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RETURN OF THE ExPORTS FROM THE PORT OF LARNACA IN THE YEAR 1877.

Names of Articles. To to to Tb To to Total England. | France. Austria. | Italy. Russia. |Turkey. Value. £ £ £ #3 #3 £ £ Cotton ... --- --- --- --- 12,000 8,000 1,000 --- --- 21,000 Wine --- --- -- 900 4,000 2,000 --- 6,900' eese --- --- --- --- --- 2,975 Madder roots --- 2,200 --- --- --- 2,200 kins --- -- 4,000 5,000 2,000 • ** 11,000 Wool ... ... - 9,000 1,500 1,500 --- 12,000 Cotton manufacture --- --- --- --- 8,400 Tobacco (cut) ... --- --- --- --- --- 315 Worked skins ... ... --- -- 2,770 Rags --- --- --- 1,000 --- 1,479 Barley and wheat --- --- -- 20,600 Salt --- -- -- --- --- 14,140 Locust beans ... - 8,000 --- 9,000 Fruit and vegetables --- --- 6,600 Cattle ... --- --- --- 2,500 Silk cocooons ... --- --- 17,358 Linseed-cotton seed --- --- 5,719 Terra umber and bones - 640 --- 947 Old copper --- -- -- -- --- 516. Miscellaneous ... 200 400 --- 4,500 Total value ... ... 3,007 53,856 19,615 16,540 -- 150,918 &

In 1874 the exports from Larnaca were valued at ... 318.625

,, 1875 ow -- -- ... 306,979

,, 1876 ow -- -- ... 207,512

The large totals of 1874 and 1875 were due to the good crops of those years, which enabled upwards of £175,000-worth of wheat and barley alone to be exported each year.

RETURN OF THE EXPORTS FROM THE PORT OF LIMASOL IN THE YEAR 1877.

Name of Articles. To to to to to to to total England. |France. Austria. Italy. Russia Greece. Turkey. Value. - £ £ £ * £ £ £ £ Wool in grease ... --- --- it --- 750 --- --- --- --- --- 750 Lamb and goat skins ... --- --- 80 475 --- --- --- --- 555 Sumac, in the leaf --- --- --- --- --- --- --- 450 500 950 Black wine --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ... 27,000 || 27,000 Commanderia wine ... --- 50 --- 1,750 240 --- 150 250 2,440 Locust beans ... --- --- 28,600 1,700 3,000 || 4,700 2,300 --- 900 || 41,200 Raisins ... --- --- " --- --- --- 3,000 750 --- --- 3,100 6,850 Sundries ... --- --- --- --- 200 350 150 --- 600 12,000 || 13,300 Total --- --- --- 28,650 3,030 8,575 6,240 || 2,300 | 1,260 || 43,750 | 93,805 f

In 1874 the exports from Limasol were valued at ... 59,600

,, 1875 -- -- -- ... 77,022

,, 1876 -- -- -- ... 59,895

The year 1875 showed an increase on nearly all the articles of export, and a particularly large quantity of the common black wine was sent to Turkey. In 1877 the value of the locust beans exported, viz., £41,200, was about double what it had been in any previous year; there was also a marked increase in the value of the raisins exported.

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RETURN OF THE IMPORTS AT THE PORT OF LARNACA in Tiie YEAR 1877.

From
From Austria | From From From | From | Total
Names of Articles. Turkey. and France. England. I Italy. |Greece. Value.
Germany.
£ £ £ #. 2 2 £

Cotton manufacture ... --- --- 14,000 --- 22,000 --- --- 36,000
Hardware... . ... --- --- --- 3,000 1,000 --- --- --- 4,000
Glass and pottery ware --- --- 900 700 --- 100 --- 1,700
Leather ... --- --- --- --- --- 3,500 --- 50 || 3,000 6,550
Tobacco ... --- --- --- 17,000 --- --- --- --- --- 17,000
Soap ... ... ... ... 3,200 --- --- --- --- --- 3,200
Butter ... --- --- --- 650 --- --- --- --- --- 650
Matches ... --- --- --- --- 430 --- --- --- --- 430
Colonials ... --- --- --- --- --- 6,000 --- --- 6,000
Iron, wrought and unwrought --- 1,300 700 --- --- 2,000
Petroleum -- --- --- 1,600 --- --- --- --- 1,600
Rice --- --- --- --- 400 --- 2,000 --- 800 --- 3,200
Salt fish and drysalteries --- 400 100 350 250 300 250 1,650
Skins, ox and camel ... --- 9,485 --- --- - --- --- 9,485
Olive oil ... - --- --- 1,706 --- --- --- --- 1,706
Rum, &c. --- --- 400 350 --- --- 750
Wax --- --- --- 645 --- --- --- 645
Copper ... 300 675 --- --- --- --- 975
G and flour 3,000 --- 836 --- --- --- 3,836
Miscellaneous ... --- --- 2.200 500 600 200 100 300 3,900
Total --- --- --- 39,941 21,950 16,036 22,450 1,350 3,550 |105,277

