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person exercising the same, which suspension shall continue and have effect
only until Her Majesty's pleasure therein shall be made known and signified
to the High Commissioner. And in proceeding to any such suspension, he is
to observe the directions in that behalf §. to him by any such instructions
under Her Majesty's Sign-Manual and Signet as may be hereafter addressed
to him.
“XXV. There shall be in the said Island, for the purpose of advising the
High Commissioner, an Executive Council, which shall be composed of such
persons and constituted in such manner as may be directed by any instruc-
tions which may from time to time be addressed to the High Commissioner
by Her Majesty, under Her Sign-Manual and Signet, and all such persons
shall hold their places in the said Council during Her Majesty's pleasure;
and the said Executive Council shall observe such rules in the conduct of
business as may from time to time be contained in any such instructions
as aforesaid.
“XXVI. In the event of the death, incapacity, removal, or absence from
the said Island of the High Commissioner for the time being, all and every
the powers and authorities herein granted to him shall, until Her Majesty's
further pleasure is signified therein, be vested in such person as may be
appointed to administer the same by any instrument under Her Majesty's
Sign-Manual and Signet; or if there be not in the Island any person so
appointed, then in the senior military officer for the time being in command
o Her Majesty's regular troops in the said Island.
“XXVII. The following Orders of Her Majesty the Queen in Council
that is to say: the Order of the 12th day of December, 1873, for the Regula-
tion of Consular Jurisdiction in the Dominions of the Sublime Porte ; the
Order of the 13th, day of May, 1875, for the Regulation of Hospital Dues
levied on British Shipping within the said Dominions; and the Order of the
26th day of October, 1875, amending the said Order of the 12th day of
December, 1873, shalf cease to have any force and effect in the Island of
Cyprus from and after a day to be named in a proclamation to be issued
in the said Island by authority of the High Commissioner, with such saving
and exceptions (if any) as may be contained in such proclamation.
“XXVIII. This Order shall commence and have effect as follows:–

“(a) As to the appointment of the High Commissioner, and the issue of
any instructions immediately from and after the making of this
Order.
“(b.) As to all other matters and provisions comprised and contained in this
Order immediately from and after a day to be named in any Pro-
clamation to be issued in the said Island by authority of the High
Commissioner.

“And this Order shall remain in force until the same shall be revoked or altered by Her Majesty with the advice of Her Privy Council.

“And the Most foi. the Marquis ol. and the Right Honourable Viscount Cranbrook, two of Her Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State, and the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, are to give the necessary directions herein as to them may respectively appertain.

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The ecclesiastical division of the island is into an Archbishopric and three Bishoprics. The Archiepiscopal diocese is that of Nicosia, and comprises the Famagusta and Karpas districts. The dioceses of the three bishops are Larnaca, Baffo, and Cerinea. The number of the Christian clergy in Cyprus is said to exceed 1,700. The incomes of the archbishop, bishops, and the clergy, are derived from the people on the voluntary system, and are therefore fluctuating. Consul White, in his report of 1863, says that the

IDioceses. Independence of the Greek -Church of

Cyprus.

Church of
England.

income of the archbishop is generally above £2,000 per annum, and

those of the bishops vary between £800 and £1,500 per annum,

the diocese of Baffo being the wealthiest, and that of Cerinea the
Oorest.
p From the earliest times the Greek Church of Cyprus has
enjoyed an especial degree of independence; in the reign of the
Emperor Zeno, A.D. 473, exceptional privileges were conceded to
the Archbishop of Cyprus, who, although he owns the supremacy
of the Patriarch of Constantinople over the Orthodox Greek Church,
claims to be entirely independent of him as regards church disci-
pline; he wears purple, carries a gold-headed sceptre, has the title
of Beatitude, signs in red as the Greek Emperors were wont to do,
and uses a seal bearing a two-headed imperial eagle. It is said
that these dignities were conferred in consequence of the fortunate
discovery, at Salamis, of the body of St. Barnabas, with a copy
of the Gospel of St. Matthew, which precious relic was sent to
Constantinople, and in return the Emperor confirmed the Church
of Cyprus in its absolute independence, and gave the archbishop
the above privileges. The archbishop is nominated from amongst
the bishops, and the bishops are elected by the congregations from
amongst the monks, who are unmarried; the rest of the clergy are
allowed to marry; it is said that their stipends are very small, and
many of them are in Iniserable circumstances, they are almost
entirely uneducated, and often have to work in the fields, or adopt
other kinds of manual labour, in order to support their families.
From the writings of several travellers in Cyprus at the
beginning of this century, we gather that the rapacity of the Greek
Archbishop and his subordinate clergy, was then so great that the
peasants were plundered in the most infamous manner, in order to
provide money for the support of the churches and convents, and
that having to bear this tax in addition to those exacted by the
Turkish Government, the condition of the Cypriotes was indeed
pitiable; Mariti writes in very strong terms upon this subject. Of
ate years there appears to have been an amendment in this respect,
and Consul Lang speaks of the Greek Archbishop who was in office
during his residence in the island, in the highest terms of commenda-
tion, both as regards his personal character, and his management of
church affairs. He describes him as a most enlightened man, and an
exemplary and devout Christian, and further states that not only is
no impediment put by the Greek Archbishop upon the free dis-
semination of the Bible throughout the island, but that the Arch-
bishop has expressed a lively interest in its distribution.
It is reported that the position and dignity of the archbishop
and bishops are respected by the Turkish Government, and that the
Christians generally have of late years been in enjoyment of both
civil and religious freedom.
In the Greek schools attached to the convents, the standard of
education is low, and it is a mark of the deficiency of education, that
the archbishop assigns as an excuse why no registers of births,
deaths, and marriages are kept in the parishes, that the great part
of the rural clergy can neither read nor write.
It has been arranged by the Foreign Office that the Bishop of
Gibraltar shall have the episcopal superintendence of any congre-
gations, churches, and clergy of the Church of England in Cyprus.
The Right Reverend Dr. Sandford is the present Bishop of
Gibraltar.
This bishopric was especially founded for the superintendence
of British congregations, not only at Gibraltar and Malta, but on
the shores and in the islands of the Mediterranean Sea.

