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person exercising the same, which suspension shall continue and have effect only until Her Majesty's pleasure therein shall ho made known and signified to the High Commissioner. And in proceeding to any such suspension, he is to observe the directions in that behalf given to him by any such instructions under Her Majesty's Sign-Manual and Signet as may be hereafter addressed to him.

"XXV. There shall be in the said Island, for the purpose of advising the High Commissioner, an Executive Council, which shall be composed of such persons and constituted in such manner as may be directed by any instructions which may from time to time be addressed to the High Commissioner by Her Majesty, under Her Sign-Manual and Signet, and all such persons shall hold their places in the said Council during Her Majesty's pleasure; and the said Executive Council shall observe such rules in the conduct of business as may from time to time be contained in any such instructions as aforesaid.

"XXVI. In the event of the death, incapacity, removal, or absence from the said Island of the High Commissioner for the time being, all and every the powers and authorities herein granted to him shall, until Her Majesty s further pleasure is signified therein, be vested in such person as may be appointed to administer the same by any instrument under Her Majesty's Sign-Manual and Signet; or if there be not in the Island any person so appointed, then in the senior military officer for the time being in command of Her Majesty's regular troops in the said Island.

"XXVII. The following Orders of Her Majesty the Queen in Council that is to say : the.Order of the 12th day of December, 1873, for the Regulation of Consular Jurisdiction in the Dominions of the Sublime Porte ; the Order of the 13th day of May, 1876, for the Regulation of Hospital Dues levied on British Shipping within the said Dominions; and the Order of the 26th day of October, 1876, amending the said Order of the 12th day of December, 1873, shall cease to have any force and effect in the Island of Cyprus from and after a day to be named in a proclamation to be issued in the said Island by authority of tho High Commissioner, with such saving and exceptions (if any) as may be contained in such proclamation.

"XXVIII. This Order shall commence and have effect as follows :—

"(a.) As to the appointment of the High Commissioner, and the issue of any instructions immediately from and after the making of this Order.

"(ft.) As to all other matters and provisions comprised and contained in this Order immediately from and after a day to be named in any Proclamation to be issued in the said Island by authority of the High Commissioner.

"And this Order shall remain in force until the same shall be revoked or altered by Her Majesty with the advice of Her Privy Council

"Ana the Most Honourable the Marquis of Salisbury and the Right Honourable Viscount Cranbrook, two of Her Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State, and the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, are to give the necessary directions herein as to them may respectively appertain.

"C. L.PML."

ECCLESIASTICAL ADMINISTRATION.

The ecclesiastical division of the island is into an Arch- Dioceses, bishopric and three Bishoprics. The Archiepiscopal diocese is that of Nicosia, and comprises the Famagusta and Karpas districts. The dioceses of the three bishops are Larnaca, Baffo, and Cerinea. The number of the Christian clergy in Cyprus is said to exceed 1,700. The incomes of the archbishop, bishops, and the clergy, are derived from the people on the voluntary system, and are therefore fluctuating. Consul White, in his report of 1863, says that the

Independence of the Greek •Church of Cyprus.

Church of
England.

income of the archbishop is generally above £2,000 per annum, and those of the bishops vary between £800 and £1,500 per annum, the diocese of Baffo being the wealthiest, and that of Cerinea the poorest.

From the earliest times the Greek Church of Cyprus has enjoyed an especial degree of independence; in the reign of the Emperor Zeno, A.d. 473, exceptional privileges were conceded to the Archbishop of Cyprus, who, although he owns the supremacy of the Patriarch of Constantinople over the Orthodox Greek Church, claims to be entirely independent of him 03 regards church discipline; he wears purple, carries a gold-headed sceptre, 1ms the title of Beatitude, signs in red as the Greek Emperors were wont to do, and uses a seal bearing a two-headed imperial eagle. It is said that these dignities were conferred in consequence of the fortunate discovery, at Salamis, of the body, of St. Barnabas, with a copy of the Gospel of St. Matthew, which precious relic was sent to Constantinople, and in return the Emperor confirmed the Church of Cyprus in its absolute independence, and gave the archbishop the above privileges. The archbishop is nominated from amongst the bishops, and the bishops are elected by the congregations from amongst the monks, who are unmarried; the rest of the clergy are allowed to marry; it is said that their stipends are very small, and many of them are in miserable circumstances, they are almost entirely uneducated, and often have to work in the fields, or adopt other kinds of manual labour, in order to support their families.

From the writings of several travellers in Cyprus' at the beginning of this century, we gather that the rapacity of the Greek Archbishop and his subordinate clergy, was then so great that the peasants were plundered in the most infamous manner, in order to provide money for the support of the churches and convents, and that having to bear this tax in addition to those exacted by the Turkish Government, the condition of the Cypriotes was indeed

{dtiable; Mariti writes in very strong terms upon this subject. Of ate years there appears to have been an amendment in this respect, and Consul Lang speaks of the Greek Archbishop who was in office during his residence in the island, in the highest terms of commendation, both as regards his personal character, and his management of church affairs. He describes him as a most enlightened man, and an exemplary and devout Christian, and further states that not only is no impediment put by the Greek Archbishop upon the free dissemination of the Bible throughout the island, but that the Archbishop has expressed a lively interest in its distribution.

It is reported that the position and dignity of the archbishop and bishops are respected by the Turkish Government, and that the Christians generally have of late years been in enjoyment of both civil and religious freedom.

In the Greek schools attached to the convents, the standard of education is low, and it is a mark of the deficiency of education, that the archbishop assigns as an excuse why no registers of births, deaths, and marriages are kept in the parishes, that the great part of the rural clergy can neither read nor write.