£
In 1874 the imports received at Larnaca were valued at ... 100,262
wn -- in * * ... 152,223
,, 1876 o in on ... 150,480

The value of the cotton manufactures, which are the chief articles of import, have decreased since 1875, when they amounted to about £81,000; in 1876 they fell to about £63,000, and last year to but little more than half that amount, as shown in the table above.

RETURN OF THE IMPORTS AT THE PORT OF LIMASOL IN THE YEAR 1877.

- From | From | From From From From Total Names of Articles. Turkey. Austria. France. England. I Italy. Greece. Walue. £ £ £ £ £ £] £

Grain --- --- --- --- 2,500 --- --- --- --- --- 2,500 Tobacco ... --- --- --- 6,000 --- --- --- --- --- 6,000 Butter ... --- --- --- 1,100 --- --- --- --- --- 1,100 Salt fish ... --- --- --- 180 --- --- --- 300 420 900 Soap --- --- --- --- 260 --- --- --- --- --- 260 Matches ... --- --- --- 40 200 40 --- 15 --- 295 Glassware --- --- --- 500 250 300 400 --- --- 1,450 Manufactured goods ... ... 12,000 --- 1,000 --- --- --- 13,000 Coffee ... --- --- --- 565 --- 700 --- --- 180 1,445 Sugar ... --- --- --- 560 --- 800 --- --- 400 1,760 Leather ... --- --- --- --- --- 650 --- --- 1,000 1,650 Rice --- --- --- --- --- --- --- 750 450 400 1,600 Petroleum --- --- --- 800 --- --- --- 80 --- 880 Hardware --- --- --- 50 30 150 150 200 50 630 Sundries ... --- --- --- 7,000 200 300 400 50 500 8.450

Total ... ... ... 31,555 | 680 3,940 1,700 | 1,095 || 2,950 41,92

In 1874 the imports received at Limasol were valued at 46,830
o, 1 -- -- -> 47,325

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The trade of Limasol, though by no means so great as that of Larnaca, appears both as regards exports and imports, to fluctuate but little; the decline last year showed a greater difference than has existed for some years, but this is fully accounted for by the depression of trade resulting from the war; the fall was chiefly in cotton manufactures, tobacco, and hardware. The two last tables show clearly the nature of the imports which are received in Cyprus; in order of importance, as regards the quantities annually required, they may be named as follows:– Cottons, and manufactured goods; tobacco; colonials (coffee, sugar, rice, &c.); ox and camel skins; leather; hardware; soap; glass; salt fish and drysalteries; petroleum; iron, wrought and unwrought;" butter, &c. The following shipping return shows that the greater part of the trade is carried on by Austrian merchant vessels, for although the Ottoman ships greatly exceed them in number, the latter are chiefly coasting craft of small tonnage.

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RETURN OF SHIPPING AT THE PORT OF LARNACA IN THE YEAR 1877.

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Comparing this return with the corresponding one of the previous year, we find that during 1876 the number of vessels which entered was 457, and the value of their cargoes £154,630, or about one-half more than in 1877.

The number of vessels which cleared was 483, and the value of

their cargoes £207,900; about £60,000 more than in 1877. The ...i. year was chiefly in British and Austrian ships.

It is stated that the small craft which ply between Cyprus and Beyrout can afford to transport merchandise at a cheaper rate than larger vessels.

REVENUE.

In 1845 the revenue was 4,431,650 piastres or £40,657, and the annual expenditure 600,000 piastres or £5,504. In 1863 Consul White in his Report gives the following table, drawn up from data which he believed to be correct, showing the revenue of the island at that time.