The Turkish garrison of Cyprus is an insignificant force consisting of not more than about 100 artillerymen, about 300 nizams, or regulars, and a small number of redifs or militiamen.

The Zaptiehs, or police, are said to number about 275.

The guns of the artillery are almost useless, and the whole force is in a disorganized state; the clothing and equipment is very bad, and the pay has been very irregular. In all probability a new local force will be organized under British auspices.

Military force.

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CHAPTER XII.

MANUFACTURES AND INDUSTRY.

THE manufactures of Cyprus are inconsiderable, and are in a back-
ward state.
Formerly there was a large trade carried on at Nicosia in print-
ing British calicoes in bright colours for divan and quilt covers,
window blinds, &c.; these were exported in great quantities to
Syria, Smyrna, and Constantinople.
In 1846, the establishments carrying on this business were
numerous, but of late years the trade has much fallen off, and in
1863 it was reported by Consul White that not more than five or
six of these houses were then open, and it was believed that the
high exportation duty charged upon the articles was the main
reason of the decline of this branch of industry.
Good Morocco leather is prepared at Nicosia and in the neigh-
bouring villages; the workmen pretend to have a particular pro-
cess which they keep a secret, but, however this may be, their
leather is generally softer, more brilliant in colour, and better
dressed than in other parts of Turkey; very fine blue, yellow, and
red leathers are made for Turkish shoes and slippers, a considerable
quantity of which are annually exported to Alexandria.
Some very pretty light silk stuffs are manufactured at Nicosia
for dresses, scarfs, shirts, mosquito nets, and pocket-handkerchiefs;
the latter are especially good, and are considered equal to any made
in France.
The Greek women in some of the towns and villages work
beautiful embroidery, and make silk net which will bear com-
parison with fine European lace; the gold and silver embroidery
worked in Nicosia is greatly admired.
Some common cotton, woollen, and limen fabrics, the latter
chiefly sacking, are woven in the island, and a branch of domestic
industry which may be noticed is the manufacture from coarse
woollen stuff, of the gregos, or capotes, so much used in the Levant.
It was reported in 1863, that three soap factories had recently
been opened at Larnaca, where this article is made for home con-
sumption.
Pottery, sufficient for home consumption, is made at Larnaca,
Limasol, Lapethus, Varoschia, and Corno (see page 122).
On the west side of the island, the peasantry distil rose, orange,
and lavender water, and prepare myrtle and ladanum oil. Vege-
table resins, such as mastic, and storax (“liquid amber") are also
collected; the former is used as an astringent, an aromatic, and an
ingredient in drying varnishes; the latter has medicinal properties
and is also used for incense.
Drs. Unger and Kotschy, in Chapter VI, of their joint work
upon Cyprus, describe these last products and manufactures in
detail.
Our latest authentic account of the present state of the manu-

Industries in

factories and industries of Cyprus, is contained in Consul Watkins' Gyp

Report for the year 1877, dated March 31st, 1878. He writes:
“Tanning is one of the chief industries. The tanneries at Nicosia
turn out from 1,500 to 2,000 bales of leather per annum. The
manufacture of silk stuffs is produced by women at Nicosia to the
extent of about 10,000 pieces yearly for dresses, besides handker-
chiefs and sashes. The printing of English grey cloth for divans
and coverlets is also carried on. Building and carpentering are
entirely done by Greeks, who also make good tailors and shoe-
makers. The trades followed by Turks are those of barbers,
butchers, calico printers, shoemakers and saddlers.”
Sponge fishing commences in May, and ends in August. The
fishers are Greeks from the island of Hydra and Castelrossa.
About 40 boats, in all, were employed in 1877, each boat
manned by a crew of from eight to ten. Operations extend from
Basso to Caravostassi on the south-west and west coasts, and from
Famagusta to Cape St. Andrea on the east coast. The quantity
taken last summer amounted to about 2,500 okes, the sponges were
of all sizes and qualities, but chiefly of the more common kind;
500 okes were sold to Syrian buyers at 20 francs per oke, and
the remainder were taken away.”
The agricultural industries, the manufacture of wine, the work-
ing of the umber and gypsum beds, brick-making, the collection of
salt from the lagoons near Larnaca and Limasol, and all the other
miscellaneous occupations of the inhabitants of Cyprus, have been
reported upon in preceding chapters.
The present industrial condition of Cyprus does not compare
favourably with the records handed down to us concerning its
former state in this respect. At one time the forests of the island
were able to supply trees suitable for ship-building on a large scale,
and at that period we have every reason to believe that they were
turned to good account; again, in olden times Cyprus was, perhaps
more famous for its minerals and for the activity with which they
were worked, than for any other of its productions or industries.
The copper mines were especially rich, and the copper which they
yielded, the “ars cyprium of the ancients, was considered superior
to any other. Whether these mines are exhausted or not, is at the
present moment unknown, for no mining operations have been
undertaken for a long period, and this profitable occupation has
been entirely neglected. The fisheries on the shores of Cyprus
are much neglected, but it is not improbable that, if properly
managed, appreciable profits might be made by them. Should the
Maltese come to Cyprus in any numbers under the new rule, they
may perhaps turn their attention to this branch of industry.

rus during 1877.

* From Consul Watkins' Report for the year 1877. (774) K

Sponge fisherics.

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