. London, 1791. (A good description of the inhabitants and their manners and customs at that time.) SoNNINI, C. S. Voyage en Grèce et en Turquie. Paris, 1801. English Edition. London, 1801. (Good description of Cyprus.) ALI BEY. Travels in Morocco, Tripoli, Cyprus, Egypt, Arabia, &c., between 1805 and 1807. 2 Wols. London, 1816. (A good description of his Travels about the south of the island.) CLARKE, Dr. }. D. Travels in various Countries of Europe, Asia and Africa. Fourth Edition. London, 1817. (Chiefly Antiquities and Botany.) LIGHT, Capt. H., #A. Travels in Egypt, &c. and Cyprus. London, . (Captain Light only visited Larnaca and its neighbourood.) KINNEIR, J. M. Journey through Asia Minor, &c., in 1813–14. London, 1818. (Not much about Cyprus, but what there is is useful.) REEs, A. Cyclopaedia. Tenth Volume. London, 1819. (A good article on Cyprus.) TURNER, W. Journal of a Tour in the Levant. 3 Wols. London, ; (Not much about Cyprus, but contains a few useful acts.) Won HANMER, J. Histoire de L'Empire Ottoman. French Edition. 18 Wols. Translated from the German by J. Hellert. Paris, 1836. (An excellent history of the events of 1570–71.) ENGEL, W. H. Kypros. Eine Monographie. 2 Wols. Berlin, 1841. (A compilation concerning the Geography, History and Mythology of the island.) KEIGHTLEy, T. The Crusaders. London, 1847. (An account of the capture of Cyprus by Richard Coeur de Lion.) CHESNEy, Lt.-Col., R.A. Expedition for the Survey of the Euphrates and Tigris. 2 Vols. London, 1850. (Geographical and historical notice of Cyprus.) KNIGHT, C. The English Cyclopaedia. Vol. II. London, 1854. (Contains a good article on Cyprus.) BLACKLE, W. G. The Imperial Gazetteer. Vol. I. London, 1855. (Contains a fair article on Cyprus.)

* The arrangement is chronological,

SMITH, W., LL.D. . Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. Vol. I. London, 1857. (A good article upon the Ancient History of Cyprus.) GAUdry, Albert. Recherches Scientifiques en Orient pendant les anneés 1853–54. (A very valuable work, containing the best geological description of the island hitherto published.) A translation of this book has been made in the Intelligence . Q.M.G.'s Department, and will be published immeiately. GAUDRy, Wor Article in the “Revue des Deux Mondes.” Vol. 36. Paris, 1861. DE MAs LATRIE, M. L. Histoire de L'Ile de Chypre sous le rêgne des Princes de la Maison de Lusignan. Paris, 1861. (Contains valuable and detailed information concerning Cyprus under the Lusignans, as well as its conquest by Richard Coeur de Lion; also several particulars regarding the Venetian rule.) Kotschy, Dr., T. Reise nach Cypern und Klein-Asien, 1859. (An article in Petermann's Mittheilungen.) Gotha, 1862. White, Vice-Consul. A General and Statistic Report on Cyprus. March, 1863. With the Commercial Reports of H.M.'s Consuls. (Contains much valuable information about the Island.) UNGER, Dr., F., and Kotschy, Dr. T. Die Insel Cypern. Vienna, 1865. (The best botanical description of the Island, and a very ood account of its Geology.) UNGER, Dr. Die Insel Cypern einst and jetzt. Vienna, 1866. (A short pamphlet treating chiefly of Archaeology.) McCulloch, J. R. Geographical Dictionary. Vol. II. New Edition. London, 1866. SANDw1th, Vice-Consul. Report upon the Condition of Christians in Cyprus. London, 1867. (Explains the Turkish law with regard to Christians.) LANG, Consul. Report upon the Industrial Classes in Cyprus. February, 1872. Blue Book. London, 1872. (Contains information regarding Labour.) RAwlinson, GEORGE, M.A. The Five Great Monarchies of the Eastern World. 2 Vols. London, 1872. (Facts relating to the Ancient History of Cyprus.) SEIFF, Julius. Reisen in der Asiatischen Turkei. Leipzig, 1875. (A good descriptive chapter on Cyprus.) Bunbury, E. H. Article in the Encyclopædia Britannica. Ninth Edition. Vol. VI. Edinburgh, 1877. (A good account of Cyprus.) MEDITERRANEAN Pilot, The Vol. II. Published by order of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. London, 1877. (Describes the Coast, Roadsteads, Harbours, &c., of Cyprus.) LAURIE, R. H. Mediterranean Directory. Part II. London. (Describes the Coast, Roadsteads, Harbours, &c., of Cyprus.) Di Cosnola, General, L. P. Cyprus : its Ancient Cities, Tombs, and Temples. London, 1877. (The best archaeological description of Cyprus.) CREAsy, Sir E. S. History of the Ottoman Turks. London, 1877. (Contains historical information regarding Cyprus.) Collen, Capt. E. H. H. A Report on Cyprus, based on information obtained chiefly from Consular Reports, 1845–1877. 1ntellience Branch, Quarter-Master-General's Department. May, 878.