Piastres. Tirect Contributions.... ---- ---- ---- ---- .... 3,300,000 1'ithe of Agricultural Produce .... ---- ---- ... 5,000,000 Customs and Silk Tithes .... ---- ---- ---- ... 2,600,000 Salt Lakes .... ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ... 8,000,000 Exemption from Military Service .... ---- ---- ..., 750,000 Internal Duty on Wine .... ---- ---- ---- .... 700,000 Duty on Transfer of Property .... ---- ---- ... 300,000 Goat and Sheep Tax.... ---- ---- ---- ---- ... 600,000 Stamp Paper ... -.... ---- --- ---- ---- ---- 60,000 Monopoly of Weighing and Measuring .... .... .... 200,000

Total 21,510,000

Independently of these sources of revenue, some fresh taxes were imposed during 1862, such as an excise duty on tobacco, and licenses to be taken out by owners of wineshops, and it was not known what sums they would produce. This revenue gives an amount of 107 piastres per head, which is far above the average of the other possessions of the Porte, for the taxation of the whole Turkish Empire produces only 45 piastres per head. Consul Riddell reports that the net revenue of Cyprus during the financial year ending March 1876, is “with presumably tolerable accuracy computed at over 20,000,000 piastres, all of which is drained from the island to help Imperial necessities at the capital.” In the next year Consul Pierides reported that owing to bad crops the revenue of the financial year ending March 1877 would be much below that of the two previous years: only a portion of the dimes was farmed out, the most important districts being administered by government officials. The last report is that of Consul Watkins, dated March 1878; he states that the revenues of last year are considerably under those of the year before, in consequence of the unfavourable returns of the crops. The tithes were administered by government. officials, with a view to remedy certain abuses complained of by the peasants; but the experiment, so far, has not benefited either them or the government. Of the dimes in grain, 120,000 kilos of barley were sent to Constantinople for the requirements of the army, and about 30,000 kilos of wheat were given to the poorer of the peasants for sowing. There can be little doubt that the island was overtaxed by the Turks, although, perhaps, different and more appropriate taxes might have yielded a larger revenue without bearing so heavily upon the inhabitants. Over-taxation has kept down the population, and is responsible, in combination with extortion and corruption, for the decay and ruin which is everywhere apparent. It is generally believed that the Turkish government collected in Cyprus an annual revenue of about £400,000, of which sum not more than £30,000 was expended in the island in salaries, maintenance of establishments, and so forth. The number of the taxes is legion; there are tithes upon every article of produce, some of which have already been shown to be excessive, besides being levied in a manner particularly injurious to the farmer; of all live stock 13 per cent. are taken by the tax collector; a custom duty of 8 per cent. ad valorem is charged upon all exports, and 1 per cent. upon all imports; there is a land tax upon all land let at a yearly rental; an exemption tax from military service which is exacted from all Christians; excise duties which comprise taxes upon all sales (24 to 5 per cent), transfers, and leases of property, real and personal; a stamp tax; a tax upon the slaughter of cattle; the monopoly of weighing and measuring, and numberless other small exactions which weigh upon an impoverished peasantry. Herr Von Löher, during his visit to Cyprus, endeavoured to obtain some information regarding the revenue. He found great difficulty in getting exact figures, but he gives the following table as an approximate estimate which is probably very near the truth.

Piastres.
Tithes upon all income.... ---- ---- ---- ... 7,000,000
Tithes upon land ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 400,000
Percentage of products ---- ---- ---- ... 5,000,000
Military taxes upon Christians ---- ---- ---- 550,000
Poll tax upon live stock ---- ---- ---- ---- 700,000
Weighing taxes upon sales .... ---- ---- ---- 300,000
Customs upon salt .... ---- ---- ---- ... 1,500,000
Customs upon wines .... ---- ---- ---- ... 1,000,000
Customs upon exported silk .... .... ---- ---- 200,000
Customs upon exported fish .... ----, ---- ---- 20,000

Total 16,670,000

The latest estimate that we have of the revenue of Cyprus, is one contained in a paper contributed to Macmillan's Magazine of September 1878, by Mr. Lang, who had a long and thorough experience of the island, and who, in his official position as British Consul, was in a position to get as good information as it was possible to obtain.

He divides the revenues under three heads, viz.:

1. Revenues resulting from the administration of property be

longing exclusively to the State. 2. A royalty upon the produce of all lands. 3. Taxes, direct and indirect.

The general budget of receipts may be estimated as follows:–

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