It has been arranged by the Foreign Office that the Bishop of

Gibraltar shall have the episcopal superintendence of any congre-
gations, churches, and clergy of the Church of England in Cyprus.
The Eight Reverend Dr. Sandford is the present Bishop of
Gibraltar.

This bishopric was especially founded for the superintendence of British congregations, not only at Gibraltar and Malta, but on the shores and in the islands of the Mediterranean Sea.

The Turkish garrison of Cyprus is an insignificant force con- Military force, sisting of not more than about 100 artillerymen, about 300 nizams, or regulars, and a small number of redifs or militiamen.

The Zaptiehs, or police, are said to number about 275.

The guns of the artillery are almost useless, and the whole force is in a disorganized state; the clothing and equipment is very bad, and the pay has been very irregular. In all probability a new local force will be organized under British auspices.

CHAPTER XII.

Manufactures And Industry.

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The manufactures of Cyprus are inconsiderable, and are in a backward state.

Formerly there was a large trade carried on at Nicosia in printing British calicoes in bright colours for divan and quilt covers, window blinds, &c.; these were exported in great quantities to Syria, Smyrna, and Constantinople.

In 1846, the establishments carrying on this business were numerous, but of late years the trade has much fallen off, and in 1863 it was reported by Consul White that not more than five or six of these houses were then open, and it was believed that the high exportation duty charged upon the articles was the main reason of the decline of this branch of industry.

Good Morocco leather is prepared at Nicosia and in the neighbouring villages; the workmen pretend to have a particular process which they keep a secret, but, however this may be, their leather is generally softer, more brilliant in colour, and better dressed than in other parts of Turkey; very fine blue, yellow, and red leathers are made for Turkish shoes and slippers, a considerable quantity of which are annually exported to Alexandria.

Some very pretty light silk stuffs are manufactured at Nicosia for dresses, scarfs, shirts, mosquito nets, and pocket-handkerchiefs; the latter are especially good, and are considered equal to any made in France.

The Greek women in some of the towns and villages work beautiful embroidery, and make silk net which will bear comparison with fine European lace; the gold and silver embroidery worked in Nicosia is greatly admired.

Some common cotton, woollen, and linen fabrics, the latter chiefly sacking, are woven in the island, and a branch of domestic industry which may be noticed is the manufacture from coarse woollen stuff, of the gregos, or capotes, so much used in the Levant.

It was reported in 1863, that three soap factories had recently been opened at Larnaca, where this article is made for home consumption.

Pottery, sufficient for home consumption, is made at Larnaca, Limasol, Lapethus, Varoschia, andCorno (see page 122).

On the west side of the island, the peasantry distil rose, orange, and lavender water, and prepare myrtle and ladanum oil. Vegetable resins, such as mastic, and storax (" liquid amber ") are also collected; the former is used as an astringent, an aromatic, and an ingredient in drying varnishes; the latter has medicinal properties and is also used for incense.

Drs. Unger and Kotscby, in Chapter VI, of their joint work upon Cyprus, describe these last products and manufactures in detail.

Our latest authentic account of the present state of the maim- industries in factories and industries of Cyprus, is contained in Consul Watkins' Oyp"" Report for the year 1877, dated March 31st, 1878. He writes: during 1877> "Tanning is one of the chief industries. The tanneries at Nicosia turn out from 1,500 to 2,000 bales of leather per annum. The manufacture of silk stuffs is produced by women at Nicosia to the extent of about 10,000 pieces yearly for dresses, besides handkerchiefs and sashes. The printing of English grey cloth for divans and coverlets is also carried on. Building and carpentering are entirely done by Greeks, who also make good tailors and shoemakers. The trades followed by Turks are those of barbers, butchers, calico printers, shoemakers and saddlers."

Sponge fishing commences in May, and ends in August. The Sponge fishers are Greeks from the island of Hydra and Castelrossa. fisheries.

About 40 boats, in all, were employed in 1877, each boat manned by a crew of from eight to ten. Operations extend from Baffo to Caravostassi on the south-west and west coasts, and from Famagusta to Cape St. Andrea on the east coast. The quantity taken last summer amounted to about 2,500 okes, the sponges were of all sizes and qualities, but chiefly of the more common kind: 500 okes were sold to Syrian buyers at 20 francs per oke, and the remainder were taken away.*

The agricultural industries, the manufacture of wine, the working of the umber and gypsum beds, brick-making, the collection of salt from the lagoons near Larnaca and Limasol, and all the other miscellaneous occupations of the inhabitants of Cyprus, have been reported upon in preceding chapters.

The present industrial condition of Cyprus does not compare favourably with the records handed down to us concerning its former state in this respect. At one time the forests of the island were able to supply trees suitable for ship-building on a large scale, and at that period we have every reason to believe that they were turned to good account; again, in olden times Cyprus was, perhaps more famous for its minerals and for the activity with which they were worked, than for any other of its productions or industries. The copper mines were especially rich, and the copper which they yielded, the " crs cyprium' of the ancients, was considered superior to any other. Whether these mines are exhausted or not, is at the present moment unknown, for no mining operations have been undertaken for a long period, and this profitable occupation has been entirely neglected. The fisheries on the shores of Cyprus are much neglected, but it is not improbable that, if properly managed, appreciable profits might be made by them. Should the Maltese come to Cyprus in any numbers under the new rule, they may perhaps turn their attention to this branch of industry.

* From Consul Watkins' Report for the year 1877.

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