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MURRAy, J. Handbook of Turkey in Asia. London, 1878. (Contains a useful Guide to Travellers in Cyprus.) CoNSULAR REPORTs by Messrs. Lang, Riddell, Pierides, and Watkins, 1869–1878. (These Reports contain a large amount of very valuable statistical information concerning Cyprus.) Won LöHER, Franz. Cyprus. Stüttgart, 1878. (A good description of the island.) Since the cession of Cyprus to Great Britain, a quantity of books and pamphlets compiled chiefly from the above sources have been published, and some original articles have appeared in the Magazines; of these the following have been referred to LANG, Consul. Articles on Cyprus in Macmillan's Magazine, August and September, 1878. (These articles contain much highly useful information.) Poole, R. STUART. Articles in the Contemporary Review. January and August, 1878. (The first is archaeological, the second general; both contain useful information.) Fisher, F. H. Cyprus, our New Colony. Routledge and Sons. London, 1878. RoBINson, P. Cyprus. W. Clowes and Sons. London, 1878. HARRIs, go #. Cyprus: its Past, Present, and Future. London, 1878. LAKE, J. J. Ceded Cyprus. London, 1878. CYPRUS: its Walue and Importance to England. Diprose and Bateman. London, 1878. HELLE won SAMo, A. The Wilayet of the Islands of the White Sea. Vienna, 1878. Translated in the Geographical Magazine of July and August, 1878. (Good statistical information.) JoyNER, . BATson. Translation of Won Löher's “Cyprus,” with an additional Appendix. Allen and Co. London, 1878. CAPITAINE, M. H. Article on Cyprus in “L’Exploration du Globe.” No. 80. July, 1878. 9 Rue Lamartine, Paris. GEOGRAPHICAL MAGAZINE. Article on Cyprus, in the number for August, 1878. The above are the authorities which have been consulted in the compilation of this work; the list does not contain quite the whole of the authors who have written upon Cyprus, but in it will be found all the best modern works. The “Bookseller” of August 6th, 1878, contains a bibliography, which, however, does not profess to be complete, of the principal works on Cyprus, or of which Cyprus forms a greater or lesser portion of the subject. The arrangement is chronological. Several very old works are mentioned. At the end of Drs. Unger and Kotschy's “Die Insel Cypern,” another list of authorities upon the island will be found. The letters and telegrams from Cyprus of the Special Correspondents of the daily newspapers have been much referred to.


1562. Venetian Map, engraved by BERTELLI, Rome. 1570. Map in the Atlas, by ORTELius.

1595. , 22 3 * ,, MERCAtoR.

1635. , >> * > ,, BLEAU.
1688. Map in DAPPER's Work.
1696. Map in the Atlas, by Coronelli.

1726. , 25 », ,, DE LISLE.
1743. Map to illustrate the Travels of Dr. Pococke.
1754. , » 93 3 * 5 * DRUMMOND.
1816. 3 * ALl BEY.

35 3) » 33 1844-7. Map by M. MARCFL CERRUti, Sardinian Consul at Larnaca. Unpublished and in MS. 1849. Admiralty Chart, No. 2074 (Mediterranean). Compiled from Surveys by Capt. T. GRAVEs in 1849, and republished with corrections up to 1874. 1855. Map in “Recherches Scientifiques en Orient, &c., 1853–4,” by M. ALBERT GAUDRY. 1860. The same Map, geologically coloured, is in the “Mémoires de la Société Géologique.” Second Series. Seventh Volume. 1862. Carte de L'Ile de Chypre, by M. DE MAs LATR1E, in his History of the House of Lusignan. Scale a song. (The maps of 1855 and 1860 were based upon this map, then unpublished.) 1862. Plan of Famagusta Harbour, by A. MoTTEz. 1866. In UNGER and Korschy's “Die Insel Cypern" is a reproduction of the geological map of 1860. 1873. Map compiled by Mr. C. H. Coote, of the British Museum, for the use of the late Mr. Thomas Lewin. This map was afterwards used for making the smaller one inserted in Mr. Lewin's “Life of St. Paul.” Vol. I, page 120. 1877. Two Maps in General di Cesnola's “Cyprus, its Cities, &c.” Tho first is a reduction of the Admiralty Chart, the interior bein filled up by Drs. Schroeder and KIEPERT of Berlin. The o shows General di Cesmola's Itineraries. Since the cession of Cyprus to Great Britain a large quantity of maps of the island have been published ; of these the best are the following, viz. :

STANFord's Map of Cyprus. Scale 64 miles to 1 inch. It shows the harbours on a larger scale, and has small geological and agricultural maps. WYLD's Map of Cyprus, Scale about 44 miles to 1 inch. KIEPERT's Map of Cyprus. Scale intomo. Admiralty Mediterranean Charts—

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